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WILLIAM T. BAWDEN, Managing Editor 




(No Summer Number) 

^li^e iHauual Arts ^rpsa 



(Names of contributors of articles arc set in small capitals. (E) indicates an editorial. 

"Current Interest".) 

(C. I.) indicates 

Adaptation of Manual Training to Commun- 
ity Needs, The — Edwin L. Taylor, 263. 

Arlitt, C. W. — A Cupola for High School 
Use (111.), 114. 

Armstrong, Thomas S. — Practical Commer- 
cial Method in Manual Training Shops 
(111.). 105. 

Associations — American Society of Engineer 
Draftsmen, 144; Arizona Industrial and 
Art Association, 234; Association of In- 
diana Industrial Teachers, 147; Boston 
Manual Training Club, 142, 230, 313; 
California Association of Applied Arts and 
Sciences, 60; College Art Assoc" tion, 147, 
322 ; Connecticut Manual Arts Teachers' 
Association, 59 ; Department of Superin- 
tendence, 231; Eastern Art and Manual 
Training Teachers' Association, 408 ; Illi- 
nois Manual Arts Association, 408; In- 
diana School Superintendents, 232; Kansas 
State Teachers Association, 234; Maine 
Teachers Association, 145 ; Michigan In- 
dustrii-l Arts and Science Association, 407; 
Minnesota Educational Association, 146; 
Montana Industrial Education Association, 
233; National Education Association, 58, 
235, 410; National Society for the Promo- 
tion of Industrial Education, 143 ; National 
Vocational Guidance Association, 143 ; 
New Hampshire Manual Training Club, 
145, 234; Range Manual Arts Association, 
146- School Crafts Club, 57, 144, 231, 406; 
Texas State Teachers' Association, 60; 
Western Drawing and Manual Training 
Association, 57, 408. 

Bawdev, William T.— Dr. Alwin Pabst (E), 

Bennett, Charles A. — College Course for 
Teachers of Manual Training (E), 223; 
Death of Miss Seegmiller (E), 52; Impos- 
sible Conditions (E), 311; Manual and 
Vocational Guidance (E), 401; Message 
from William Hawley Smith (E), 54; 
Origin of Term Manual Training (E), 
308; Pre- Vocational Work (E), 140; Time 
Given to Manual Training (E), 50. 

Cement and Concrete, An Investigation of 
(111.) — Leon Loyal Winslow, 1. 

Chesnut, Robert A. — Student Labor, 292. 

Clay, Mary S. — Design Applied to Needle- 
work (III.), 110. 

College Course for Teachers of Manual 
Training (E)— Charles A. Bennett, 223. 

Concord's Industrial Class (C. I.), 164. 

Construction of a Guitar (III.) — D. K. Hiett, 


Craig, Robert C. — Furniture Design and 
Hi-h School Furniture, 295. 

Creative Ability of Pupils, How can We In- 
fluence and Develop the (111.)— F. P. Hilde- 
brand, 194. 

Credit for Home Work CC. L), 161. 

Cupola for High School Use, A (111,)— C. 
W. Arlitt, 114. 

Curtis, John W. — Manual and Vocational 
Education (111.), 89. 

Death of Miss Seegmiller (E) — Charles A. 
Bennett, 52. 

Demand for Teachers, The (E) — Frank M. 
Leavitt, 225. 

Desien Ar>nlied to Needlework (111.) — Mary 
S. Clay, 110. 

Discipline in the Shop — James McKinney, 


Dr. Alwin Pabst (E)— William T. Bawden, 


Farm Mechanics (111.)— L. M. Roehl, 17. 

Forei-n Notes — H. Williams Smith, 81, 169, 
257, 345, 433. 

Furniture Design and Hif^h School Furniture 
—Robert C. Craig, 295. 

German Travel Study Tour (C. I.), 428. 

Greenwood, J. M. — Vocational Guidance in 
Hieh School, 389. 

Griffith, Ira S. — The Place of the Abstract 
Exercise in Woodwork, 200. 

Harlacher, E. H. — Vitalizing the Courses 
in Manual Traininor. 177. 

Hiett, D. K. — Construction of a Guitar (111.) 

HiLDEBRAND, F. P. — How Can We Influence 
and Develop the Creative Abilit>' of Pu- 
pils (111.), 194. 

Hull, W. R. — New Features in a Manual 
Arts School (111.), 182. 

Imnossible Conditions (E) — Charles A. Ben- 
nett, 311. 

Indianapolis Semi-Industrial Schools (C. I.), 

Jersey City Municipal Exhibit (C. I.), 74. 

Tohnston, Thomas W. — Problems in Electric 
Bell and Light Wiring (111.), 363. 


Knox, C. W. — Manual Training for Agri- 
'cultural Schools, 288. 

Lathe, Nama A. — Rooms in Paper: Prob- 
lems in Construction and Design (111.) 
Vir, 31; VIII, 215; IX, 299. 

Leavitt, Frank M. — The Demand for Teach- 
ers (E), 225. 

LOOMIS, R. A. — Possibilities of the Printing 
Department in the School, 191. 

Lull, Herbert G. — The Manual Labor 
Movement in the United States, 375. 

McKiNNEY, James — Discipline in the Shop, 
188; Shopwork and Mathematics for Grade 
I (111.), 43, 131. 

Manual Labor Movement in the United 
States, The— Herbert G. Lull, 375. 

Manual Training for Agricultural Schools — 
C. W. Knox, 288. 

Manual Training and Vocational Guidance 
(E)— Charles A. Bennett, 401. 

Manual and Vocational Education (111.) — 
John W. Curtis, 89. 

Message from William Hawlev Smith (E) — 
Charles A. Bennett, 54. 

Metahvork with Inexpensive Equipment for 
the Grammar Grades and High Schools 
(111.), XIII— Arthur F. Payne, 123. 

Method of Presenting Mechanical Drawing, 
A (111.)— Robert I. Miner, 275. 

Miner, Robert I. — Method of Presenting Me- 
chanical Drawing (111-), 275. 

Mott, Sarah M. — Shopwork and Mathe- 
matics for Grade I (111.), 43, 131. 

New Building at La Crosse, Wisconsin, A 
(C. I.\ 158. 

New Department in the Trenton School of 
Industrial Arts (C. I.\ 253. 

New Features in a Manual Arts School 
(111.)— W. R. Hull, 182. 

New Four-Year Course for Teachers (C. I.), 

New Plan in Pittsburg, A — (C. I.), 341. 

New Tvpe of Manual Arts Building (C. I.), 

North Dakota State Normal and Industrial 
School, The (C. LV 163. 

Origin of Term "Manual Training" (E) — 
Charles A. Bennett, 309. 

Payne, Arthur F. — Metalwork with Inex- 
pensive Equipment for the Grammar 
Grades and Hic'h Schools (111.), XIII, 

Place of the Abstract Exercise in Woodwork, 
The— Ira S. Griffith, 200. 

Practical Commercial Method in Manual 
Training Shops (111.) — Thomas S. Arm- 
strong, 105. 

Prevocational Classes in Tacoma (C. I.), 159. 

Prevocational School in Louisville, Kentuckv, 
A (C. I.), 162. 

Pre-Vocational Work I'E) — Charles A. Ben- 
nett, 140. 

Problems in Electric Bell and Li^ht Wiring 
(111.)— Thomas W. Johnston, 363. 

Printing Department in the School, Possi- 
bilities of the — R. A. Loomis, 191. 

Progress in El Paso (C. I.), 165. 

Purpose of Manual Training, The — Forrest 
E. Cardullo, 351. 

Relationship Between Content and Manipu- 
lation Illustrated by Work in Concrete — 
Leon Loyal Winslow, 211. 

Reoreanization of San Francisco High 
Schools (C. L), 427. 

Reviews — Alderton and Baily's Light Wood- 
work, 173; Allyn's Elementary Applied 
Chem.istry, 87; Arts and Crafts Club's 
Art and Industrv in Education, 86; Betz 
and Webb's Plane Geometrv, 88; Bone's 
The Service of the Hand in the School, 87; 
The Boy Mechanic, 86 ; Chamberlain's 
Ideals and Democracy, 261; Ellis' Modern 
Technical Drawing, 437; Forman's Stories 
of Useful Inventions, 85; Erich's Basic 
Principles of Domestic Science, 87; Goog- 
erty's Hand-Forging and Wrought Iron 
Ornamental Work, 173; The Hiawatha 
Painting Book, 260; Hill's The Essentials 
of Physics, 87; Holman's The Book of 
School Handwork, 348, 436; Howe's Agri- 
cultural Drafting, 259; Kimerly's How to 
Know Period Styles in Furniture, 349 ; 
Koch's Pencil Sketching, 349; Lawrence 
and Sheldon's The Use of the Plant in 
Decorative Design, 86; Lehrgang fiir die 
Hobelbankarbeit, 259; Munsell's Color Bal- 
ance Illustrated: An Introduction to The 
Munsell System, 85 ; Putnam's School Jani- 
tors, Mothers and Health, 174; Radford's 
Architects' Plans, Architectural Drafting, 
Details of Building Construction. Mechani- 
cal Drawing and Practical Barn Plans, 
260; Synge's Simple Garments for Chil- 
dren, 349 ; Tvpes of Schools for Young 
Children, 173.' 


RoKHi., L. M. — Farm Mechanics (III.), 1". 

Rooms in Paper: Problems in Construction 
and Design (111.) — N'ama A. Latlie and 
Esther Szoid, 31, 215, 299. 

Rural School Manual Training (C. I.), 343. 

Shop Problems — Air Compressor, 324; Bird 
Table, 152; Book Rack, 152; Combination 
Ink Stand, 69; Compression Coupling, 
421; Dinner Ciong, 64; Evener and Roller 
Block. 64; CJarden Wall and Gate, 419; 
Hat and Shoe Pedestals, 69; Hen House, 
243; Lantern, 238; Library Table, 245; 
Pedestal, 157; Piano Bench, 238; Plumbing 
for Residence, 425; Porch Lantern, 417; 
Serving Table, 152; Shippintr Label, 415; 
Sled, 149; Square-Legged Stool, 152; 
Wagon Making for Lower Grade Boys, 
413; Wall Shelves, 69; Writing Desk, 61. 

Shopwork and Mathematics for Grade I 
(111.) — James McKinney and Sarah M. 
Mott, 43. 131. 

Short Courses in Manual Training (C. L), 

SiEPERT, Albert F. — Some Factors in Effi- 
cient Teaching, 283. 

Smith, H. Wii-i.iams — Foreign Notes, 81, 169, 
257, 345, 433. 

Some Essentials in a Manual Training 
Creed — School Crafts Club, New York 
City, 399. 

Some Factors in Efficient Teaching — Albert 
F. Siepert, 283. 

Student Labor — Robert A. Chesnut, 292. 

Szoi.D, Esther — Rooms in Paper: Problems 
in Construction and Design (III.) VH, 31; 
VHI, 215; LX, 299. 

Taylor, Edwin L. — The Adaptation of Man- 
ual Training to Community Needs, 263. 

Time Given to Manual Training (E) — 
Charles A. Bennett, 50. 

Union High School, Grand Rapids, (C. L), 

Vitalizing the Courses in Manual Training — 
E. H. Harlacher, 177. 

Vocational Guidance in Hio-h School — J. M. 
Greenwood, 389. 

WiNSLow, Leon Loyal — An Invest'^-ation of 
Cement and Concrete (III.) 1" Relation- 
ship Between Content and Manipulation 
Illustrated by Work in Concrete, 211. 

Wo-dwork in Rural Schools (C. L), 339. 

CoPYKiGHT, 1914. Thb Manual Arts Pkbss 


Manual Training Magazine 

OCTOBER, 1913 


Leon Loyal Winslow. 

WE do not know when cementitious materials were first used 
by the race for constructive purposes. It is a fact, however, 
that history does not go back far enough to reveal to us the 
name of a discoverer ; its use is as ancient as civilization. This is 
testified to by remains which have been found in Europe, in Asia, and 
in Mexico, Central America, and Peru. These remains teach us that, 
in prehistoric times, men had discovered the art of compounding 
cementitious materials in a masterly and workmanlike way; that the 
processes employed by them were much the same as those practiced 
today; and that the materials in both cases were about the same. The 
lime and g}psum plasters of the Egyptians, which date back four 
thousand years, compare favorably with those of modern times, while 
the lime stuccos of Greek origin are regarded as of a superior quality 
when judged by present-day standards. The Greeks often covered the 
walls of their temples, both inside and out, with stuccos which are still 
in an excellent state of preservation. The great wall of China was 
built largely of concrete, and some authorities tell us that the pyramid 
of Cheops contains a great amount of concrete. 

The Twentieth Century has been called "The Concrete Age", but 
it has been estimated that, in proportion to the amount of building 
going on, the ancient Romans at one time used as great an amount of 
concrete for constructive purposes as we are using today. It has been 
thought by some that the concrete used by the Romans was made 
differently by them than by other nations, and that the art has been 
lost. But recent investigation has shown that the cementitious material 
then used was merelv lime, and that the excellence of the resulting 


product was due, in part, to the volcanic ash or scoria used, in which 
silica was present in a soluble condition ready to combine with the 
lime. But the main reason for the superiority of the old Roman concrete 
is due to the fact that it was carefully prepared. 

Henry S. Spackman, head of the Spackman En(,nneering Company 
of Philadelphia, writes as follows concerning the subject in question: 

I have carefully examined samples of mortar taken by myself from the 
Bath of Tiberius at Capri, built about 100 A. D., from the ruins of an old castle 
built about 900, from the ruins of another casde built about 1,400, from the 
fortifications built about 100 years ago, and from the construction dating back 
only a few vears, and found them identical in their character. In all of these 
the volcanic ash or puzzolan, of which there are large deposits on the island 
(Sicily), was used instead of sand and in many instances pieces of the early 
Roman concrete made from the same materials were used, mixed with the 
stone in the masonry of later construction, and that these blocks of concrete in 
turn had been made from the fragments of still older construction was indicated 
by the fact that vou could find in them pieces of brick and marble, as well as 
of broken limestone, the characteristic stone of the island. 

^Vith the fall of Rome, concrete construction gave way to stone, a 
fact which we may attribute to the lack of knowledge of the material, 
upon the part of the invader. 

But we may still regard the early Romans as the greatest users of 
concrete, with the possible exception of ourselves. They carried the 
art into the barbarous countries as they conquered them, and established 
its use thruout the then known world. From that time on it has never 
been entirely abandoned. We are told by Mr. Spackman that the 
castle of Badajos in Spain still bears marks of the boarded frames in 
which the concrete was deposited. 

It is true that ancient cements differed, oftentimes, from those of 
today. It has been shown by analysis that mortar taken from the 
amphitheater at Cubbio, Italy, contained an unusually low percentage 
of lime. In this respect we find that the mortar used was somewhat 
different from Portland cement. It is diffcult for us to determine the 
methods used by the ancients in preparing and mixing their cements as 
no written records state regarding it. It has been recorded in medieval 
• Writings, however, that blood, waxes, beer, milk, sugar, rye flour, and 
the whites of eggs were used in the mixtures of that time either to 
hasten or to retard the set, or to produce a chemical change. The use of 
sugar was a common practice in India. 



From what has been said it will be seen that the use of concrete for 
constructive purposes is by no means new. Today its use is universal, 
a fact which we may attribute to five factors, i.e., cheapness, con- 
venience, durability, strength in compression, and fire-resisting qualities. 
It is used in the construction of dock-walls, breakwaters, building 
foundations and caissons, piles, bridges, culverts, sewers, subwa\"s, and 
garden furniture. Its uses have become as universal as the material 
itself. Entire houses are sometimes built of it and its adaptability to 
problems in furniture making is being seriously investigated. As a 
building material stone is extremely expensive; yet concrete is superior 
to stone both in compression strength and in durability, as a building 
material. Timber is becoming scarce and more and more expensive, 
while its functions in industry are gradually being usurped by concrete. 
Even fence posts of this material are now upon the market. 

Altho its uses are becoming complex, the making of concrete is, in 
itself, a simple process. Concrete may be defined as a material con- 
sisting generally of a mixture of broken stone, sand, and some kind of 
cement, mixed with water. The water combining chemically with the 
cement conglomerates the whole mixture into a solid stonelike mass. 
The component materials may be found in practically all parts of the 

For convenience in classifying the constituents of concrete, we speak 
of the lime or cement as matrix; the broken stone, or hard material, 
including the sand, as aggregate. It is the chemical action of the water 
upon the matrix which causes concrete to solidify. The most common 
matrix used is Portland cement, the strongest and best cement made. 
Before discussing Portland cement, however, we will treat briefly of 
pozzuolanic cement which is of a more crude form. Both of the 
cements named are hydraulic, which signifies that they resist, when set, 
the action of water, and under favorable conditions, will set under 
water. Such materials as plaster of Paris, cement plaster, and Keene's 
g}"psum cement are called non-hydraulic as they are decomposed by 
water, and, of course, will not set under water. 


The ancients knew that certain limes, when set, would resist the 
action of water. These limes had been found to do so in their natural 


states. They had discovered what is known to us as ordinary lime, 
too; and they had found out that a mixture of this lime with silicious 
materials such as pozzuolana or tufa would also set and become 
hydraulic. The first artificial cement had thus been made. 

Toda> pure lime is formed by heating chalk or limestone in a kiln 
until its carbonic acid has been driven off. The process is called 
burning. If pure lime, thus obtained, is mixed with sand and water 
the lime at once slakes and we have common mortar, the setting of 
which is simply a drying out of the water. But in order to produce a 
pozzuolanic cement which is hydraulic there must be a chemical change 
which may be produced by mixing of the lime and water with silica in 
an active form, or with a silicate containing silica in an active condition. 
Silicate of lime or pozzuolanic cement is one which is not widely used, 
it being employed mainly in districts where volcanic deposits furnish 
tufa, trass, or pozzuolana itself. Pozzuolanic cement has excellent 
qualities but it is not used extensively owing to its expensiveness. 

Portland cement is not a mixture of active silica and lime ready to 
unite under suitable conditions; it is a definite chemical compound of 
lime and silica, and lime and alumina, which combines with \\ater 
forming a crystalline substance of great mechanical strength. This 
crystalline substance is capable of adhering firmly to clean sand and 
crushed stone. Portland cements are formed b\ heating chalk, clay, 
limestone, marl, shale, slag, and similar materials to a high temperature. 
The correct proportions of lime, silica, and alumina nnist be main- 
tained. The earliest form of Portland cement was hydraulic lime. 
This is still used to some extent and is prepared b\ burning limestone 
containing clay. The man to whom we may attribute the early per- 
fection of the Portland method is Joseph Aspdin of Leeds, Eingland, 
who added cla\ to finely ground limestone, thus calcining the mixture, 
and grinding the product together. Portland cement derived its name 
from the fact that it resembles Portland (England) stone, when set. 

We have thus found that the chemical elements necessary in the 
manufacture of cement are lime, silica, and alumina. The silica and 
alumina are supplied by some form of clay or shale. 


The old method of making Portland cement is typified by the plants 
alon<' the Thames in England. The materials used are chalk and 


medway mud, a kind of clay. These substances are mixed in the 
proportion of three of chalk to one of clay (by weight), the dry 
mixture containing about 75 per cent of calcium carbonate and 25 per 
cent of clay. The raw materials are mixed with water in a wash mill 
and the resulting slurry is wet enough to flow. This slurry is now 





ground between millstones and the process of comminution is completed. 
The grinding must be thoro, if the cement turned out is to be of good 

The slurry is now dried, usually by the waste heat from the kilns. 
In drying, it cracks into rough blocks suitable for loading into the kiln. 
Upon the grate of the kiln is placed a layer of coke and wood ; a layer 
of the dry slurry is loaded upon this, then another layer of coke, then 
another layer of slurry and so on, until the kiln is tilled with coke and 
slurry, evenly distributed. An ordinary kiln of this kind contains about 
fifty tons of slurry and twelve tons of coke. It usually takes about 
two days to get the kiln burning and two or three more for it to burn 
out. the entire run requiring about a week, allowing time for loading 
and unloading. The output resulting will be about thirty tons of 
clinker to be ground into cement. 

But this method of manufacturing Portland cement is today almost 
obsolete. It is too slow and too expensive. As far back as 1890 one 
of our large cement companies began to develop the modern rotary kiln 
system. One of these kilns will produce from 500 to 3,000 barrels of 
cement per day while the old stationary or dome kiln could seldom 
exceed 100 barrels. That the United States produces today more 
cement than both England and Germany combined and that American 

6 .l/.7Ar.7L TR.nxIXG M.IG.IZIXE 

cements are acknow lecl^etl to be the best in the market, is due largely 
to the perfection of the rotary kiln in this country. 

In order to understand fully the new method of manufacture we 
may well examine a typical Pennsylvania plant. In this state there are 
to be found large deposits of cement rock to which is added a small 


percentage of lime. The resulting mixture of raw material is then 
reduced to powder, after which it is burned in a rotary kiln to cement 
clinker. The kiln consists of a steel cylinder, from 6 to 12 feet in 
diameter and from 60 to 250 feet in length, which is mounted at a 
slight inclination and is operated by a large driving gear which causes 
it to rotate longitudinally. See Figs. 1, 2, 3. The pulverized raw 
material enters this tube at the elevated end and by means of gravity, 
aided by the turning of the cylinder, it gradually works its way to the 
lower end. All the while the temperature within the tube is high 
enough to cause ignition as pulverized coal is injected by means of an 
air blast. Perfect calcination results and the clinker discharged at the 
lower end of the cylinder becomes the Portland cement of commerce. 

The process of grinding cement clinker, the rough yet chemically 
perfect product of the kiln, has ever been a serious obstacle to the 
manufacturer as upon the fineness of the resulting powder depends the 
excellence of the cement, other things being equal. To reduce the 
clinker to the finest possible grade is the one great aim of the manu- 
facturer. In times past millstones were used. But today the grinding 
is accomplished for the most part by ball mills. We again find the 
gravity principle employed in the action of the ball mill. Briefly, it 
consists of a rotating drum containing a large number of balls or 


spheres of hardened steel. As the drum is rotated upon a horizontal 
axis the clinker is introduced and is thus ground to a floury powder by 
the constant roll and fall of the balls. 

The above description is typical of the prevailing method of cement 
manufacture. But in man\ localities cement rock is not found as in 


Pennsylvania. Oftentimes the rough material at hand is far less pure 
in character. Frequently marl or river mud is still resorted to as we 
have learned was the case along the Thames in England even centuries 
ago. This mud has to be dried and washed before it can enter the 
rotary kiln. See Fig. 4. 

Mr. Spackman. before referred to as an authority upon cement 
materials, has classified the sources of cement materials in this country 
somewhat as follows :•'■ (The materials are arranged in the order of 
their importance.) 

1. Argillaceous limestone, resembling slate. Eastern Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey. 

iSee article entitled "Manufacture of Cement from Marl and Clay," Scientific 
American, June 20, 1903. 


2. Limestone and Clay. New York, Ohio. Illinois, Indiana, Missouri. 

3. Marl, river mud found in low lands, marshes and at the bottom of 
lakes. Of putty consistenc> . Decomposed shells, etc. Michigan and Ohio. 

4. Slag. 1. Mechanical mixture of slag with hydrated lime. 3. Slag 
treated as a low grade limestone to which sufficient lime is added to secure a 
correct anaKsis. Not restricted to anv localitv. 



Having found out that concrete is a mixture of cement, sand, and 
grit mi.xed with water, and having investigated the matrix, which we 
have learned is usually Portland cement, we will proceed to study the 

Portland cement as used in industry is today a thoroly standardized 
article. It must pass a strict examination as to composition, fineness, 
strength, soundness, etc. But sand has not been so standardized. Very 
often contractors have used most any kind of coarse earth for sand. 
AVe can hardly blame them when their contracts have specified that 
the sand must be "clean and sharp". Usually the speciHcati(jn as to 
the sand to be used stops right here. The point is discussed in Taylor 
^ Thompson's treatise on "Concrete, Plain and Reinforced " as follows: 
"The experience of one of the authors during the past few years in tlie 
investigation of failures of concrete structures leads to the conclusion 
that unless the sand is from a bank of known quality it is even more 
necessary to test the sand than to test the cement." The essential re- 
quirements for sand which is to be used in concrete construction is as 

1. The sand should be free from vegetable matter such as loam. 
A very little of this may prevent the mixture from hardening properly. 

2. The sand should be coarse. If a sand is so fine that 10 per 
cent passes a sieve having 100 meshes to the linear inch, or if more than 


ib per cent passes a sieve having 5(J meshes to a linear inch, it shouU! 
be rejected. Fine sand requires nearly double the amount of cement 
in order to give a mortar having the same strength as that obtained from 
coarse sand. 

The above requirements for sand are taken from an article by E. 
W. Lazell entitled "Elementary Studies of Cement". Dr. Lazell 
states that the presence of dirt, loam, or other fine foreign material can 
best be determined in the following manner: Fill a quart fruit jar to 
the depth of about 4 inches with the sand to be examined, and then 
add water until the jar is filled to within 1 inch of the top. Screw 
the cap on the jar and shake well a number of minutes. After shaking, 
the contents of the jar should be allowed to settle for a couple of 
hours. The sand will sink to the bottom, and the nuul and fine material 
will form a distinct layer on top of the sand which is easily recognized 
by its color. If this layer of fine material or mud is more than \ inch 
thick the sand is not fit to be used. 

It is possible to wash poor sand by placing a la\er of the matc-rial 
to be washed upon an inclined screen and spraying it, beginning at the 
top with a garden hose. The sieve must be of a mesh sufficient to 
retain the sand required. 

The following test for sand was recommended by the joint com- 
mittee on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete for 1909: Mortars 
composed (jf one part Portland cement and three parts fine aggregate, 
bv weight, when made into briquettes. Fig. 3, shoidd show a tensile 
strength of at least 70 per cent of the strength of one-to-three mortars 
of the same consistency made with the same cement and standard 
Ottawa sand. To avoid removing any C(jatings of the grains which 
may affect the strength, bank sand should not be dried before being 
made into mortar, but should contain natural moisture. The percentage 
of moisture may be determined upcjn a separate sample for the correcting 
of weight. From 10 to 40 per cent more water may be required in 
mixing bank or artificial sands than for standard Ottawa sands to 
obtain the same consistency. 

Besides sand, concrete should contain a certain amount of coarse 
aggregate consisting of inert material such as the crushed stone or 
gravel which would be retained by a screen having \" holes. The 
material, of course, must be clean, hard, and free from impurities. A 
gradation of sizes of the particles is desirable, but flat or elongated 
pieces should be excluded if the concrete it to bear a great strain. 



ST^^*P'ARC t^XZ-t OF f3R\Q.UE.-VTE. 
*^^^S ^^ -TE-<=,T\rv«C=r "THE. "rENS\uE 
^TREY^feTH OF QE.tnENT ^N c» 

FIG. 5. 

Where a large amount of concrete is to be used in mass the particles of 

coarse aggregate may be of a size sufficient to pass thru a 3" ring. 
All water used should be free from strong alkalies, acid, oil, or 

vegetable matter. 

Since the San Francisco fire a great deal of emphasis has been placed 

upon the reinforcing of concrete 
structures. When the pressure is 
direct, concrete will bear an ex- 
tremely heavy load. The writer 
saw 12,340 pounds pressure placed 
upon a 2" cube before it was 
crushed. This cube was composed 
of one part Portland cement to 
three parts sand, 9 per cent of 
water being used. The mixture 
was made December 16, 1911 and 
crushed January 31, 1912. A 

briquette like that shown in Fig. 5, of similar composition, under the 

same conditions gave way at 260 pounds tensile stress. From the test 

given above it will be seen that where pressure is not direct some kind 

of reinforcement is necessary. 

Steel is commonly used for such 

purposes. Small rods or even steel 

wire is often used in small work, 

while for great strains large rails 

and girders are used. All metal 

used must be free from scale or 

rust or any coating which would 

impair the strength of the bond. There must be a complete bond 

about the steel if the concrete is to take hold as it should. Because 

of this fact no particles of aggregate should be used, even in coarse work, 

larger than 1 inch in diameter if the concrete be reinforced. 

Fig. 6 is a diagram which is intended to show that the reinforcing 

material should be placed at the bottom of lintels, etc., as near the 

under side will come the greatest strain. 


FIG. 6. 


The proportion of constituents will now be conisdered. From the 
facts already discussed, the two statements following are at once 


evident : That concrete is strongest which, for the same weight of 
cement and the same total weight of aggregate gives the smallest 
volume. (This statement deals with density.) That concrete is 
strongest which, for the same total amount of aggregate contains the 
greatest amount of cement. (As pure cement is stronger than a com- 
bination of other materials and cement, the truth of this statement is 
also evident.) 

In mixing concrete, the relation of the fine and coarse aggregate 
must be considered. This may be accurately determined by experiment- 
ing, the object being to secure the greatest or maximum density. The 
proportion of fine and coarse aggregate is determined by finding the 
volume of the voids in the coarse aggregate which must be filled by the 
fine. A jar is filled with coarse aggregate and then as much water is 
poured in as the jar will contain with the aggregate. The water is 
then poured ofi and measured. It will be the same as the volume of 
fine aggregate required. 

If a maximum density is required, the voids in the sand which are 
to be filled by cement may be determined in a similar way. In this 
case the sand is first dried and is placed in the jar again, the height to 
which it reaches being marked. Once more water is poured into the 
jar until it reaches to the place marked. The water is now allowed to 
drain off the sand leaving it perfectly dry. The volume of the water 
draining off will represent the volume of cement to be used. 

The proportions of ingredients in concrete vary according to the 
purposes for which it is being prepared. The determining factors of 
proportion are : required strength, density, and econom}'. The four 
mixtures which are most commonly used are: rich (cement 1, sand 
H, coarse aggregate 3) ; standard (cement 1, sand 2, coarse aggregate 
4) ; medium (cement 1, sand 2^, coarse aggregate 5) ; and lean (cement 
1, sand 3, coarse aggregate 6). In watertight utensils and in places 
where there are high stresses a rich mixture is used. The standard 
mixture is employed for machinery foundations, floors, etc. Retaining 
walls, sidewalks, and similar structures demand a medium mixture, 
while heavy walls, stationery loads, and similar structures require a 
lean mixture. 

The proportion of water is an important element. There are three 
consistencies in general use, i. e., wet, medium, and dry. It is evident 
that work requiring thin sections or fine detail must be done with a 
wet mixture, which will flow easily into all parts of the mold. A 



"^^^-^'H^i". ■^.'ijw 



medium mixture, however, sets stronger and should be used in most 
cases. This mixture is tamped in order to prevent the formation of 
air holes known as pockets. Some foundation work and concrete pottery 
of certain kinds require a dry mixture. 


Upon large jobs concrete is today mixed by machinery. Sometimes, 
however, no power is needed, a system depending entirely upon gravity 
being employed. 

Fig. 7, furnished by J. J. Shaughnessy, vice president of the Auto- 
matic Concrete Mixer Company of New York City, shows one of these 
mixers in operation. See also Fig. 8. Mr. Shaughnessy describes the 
mixer as follows : 

The automatic mixer is just what its name indicates, no power beinji 
required, and vet the aggregates are mixed in a way to meet the most exacting 
requirements. Briefly, this mixer consists of four hoppers placed one directly 
above another. The top hopper is filled with layers of gravel, cement and sand 
in proper proportion. The water is added, then the mix is discharged from one 
hopper to another. Gravity does the rest. The mixing is due to the hour 
glass principle, because each time the mix is discharged it does not slide along the 
sides of the hopper but falls inward at the center as do the sands of an hour 
glass. In a word, the charge pulls itself inside out, and is rotated in its fullest 

All mixing for small work is usually done by hand. The tools used 
are the spade, hoe, and sometimes a rake. The mixing is done on a 
platform which keeps the mix clean. A layer of sand is spread upon one 
end of the platform and a layer of cement (the desired amount) is 
spread over this. The mixer now turns over the entire material, a 
shovelfull at a time, each shovel containing both sand and cement. The 
material is turned over twice in this way. The mixer is careful each 
time to allow the material to run off the edge of his spade, thus aiding 
the mixing process. The coarse aggregate, which has been previously 
wetted is now spread over the dr^- mixture of cement and sand, and 
water is poured over all. The concrete mixture is now "turned" three 
times in the way described above, or until all has been thoroly mixed. 

Concrete is usually shaped by means of molds called forms, con- 
sisting of an outside one and an inside one sometimes known as a core. 
The function performed upon the concrete by these forms is similar to 
that performed upon molten metal by the space left in the sand after 



tlie pattern has been removed and the core inserted. Indeed, for certain 

kinds of ornamental work, sand forms are sometimes used in the concrete 


Molds made from glue or gelatine are often used for the casting 

of intricate pieces of statuary. The concrete used is thin enough to 

f]o\v into all the small crevices of 
the form, and the gelatine is plastic 
enough to allow the mold to be 
pulled off after the material has 
set. Mr. Davison's book on "Con- 
crete Pottery and Garden Furni- 
ture" explains this process fully. 
Plaster of Paris molds are used 
extensively for small work involv- 
ing simple shapes. 

Where the forms are to be 
used over and over again metal is 
usually employed. Galvanized 
iron is popular for this service 
because it will not rust. Steel is 
also used. Forms for making con- 

FiG. 8. AUTOMATIC CONCRETE MIXER crctc bricks, fcncc posts, ctc, atc 

BEING USED IN HOUSE BUILDING. ^^^^^^^, ^^J^ ^f ^^^^J^ 

But the material most widely 
used in the making of forms is wood. Wood of a suitable quality 
is comparati\'ely inexpensive, and it has the advantage of being easily 
worked. The wood used must be of a nature which will not warp 
nor change to any marked degree under the influence of water; green 
lumber is preferred for certain kinds of work. When set up, these 
forms must be firm enough to allow no expansion from the weight of 
the material. 

Fig. 9 shows the method used in making a form for a cellar wall. 
This form was used by the writer in building a wall in his home. 

Concrete should not be made or used in freezing weather unless 
care is taken not to use any material containing frost crystals. After 
placing, too, the concrete must be protected from frost by lining the 
forms with tarred paper; sometimes, by means of steam pipes passed 
aroimd the forms. 

Care must be taken that no exposed electric wires be near a concrete 
structure which has been reinforced with iron or steel, as electrolysis 
which takes place will cause the metal to deteriorate. 



wires to mov_p 
Form i=Roa,^ 


Tests have been made which show that concrete may be used for 
purposes of fireproofing. Clean, hard burned cinders serve well as the 
coarse aggregate for fireproofiing purposes. We may attribute the 
fireproofness of concrete largely to 
its low rate of heat conductivity. 
Sharp corners are always avoided 
in fireproof construction, as corners 
are affected more seriously by fire. 

When mixed to the maximum 
density, concrete is waterproof 
enough for practical purposes. 
But we know that the greatest 
possible density is seldom, if ever, 
reached. A dry mixture of con- 
crete is far from waterproof. 
Compounds of various kinds have 
thus been prepared which may 

be mixed with concrete to render it waterproof; other preparations 
have been contrived which are applied externally as a sort of paint. 
Altho h^^drauHc in character, concrete will decompose when sub- 
mitted to the action of sea water. It has not yet been determined 
what there is in sea water to bring about this decomposition. But there 
are today preparations on the market which render it impervious even 
to sea water. These external preparations are applied with a brush or, 
sometimes, with a cement gun. Plastering should be avoided. Even 
if carefully applied, plaster is likely to peel ofiF under the action of 
temperature changes. 



Acknowledgement is made of assistance in the collection of material thru 
the courtesy of Allen Brett, Managing Editor of Concrete-Cement Age, Detroit, 

Henry S. Spackman: Manufacture of Cement; Scientific American, June 20, 

Edward D. Beyer: Cement, What Is It?; Scientific American, March 18, 

E. W. Lazell: Tests of Cement-Lime Mortars. 


The Mason Huilder, for November, 1911, and February, Marcli, and April, 

Art and Industry in Kducation, 1912 and 1913 numbers. Teachers College, 
Columbia I'niversity. 

Consult "Concrete" and "Cement" in EtnyclofxieJia Britann'ua. 

Ralph C. Davison : Concrete Pottery and Garden Furniture. 

A. F. Siepert: A Study of Concrete Construction, Miinual Trtiinirii; Magazine, 
December, 1911. 

Progress Report of the Joint Committee on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete 
of The American Society for Testing Materials, 1909. 

History of the Singer Building Construction, The Singer Co., New York. 

Also, Circulars issued by the following plants: 

Automatic Concrete Mixer Co., 286 — 5th Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

Wolfe & Misner, Newark, N. J. 

Lock Joint Pipe Co., New York, N. Y. 

D. & A. Post Mould Co., Three Rivers, Mich. 

The Aquabar Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Charles Warner Co., Wilmington, Del. 

Simpson Cement Mould Co., Columbus, Ohio. 

Leizer Brothers, Berwick, Pa. 

F. S. Converse, Binghampton, N. \ . 

C. Eilbacher, Elizabeth, N. J. 

The Atlas Portland Cement Co., New \()rk, N. Y. 

Blaw Collapsible Steel Centering Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Chain Belt Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

The Cockburn Co., New York, N. ^•. 

Abbe Engineering Co., New York, N. Y. 

Integral Waterproofing Co., New York, N. \'. 

'Fhe Duetsch System of Concrete Construction, New Haven, Conn. 

Raber k Lang Mfg. Co., Kendalville, Ind. 

The Edison Portland Cement Co., New Village, N. J. 

Manitowoc Engineering Works, Manitowoc, Wis. 



THERE are no two schools offering work in farm mechanics 
which give the same amount of time to any one branch of the 
subject ; so an outline for any one school could not be used 
in any other without being greatly changed. One school may give 
five ninety-minute periods a week for one-half year to carpentry; 
another may give only two such periods a week for twelve weeks. 
Some agricultural schools are three-year courses, some two, and the 
agricultural high schools vary in the amount of time given to agricul- 
ture and farm mechanics. This makes it impossible to write an outline 
which can be used by all of these schools. The best that can be done 
is to outline a rather extensive list of problems and from this outline 
each instructor may be able to select problems suitable to his par- 
ticular school. 

A knowledge of farm mechanics is a farmer's equipment where- 
with to plan and build his farmstead; to plan well each individual 
building; to build, equip, and know how to use a workshop; to pur- 
chase, use, and keep in good condition farm power and field machinery; 
to equip the farm with farm conveniences such as water supply, sew- 
age disposal, and lighting system. 

That a course in farm mechanics can be made practical thruout 
and free from theory is being proven, and because of its practicability 
and lack of theory it engages the attention of all students interested 
in agricultural work. Such a course is necessarily different from any 
that is offered in schools other than agricultural schools, because the 
students pursuing it have already chosen their vocation and desire work 
to meet their needs as farmers. The test question in this course is not 
"Can you explain or tell about a certain problem?" It is, "Can you 
construct the problem?" It is not, "Can you tell how to splice a 
rope?" It is, "Can you splice it?" The hands must be able to 
execute the mechanical work which the mind thinks to be of most 
use to an individual. 

The course includes Drawing, Carpentry, Blacksmithing, Concrete 
Construction, Special Practical Shopwork, Gasoline Engines, Farm 
Machinery, Sewage Disposal and Lighting Systems. 

The drawing and carpentry should be correlated as far as possible, 



SO that each student will have made a drawing of each problem in 
carpentry preceding its construction. 


Exercise Sheets 

a. Trim line, border line, division lines used in laying out sheets. 
Rectangles with base horizontal, inclined at 30°, 45°, and 15°. 
Practice in drawing lines parallel to horizontal, 30^, 45°, and 
15° lines. 

Practice in drawing lines perpendicular to horizontal, 30°, 45°, 
and 15* lines. 

b. Practice in formation of freehand inclined Gothic letters. 
Lower case, upper case, Arabic numerals, Roman numerals. 

1. Lettering sheet. 
Geometric Problems 

2. Line notation for geometric drawing. L To bisect a given angle. 

IL To construct an angle equal to a given angle. IIL To divide 
a given line into any number of equal parts. 

3. IV. To inscribe an equilateral triangle in a given circle. V. To 

inscribe a square in a given circle. VL To inscribe a regular 

pentagon in a given circle. VIL To inscribe a regular hexagon 
in a given circle. 

4. ^'I^. To inscribe a regular polygon of any number of sides in 

a given circle. IX. To construct an approximate ellipse with 
circular arcs, axes being given. X. To draw a spiral of given 
pitch with four centers. XI. To draw a straight line equal in 
length to a given arc less than a semicircumference. 
Isometric Projection 

5. Isometric axes. I. Isometric drawing of a cubical box without 
cover. II. Isometric drawing of flaring water trough. III. Iso- 
metric drawing of drain tile. 

6. IV. Butt joint. V. Gained butt joint. VI. Half-lap joint. VII. 
Mortise-and-tenon joint. 

7. VIII. Drawing table with drawing board and T-square ready 

for use. 
Cabinet Projection 

8. Cabinet axes. 1. Cabinet projection of concrete horse block with 
initials. II. Cabinet projection of blacksmith's bardie. III. 
Cabinet projection of a round porch column on square base. 

9. IV. Oblique butt joint. V. Oblique thrust joint. VI. Housed 
brace joint. VII. Oblique mortise-and-tenon joint. 

10. VIII. Workbench. 
Orthographic Projection 

11. Orthographic axes. I. Orthographic projection of bushel box. II. 
Orthographic projection of chain link. III. Orthographic projec- 
tion of 3 piece elbow. 


IV or king Draivings 

12. Miter-box. 

13. Saw-horse. 

14. Tool-box. 

15. Workbench. 

16. Wagon box. 

17. Hay rack. 

18. Stock rack. 

19. Culvert. 

20. Septic tank. 

21. Details of machine bolt. Strap or fishplate. 

22. Details of wrought iron angle brace. Wrought iron shoe truss 

23. Galvanized iron ventilator hood with section. 

24. Freehand drawing of knots 1, 2, 3, 4. 
Transmission Machinery 

25. Elevations and plan of transmission machinery installation. 

26. Details for preceding plate. 
Topographical Draiving 
Architectural Draining 

28. Cabinet projection of sills on wall — heavy timber sill, box sill (a) 
box sill (b) 2" plank barn sill without header. 

29. Sectional elevation of 2" plank barn sill without header showing 
joist, stud, floor, sheathing. 

30. Sectional elevation of box sill showing sill, joist, stud, rough floor, 
grounds, lath, plaster, finish floor, base board, floor shoe, sheathing, 
building paper, water table, drip cap, lap siding. 

31. Window frame for double-hung window, elevation, longitudinal 
and transverse sections. 

32. Floor plan of chicken house. 

33. Sectional elevation of chicken house. 

34. Front elevation of chicken house. 

35. End elevation of chicken house. 

36. Floor plan of two inch plank frame barn with silo. 

37. Sectional elevation of plank frame barn with concrete stable floor 
and barn bent. 

38. Sectional elevation of plank frame barn showing bent framing. 

39. Sectional elevation of plank frame barn showing side framing. 

40. Side elevation of plank frame barn with silo. 

41. End elevation of plank frame barn with silo. 

42. First floor plan of house. 

43. Cellar floor plan of house. 

44. Second story plan of house. 

45. Front elevation. 

46. Right side elevation. 

47. Left side elevation. 

48. Rear elevation. 

49. Detail plate of interior trim. 




First the student should acquaint himself with the following car* 
pentry tool operations: 

1. Rip-sawing. 

2. Crosscut-sawing. 

3. Leveling. 

4. Plumbing. 

5. Erecting. 

6. Tool sharpening: 

a. Saw filing, 

b. Grinding, 

c. Whetting. 

7. Measuring. 

8. Drawing lines at angles. 

9. Planing: 

a. Broad surface, 

b. Edge, 

c. End. 

10. Laying out and cutting chamfer. 

11. Laying out and cutting bevel. 

12. Boring. 

Following is a list of joints used in carpentry and a number of 
useful farm articles which may be used as means toward mastering 
the tool operations. 







a. With grain, 

b. Across grain 




Screw driving. 












Round surface edgin 




Wood filing. 






Single tree. 


Butt joint. 




Gained butt joint. 


Members of wagon 



Half-lap joint. 


Wagon jack. 


Mortise-and-tenon joint. 


Wagon box. 


Oblique butt joint. 


Hay rack. 


Oblique thrust joint. 


Stock rack. 


Housed brace joint. 




Oblique mortise-and-tenon joint 


Step ladder. 


Silo form. 

After the tool operations have been mastered by use of the joints 
and useful articles the regular carpentry projects should be taken up. 
As many of those as possible should be built full scale. As indicated 
by the accompanying illustrations this can be done by building a typical 
corner, cornice, door, window, wall, porch, barn bent, donner, etc. 
By this method the problem is complete. If more were added a repeti- 
tion would result, more lumber and space w^ould be used, and nothing 



new learned. By building the problem smaller it would not be complete. 

By building projects full scale the 

students have exactly the same 

problem which the}- would have in 

actual practice. The following 

problems can be studied to best 

advantage by building | scale. 


1. Chicken house. 

2. Plank frame barn. 

3. Wood shed. 

4. Silo form. 

5. Timber frame barn. 

6. Farm shop. 



1. Sill, wall, and floor construction 
for house (studding resting on rough 
flooring), Figs. ] and 2. 

2. Sill, wall, and floor construction 
for house (studding resting on wall 
member of box sill). Fig. 3. 

3. Sill, floor, wall, window, and 
door construction for house. Fig. 4. 

4. Wall and window construction, 
wall 5' 0" high, 4' 9" wide, with 
double-hung window, with two panes 
12"xl2", Fig. 5. 

5. Box cornice construction, corner 
of hip roof ^2 pitch. Figs. 6 and 7. 

6. Common cornice construction, 
corner of high hip roof % pitch. 

7. Porch construction, corner of 
porch. Figs. 8, 9, and 10. 

8. Open stair. 





In the blacksmith classes the students are taught as far as possible 
to be their own repairmen and to be able to perform the operations 

ordinarilj- met with. The master- 
ing of the operations is the pri- 
mary aim and the making of the 
exercises or articles is only a means 
toward this end and is only of 
secondary importance. The 
students are taught that the 
machinery on a farm should alwaj'S 
be in good condition to do good 
work and in order that it be kept 
so it has to be repaired by a black- 
smith or by themselves. To be 
able to repair it themselves has the 
advantage of a saving of time and 
expense. There are at least 
twenty-eight operations to be 
learned, and the thirtj-nine exer- 
cises or projects give practice in all 
of them. The exercises are such as the students will come in contact 
with on the farm. 

FIG. 3. 





b. Fagot weld, 


Squaring round stock. 

c. T-weld with round iron, 


Rounding square stock. 

d. T-weld with flat iron. 


Drawing out. 


Smoothing with flatter. 






















Cutting cold stock. 




Cutting hot stock. 



















a. Scarf or lap weld, 







Squaring round stock. 



Rounding square stock. 









Eye spike. 






Gate hook. 



Cold shut. 



Gate hinge. 



Door hasp. 



Small chain hook. 



Large chain hook. 






Chain trace. 



Grab hook. 



Straight clevis. 



Twisted clevis. 





Singletree end hook. 



Singletree ferrule. 


Wire stretcher. 

Ring and eye bolts for neckyoke. 

Round stock end weld. 

Round stock T-weld. 

Flat end weld. 

Flat T-weld. 

Nailset. '. 

Staple puller. ' 

Center punch. 

Small cold chisel. 

Large cold chisel. 

Small punch. 

Large punch. 


Pinch bar. 

Pick sharpening and tempering. 

Cultivator tooth sharpening and 

Plow sharpening and tempering. 
Riveting two flat pieces of stock 


Door, Window, 
Si//, r/oor andWa// Cons/ruc/ion 

Cutside Caiing 

, DotyPoer 

Ifnide ceding 


There is a large number of odd jobs on the farm some one of 
which needs to be done 
almost daily and the 
farmer who can do them 
himself can save the ex- 
pense and time of having 
them done and thus dis- 
pose of a large number of 
inconveniences. The 
"Special Practical Shop aocr^ 
Course" contains all the 
odd jobs which do not 
rightly belong in any of 
the other courses. 

FIG. 4. 

Rope Work 

1. Knots: 

a. Granny, 

b. Manger, 

c. Bowline, 

d. Emergency. 










a. Timber hitcii, 

b. Blackwall hitch, 

c. Sheep shank. 



a. Eye, 

b. Crown and end, 

c. Short, 

d. Long. 



Endless belts: 

a. Rubber, 

b. Leather. 


Spliced belts: 

a. Lacing, 

rawhide, wire. 

b. Mechanical fasteners. 


a. Soldering a hole. 

b. Patching a hole. 

Riveting a seam. 
Soldering a seam. 

FIG. 7. 

e. Laying out pattern and cutting metal for three piece elbow. 

f. Laying out pattern and cutting metal for chimney cap. 

Pipe fVork 



a. Box cleaning. 

b. Box packing and shaft protecting. 

c. Babbett melting and pouring. 
Transmission Machinery 

a. Shaft hanging: 

1. Ceiling. 

2. Bracket. 

3. Floor post. 

b. Speed of pulleys: 

\. Given speed and diameter of driver and speed of driven to 
find diameter of driven. 

2. Given speed and diameter of driver and diameter of driven 
to find speed of driven. 

3. Given speed and diameter of driven and speed of driver to 
find diameter of driver. 

4. Given speed and diameter of driven and diameter of driver to 
find speed of driver. 



Concrete is being used more and more extensively in the country 
and it is well that it should be as it is good economy for a farmer 
to use this permanent building material wherever possible. 

It is better to construct problems in concrete on a large than on 


a small scale. This tends to make the problems like the actual work 
which students will do later. If possible a class should build a real 
culvert in a road or a cement walk which is To be used about the 
buildings or some other permanent project. This will teach how to 
meet all problems which arise by actually coming in contact with 


1. Measuring. 

2. Proportioning. 

3. Mixing. 

4. Reinforcing. 

5. Testing. 

6. Form building. 

7. Surface finishing. 

8. Figuring cost. 


1. Small foundation wall. 

2. Driveway approach. 

3. Retaining wall. 

4. Barn floor, including manger and 


5. Engine base. 

6. Sidewalk. 

7. Straight culvert. 

8. Arched culvert. 

9. Water tank. 

10. Water trough. 

11. Silo. 

12. Steps. 

13. Septic tank. 



The gasoline engine has so many uses to which it may be put on 
the farm that it is good economy for most farmers to have one or 
more, the size of which is determined by each farmer's particular needs. 

Students should fanu'liarize themselves with the working principles 


of gasoline engines so well that they will be able to run any of the 
different makes. A good way to do this is to have students dissemble 
and assemble a machine and make a thoro study of all the parts. The 
particular feature which should be emphasized is engine troubles — how 
to detect and remedy them. 

The following outline indicates the different parts of an engine 
which may be studied separately or as units of study. 

Working principles of four cycle engine. 

a. Suction stroke. 

b. Compression stroive. 

c. Expansion stroke. 

d. Exhaust stroke. 



Engine Cylinder 

a. Piston head. 

b. Piston rod. 

c. Piston rings. 

d. Gasket. 















Spark plug. 


Make and break ignitor 
















Pipes and connections. 














a. Cam. 

b. Cam gear. 

c. Cam lever. 

d. Cam roller. 

a. Oils. 

b. Cup grease. 

c. Oil cups. 

d. Grease cups. 
Governor and pulley 
Gasoline pump 
Starting troubles 

a. Faulty ignition. 

b. Too much or too little gasoline. 

c. Water in cylinder. 

d. Loss of compression. 
Ignition troubles 

a. Exhausted batteries. 

b. Loose wires. 

c. Short circuit. 

d. Dirty ignition points. 

e. Improper timing — spark at wrong time. 
Running troubles 

a. Water cooling system checked causing overheated cylinder. 

b. Overload. 

c. Leaky valves. 

d. Loss of compression. 

e. Closed inlet and exhaust passages. 
Care of Engine 

a. Cleaning. 

b. Testing parts. 

c. Oiling. 




Nama a. Lathe and Esther Szold. 


THE bed-room is the most intimate room in the home. Its 
furnishings, perhaps more than those of any other room, vary 
according to the personality of its occupants. Probably it is the 
one room in the home where the child may do some experimental work 
in decorating to suit his own taste. 

Altho the articles of furniture chosen vary to suit personalities 
and domestic arrangements, a well-furnished bed-room must suggest 
rest, quiet, and airiness. Places for storing one's clothing demand 
drawer space. If, as is usually the case, the bed-room is also the 
dressing-room a mirror in a well-lighted place is a necessit3\ A writing 
desk w^here one may withdraw from the family for personal corres- 
pondence may be desirable. In the bed-room shown it is supposed that 
closet space is ample and that a lavatory is provided in the bathroom. 

We suggest twin beds for sanitary reasons and it fits the exigencies 
of the case admirably for it is a better form for paper construction than 
a double bed, and the work of two pupils shows in the finished room. 

The first piece of furniture to be made may be the straight chair. 
Instructions for this have been given in detail. - If it is preferred to 
make more intricate chairs it will be well to begin by constructing the 

Follow this general order in drawing the patterns: 

(1). Draw" the base line. 

(2). Erect the main vertical lines. 

(3). Measure for an important horizontal line at, or near, the 
top of the drawing. 

(4). Test the verticals by measuring the spaces between them at 
this height. 

(5). Proceed from the main forms to the smaller divisions. 

(6). Mark scoring and cutting lines. 

(7). Score, cut, fold, and paste. 

1 Copyright by Nama A. Lathe and Esther Szold. 

- See February, 1912, number, p. 214. 






See Fig. 37, Fig. 37A, and Fig, 37B. 

Head and Foot: — In drawing the pattern for the head and foot of 
the bed note that the corners of the bed are at lines A. Lines X are 
pasting lines. 

Design : — Making the pattern 
for the paneling of the head and 
foot offers opportunity for study 
of beautiful relations of spaces. 
One must remember that the cor- 
ner uprights and the top and base 
rails need to be strong. The head 
and foot should be solid enough 
to- prevent bedding from slipping 

Body : — Draw the verticals 
marked "head" and '"foot" and fig. 37a. the bed. 

mark them so on the drawing. 
Complete the drawing, noting 
carefully the differences between the head and foot. 

Order of Pasting. Body : — Paste the legs attached at the head of 
the body under the head rail as they fit when folded. 

Note that the legs at the foot of the body are not pasted to the foot- 
rail of the body. This rail is held in place by pasting the l^x^' laps 
at the ends of the rail upon the places marked on the side rails. This 
leaves the corners of the legs ]" away from the foot-rail. See Fig. 37B. 

Head and Foot:- — Paste the small laps at the top of the side strips 
under the strip running across the top. See Fig. 37A and Fig. 37B. 

Assembling: — If the parts have been correctly pasted each part 
should stand alone. The legs attached to the body fit inside the legs 
of the head and foot, strengthening them and making the construction 
more rigid. 

Be sure that the foot board comes at the end of the body where the 
legs project beyond the rail. 

Stand the pieces in order, note points of contact and glue in place. 





Bedding: — The mattress is made of cotton laid upon a stiff paper 
frame the size of the top of the body. The cotton is covered and held 
in place by white tissue paper spread over the whole and pasted under 
the stifF base. 

Pillows are cotton and the slips 
are white tissue paper. 

Fine Japanese crepe paper with 
its long folds running across the 
bed forms satisfactory spreads. 
Squares should be cut from both 
corners at the foot to make it fit 
about the legs neatly and slip be- 
tween the "springs" and the foot 
of the bed. 

FIG. 37b. bed showing space at foot 



See Fig. 38 and Fig. 38A. 

This form is given to show the simplest method of construction with 
the greatest possibilities for design. Proportions may be varied if the 
same relation of parts is kept. 

When the height and width of the frame are determined draw the 
four sections. 

Design: — Draw an oblong equal to the front upon a separate piece 
of the construction paper and arrange drawers or doors and the height 
of the legs as desired, with due regard to the width of rails necessary 
for strength, to the beauty of spacing and probable use of the different 

True up with a ruler, and mark points for the drawer pulls ac- 

Cut out the oblong outlining the size of the front and place it 
exactly upon the drawing of the front in the pattern for the frame. 
Prick holes thru both papers at the points marked for the drawer pulls. 

Placing Drawer Faces: — Draw, score, cut, and fold, but do not 
paste, the frame. 



Cut out one drawer face. Push two pins thru the two holes in the 
drawer face so that the points project half an inch upon the marked side. 
Spread jjlue upon that side. 

Put the points of the pins into the holes corresponding in the front 
of the frame. Press the face into place. 

Repeat with the other drawer 
faces, leaving those with only one 
pull until the last, then adjust 
them by sight and the one pin. 

Order of Pasting: — The 
drawer faces are pasted in place 

Back Section : — The extension 
above line A' in the back section 
forms the projecting top of the 
chiffonnier and a protection rail 
across the back. 

Fold the outer ]" laps back 
upon the inner Y' spaces. Glue in 

Protecting Rail: — Fold the up- 
per ^/' space upon the f " space im- 
mediately above line A'. Glue to- 

Front: — Paste the laps at the ends of the top under line A' of the 
side sections. 

Paste lap at the back of the top against the back section. 

Fold the lap at the back of the side section over the back of the 
case. Glue in place. 

Projecting Top: — Spread glue on the top of the frame. Lay the 
projecting top in place. Invert the chiffonnier and press until dry. 

Strengthening the Legs : — Cut, score, fold, and glue inside the angle 
of each leg a strip of paper narrower than the leg. 

Shaping the Protecting Rail: — To design the shape of the protection 
rail, cut a strip of paper the height and width of the rail; cut the top 
the shape desired. Place a ruler or a piece of dark paper covering the 
rail. Place the shaped strip in front of the dark paper. Vary it until 









^ en 



the shape of the strip seems harmonious with the whole and pleasing to 
the e^'e, then trace its shape upon the protecting rail and cut upon the 
tracing. See Fig. 38A and Fig. 39A. 


See Fig. 39, Fig. 39A, and Fig. 40. 

This pattern is for a larger 
chiffonnier with a hat cupboard. 
If desired it ma}' be made with 
applied door and drawer faces by 
omitting all lines for openings or 
pasting from the pattern of the 
frame. An arrangement of the 
door and drawer faces is shown in 
Fig. 40. It is usually more profi- 
table to have pupils design the ar- 
rangement of the parts of their 
own pieces. 

The complete construction as 
shown in Fig. 39, Fig. 39A, and 
Fig. 40 is more difficult and the 
additional calculation for making 
the drawers is apt to discourage 
one from attempting to make 

original designs for the arrangement of the drawers. However 
relationships of the parts are definite and not hard to understand. 

Original Design : — Plan the arrangement of the drawer and door 
spaces as desired. The openings for the drawers are y less on each 
side of the oblong than the drawer faces. 

In door openings allow a f " lap for a hinge and make the opening 
y less than the door on each of the other three sides. 

The drawers are boxes yV" l^^s in width and height than the open- 
ings and :|" less in depth than the frame. 

Thus the drawer face extends a trifle over Y' beyond the box so 
that the drawer openings in the frame are well covered when the 
drawer is closed. See Fig. 39A. 

FIG. 39a. chiffonnier with drawers 












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k: o 

u o 

K Q 

ci ex 



-rt- — — Wf^ 

Z.' u 

-'oi uJ O 



Under each drawer is a shelf to support the drawers and strengthen 
the frame. 


Order of Pasting: — Cut, score, and fold the frame. Cut, score, 
and fold the necessary shelves. 

Slip a piece of paper over the hinge to protect it from glue. 

Spread glue betAveen the upper pair of pasting lines on the front 
section of the frame. 

Hold a shelf with the laps turning down and paste it in place. 

Paste a shelf under each drawer. 

Left Ends: — Paste the lap at the left end of the top to the top 
of the left side section. 

Lay the frame on its left side. 

Push the upper shelf above the upper pasting lines. Spread glue 
between the lines and push the shelf down into place. 

Repeat with the rest of the shelves. 

Right ends : — Turn the frame on its right side and repeat except 
that shelves must be pushed down before spreading the glue so that 
they may be held in place easily with the left hand during the process. 

Back. Projecting Top: — Fold the outer -|" lap back upon the 
inner y spaces; glue together. 

Protecting Rail: — Fold the upper |" space down upon the V' space 
just above line A'. Glue. 

Lay the frame, face downward, upon the desk. Spread glue upon 
the exposed laps of the top and the shelves. 

Lay the back upon the frame with the line A' meeting the top of the 
frame exactly. Press in place gently. 

Turn the frame over and press the shelves in place firmly with a 
ruler inserted thru the openings in the front of the frame. 

Paste the laps at the back of the side sections in place over the 
back section. 

Pasting the Top: — Spread glue over the top of the frame. Adjust 
the projecting top. Invert the chiffonier and press while drying by 
inserting the finger or a ruler thru the openings next the top. 

Protection Rail: — For method of designing the protecting rail see 
under description of chiffonnier with applied drawer faces. 



Door: — Adiust the door to the hiniie hip in the opening so that 
the edges project \" at either side of the opening. 

The lower edge of the door should meet the fold of the hinge. 
See Fig. 39A. Spread glue over the outside of the hinge and glue the 
door in place. 

Draners: — Make the drawer boxes. Cut out the drawer faces. 
Spread glue over the front of a drawer and lay it upon a drawer 
facing so that the pasting line ^" from each edge just shows at each 
side of the drawer. Press in place. 

Repeat with other drawers, add drawer pulls and put the drawers 
in place in the frame. 

Strengthening the Legs: — Cut, score thru the center lengthwise, and 
fold pieces of construction paper Y' longer and a trifle narrower than 
each leg. Glue them into the angles of the legs to stiffen them. 

{To be Continued.) 








James McKixney and Sarah M. Mott. 

Couch, Fig. 9:— Seat, Y'x2%"x(i" ; feet, y'x^"x6", (for two 
pieces) ; pillow, f" dia. rod any length. (A hardwood dowel should 
not be used as it is too difficult to nail.) 

Bed, Fig. 10:— Body, t''x3g"x6" (ends cut square) ; end, ^"x3f'x 
V (for two pieces). 

Bureau, Fig. 1 1 :— Body, U"x2^''x4"; back, i"x4^''x4"; false 
drawers, ^''xl^", any length. (Sometimes drawers are only outlined 
by pencil marks.) 

Sink, Fig. 12:— Bottom, i''x2^"x6''; draining boards, ¥'x2^"x5", 
(for two pieces) ; ends ^"x2|"x7''', (for two pieces) ; side pieces, ^"xl^" 
X 12''', (for two pieces). 


The various pieces are all planed to width and cut off to length. 

Assembling: — 1. Draining boards are nailed on to the bottom, care 
being taken to have ends come even. 2. A pencil line is drawn across 
the middle of the ends {\V' from ends). 3. The ends are laid on the 
bench and two 1" nails are driven in just above the pencil line so that 
the points show thru the boards. 4. The bottom is held in the vise, 
end up, the nail points are centered in the bottom and the nails driven 
"home". (Repeat for the other end.) 5. The side pieces are nailed 
on to the bottom. 

Thruout all the making of furniture much individual work is done 
and as the various pieces are completed, the mathematics work may 
take different forms as for instance : 

How much will two chairs cost at 2 dollars each?; How much will two 
chairs cost at 8 dollars each?; How much will four chairs cost at 3 dollars 
each ? ; etc. 

What will it cost to furnish a dining-room if table costs 10 dollars, side- 
board 10 dollars, and the four chairs 12 dollars? Similarly with the furniture 
for other rooms. Various combinations are used employing the facts known and 
introducing others. 

1 The first instalment of this article appeared in the June, 1913, number. 




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Many questions in comparison also arise such as: Which requires more 
wood, a table or a chair, a bedstead or a couch? If wood of same cost is used, 
which would cost more? Which requires more nails, a clock or a table?, etc. 
Which requires more work? If it takes more time to make a sideboard than a 
table, which will cost more? 

For convenience the class has been divided into two groups. While 
one group has been In the shop, the other has been making various 


f;^ 13. 

JunPiriQ Jack 

furnishings for the houses, including wall-paper, rugs, curtains, mat- 
tresses, pillows, bedding, dish towels, brooms, mail bags, bags for feed 
for horses, paper bags for grocery stores, and many clay articles used 
particularly in the stores. Art enters largely into these furnishings and 
the desire for suitable and tasteful things leads to much good work. 
Here too again, there is abundant mathematical material as most of the 
articles are made a given size and decorated in a conventional manner. 
For a month or so the children are happy in making toys. Jumping 
Jacks, automobiles, horses, and carts are some of the things made. 
Many familiar measurements occur as will be seen in the drawings and 
the same familiar questions in mathematics arise. 






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Jumping Jack, Fig. 13: — Body, ^"xlf" length, anything over 4"; 
arms and legs, -J"xl"xlO", (two pieces of this size) ; sliding pieces, 
a piece of the same stock as used for body, is cut off 2'' long, a f " hole 
is bored thru, and then the piece is cut in two. The rod is a 3;%" dowel. 

Assembling of Jumping Jack. — In nailing the arms to the sliding 
rod, the nails should be long enough to catch the rod.- In the legs the 
nails should not touch the rod. 

Motor Car. Fig. 14:— Base. |"x3f'xl0"; engine hood, 2"x3''x2y'; 
seat box, f ''x3", length, anything over 4" or f "x3"x4" ; sides, i"x2i" 
x8i''; axle, ^''x^"x3V' ; back, i"x2^", length anything over 3"; wheels, 
soft wood roller turned to 3" diameter, wheels cut off with miter saw. 


Base. — One edge of the board is planed smooth, then measured for 
width and planed to size. 

Engine Hood. — The block is held in the vise and two corners are 
chamfered by planing. No size is given for the chamfer, the child 
having to judge the amount from a given model. 

Bottom of Seat. — The two edges are planed smooth. If length has 
to be cut off the piece of wood should be held in the vise. It may be 
found that some children are not strong enough to saw off this thick 
piece, if such is the case the bottom should be given cut to length. 

Slides. — Along one edge a distance of 4" is measured. On the op- 
posite edge and from the same end 4|" is measured. A line is drawn 
connecting these points. The board is held in the vise for sawing and 
the cut is made on the line. See Fig. 15. On the square end of one 
of the boards a distance of 1" is measured. From the corner of the 
beveled end a line is drawn thru this point. The side is now planed 
to size. This method is repeated for the other side. 

The sides are now nailed to the bottom, care being taken to have 
the back and bottom edges come even. 

Back. — The length of the back is obtained by laying the back of 
the seat on a board 2V' wide and marking off length with pencil lines. 
After sawing, this board is nailed on. Two %" nails are driven into the 
bottom and one fine f" nail into each side. 

Axles. — A piece of wood long enough to make two is given each 
child. The four sides are planed smooth. The length is then measured 
and cut off to size. 


Assembling. — (1) The axles are nailed, two 1" nails for each piece. 
Nails should he about 1" from ends. (2) The engine hood is held 
firmly in the vise and base or body nailed. (The nails should be 
entered with base lying on the bench.) (3) The seat is fixed by nail- 
ing thru bottom of seat, using two \'' nails. (4) Wheels are nailed on 
with 1" nails. A wheel which has a centered hole should be used as a 
template for making the center of the wheels. The steering wheel is a 
1^^" dowel and a cardboard disk. 

At the same time the children's mathematical knowledge begins to 
be classified, and to fall w'ithin somewhat more formal lines. Writing 
work is now given about twice a week. The class is usually able to 
count by I's, 2's (even numbers), 5's, and lO's to any given number; 
by 4's to 20; by 3"s to 18; by 6's to 18. They also know the doubles 
of all numbers to 10; can add 1 to any given number; one to doubles 
of numbers, such as : 

4 6 

4 6 

1 1 

Add intermediate numbers, such as: 

2 3 4 6 7 

3 4 5 5 6 


Also add 2 to any even number. 

Uneven numbers have not been as easily learned and we are not 
prepared to state what may be done here. Neither do we wish to say 
much about subtraction. So far we have found the Austrian method 
the most successful. Fractions are scarcely touched upon, nor is 
division, but at the end of the year the class has learned that mathematics 
enters into almost everything, that there is a necessity for mathematical 
calculation and that there is a real pleasure in accurate computation. 

{To be Continued.) 

Add 10 to any number, as: 








WE have become convinced that the greatest source of evil in 
manual training lies in the fragmentary character of the 
time devoted to it. It is not difficult to reach the conclusion 
that the two greatest evils are the inability of the teaching staff to give 
proper instruction and the shortness of the time devoted to the work; 
and we believe that of these two the latter is the greater evil, because 
it makes adequate reform in teaching impossible. No matter how well 
prepared a teacher may be to give instruction he cannot produce the 
desired results either cultural or industrial when he does not see his 
pupils often enough to learn their names. We know of one city that, 
up to one year ago, was requiring a teacher to give instruction in 
woodworking to 390 pupils. He taught four classes a day ; there were 
tw-enty pupils in a class, or eighty a day ; if every class had been full 
there would have been 400 different pupils coming to that teacher, and 
no pupil came more than once a week and then only for one hour. To 
make the matter worse, the authorities would occasionally send thirty 
boys to work on twenty benches. Such conditions are intolerable, un- 
reasonable ; they kill the teacher and do almost no good to the pupils 
except give them an hour a week of relief from a crowded schoolroom. 
With the time required to take out tools and learn from the teacher 
what is to be done, and then the time to put away tools and clean up at 
the end of the lesson there is too little left for real thoughtful work. 
The curse of woodworking in the schools at the present time is thought- 
less, unorganized, get-it-done-quick methods of procedure, and there is 
nothing that stimulates this more effectively than too short a time in 
which to do the work decently and in order, and a teacher who, because 
of the conditions under which he has been working, has lowered his 
standard and adopted a machine-like method of passing the boys thru 
his shop hour by hour and day by day until released from the unnatural 
strain by illness or a vacation. If we believe our psycholog}' we know 
that the habits formed by pupils under such conditions are as likely to 
be detrimental as otherwise. It is a fair question to ask whether one 
hour a week spent under the conditions described is of any real benefit 
to the average boy. A few will benefit in spite of the conditions; a 
few others get no benefit whatever out of it — perhaps form bad habits ; 



what of the others? If your boy were in question, would you care to 
have him in the class? Would you take the risk? We have seen so 
much of the evils of this mere caricature of manual training that we 
can say without hesitation that it is far better to give three hours a 
week to woodworking for one year than one hour a w'eek for three 
years, or even to omit all shopwork from the fifth, sixth and seventh 
grades and give four hours a week in the eighth, as is done in the city 
of Alunich. 

However, we do not believe that this alternative is necessary. The 
English plan of giving two and one-half or three hours a week in the 
two or three upper standards is likely to prove better here. There 
seems to us to be no good reason why in America sufficient time cannot 
be allowed to all pupils for handwork in grades below the second or 
third year of the high school, where more specialization is appropriate. 
There seems to us to be every good reason why a pupil should spend 
enough time on any kind of school work he is doing to do it thoroly. 
And there seems to us to be plenty of excellent reasons why a teacher 
should have time enough with his classes to teach the subject he has in 
hand effectively. In handwork he cannot do this on a mere recitation 
basis; there must be time for explanations and recitations, and there 
must be time for work. And then when we begin to demand industrial 
results from manual training, as we certainly should, the impossibility of 
the situation becomes apparent. No teacher of arithmetic or geography 
or English composition would think of claiming industrial results worth 
mentioning from his teaching if he were to have his pupils for only 
thirty-eight hours a year. It is our belief that whenever shopwork is 
given in the seventh and eighth grades at least two and a half hours a 
week should be given to the work. When given to high school pupils 
five hours a week is not too large a minimum time. 

In order to gather some facts concerning the amount of 
time given to manual training in the public schools we 
sent out 300 postal cards asking for the number of hours 

Time given 
to ManuJ 

spent in each grade from the sixth to the twelfth inclusive. 
From these we received 172 replies. To these we added data received 
in a previous investigation, making the total number of school systems 
represented 196. These cover all sections of the country and cities and 


towns of all classes. A summary showing the number of cities by hours 
and grades is given in the following table : 


Hours a week 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 

1 hour 49 27 14 7 3 3 3 

1 hour to 2 hours 81 117 117 31 24 15 9 

2% hours to 3 hours 5 19 28 25 21 13 9 

3% hours to 4 hours 3 4 8 32 24 22 14 

4 to 5 hours 2 1 4 25 29 24 18 

5 to 71/2 hours 4 39 39 31 28 

8 to 10 hours 1 1 4 7 8 4 

In the above table there are many discouraging figures that bear out 
the statements made above and suggest others. It is especially dis- 
couraging to learn that there are cities giving only one hour a week to 
manual training in the high school. On the other hand there are many 
encouraging figures. Several of the cities listed maintain special voca- 
tional or pre-vocational schools in which from one-third to one-half of 
each school day is given to shopwork, but such schools are not included 
in figures above given. While it is, of course, true that these figures 
are far from complete, we believe they are fairly representative of present 
practice. In order, as we hope, to stimulate greater interest in this 
question we give below some "honorable mention" lists of cities giving 
what may be regarded as a reasonable amount of time to manual training. 
In a later issue during the present school year we would like to republish 
these lists and add to them any other names that belong in the lists but 
have not been included because of the limited character of our investiga- 
tion. We especially urge our readers in such cities to inform us im- 
mediately of the facts concerning the time allowed for manual training. 
We hope too, that these lists may stimulate discussion and be of assistance 
in causing an increase of time in some places. 


Cities giving 2| or more hours to Manual Training in the Seventh 
Grade : 

Aurora, 111. Joliet, III. Oakland, Calif. 

Beverl\, Mass. Lackawanna, N. Y. Reno, Nevada. 

Dallas, Texas. Lewiston, Idaho. Riverside, Calif. 

Dothan, Ala. Manchester, N. H. Rochester, Minn. 

Douglas, Ariz. Michigan City, Ind. San Jose, Calif. 

East Chicago, Ind. Mountain Home, Idaho. Tahlequah, Okla. 

Gary, Ind. Needles, Calif. Visalia, Calif, 

Imperial, Calif. Newton, Mass. Wellsville, N. Y. 



Cities ^iviiiji 21 or more hours to Manual Training in the Eighth 
Grade : 

Aurora, 111. 
Austin, Texas. 
Beaver Falls, Pa. 
Berkeley, Calif. 
Beverly, Mass. 
Boulder, Colo. 
Brunswick, Me. 
Buffalo, \. Y. 
Cambridge, Md. 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Crookston, Minn. 
Dothan, Ala. 
Douglas, Ariz. 
East Chicago, Ind. 
Faribault, Minn. 

Gary, Ind. 
Hibbing, Minn, 
[ndependence, Kan. 
Ironwood, Mich. 
Joliet, 111. 

Lackawanna, N. Y. 
LaGrange, III. 
Lewiston, Idaho. 
Manchester, N. H. 
McComb, Miss. 
Medford, Ore. 
Michigan City, Ind. 
Montgomery, Ala. 
Mountain Home, Idaho. 
Muskegon, Midi. 

Needles, Calif. 
Newton, Mass. 
North Yakima, Wash. 
Oakland, Calif. 
Parkersburg, W. Va. 
Red Wing, Minn. 
Reno, Nevada. 
Riverside, Calif. 
Rochester, Minn. 
San Antonio, Texas. 
San Jose, Calif. 
Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 
Tahlequah, Okla. 
Visalia, Calif. 
Welisville, N. Y. 

Cities giving 5 or 
Grade or first year of 

Alliance, Neb. 
Aurora, 111. 
Berkeley, Calif. 
Billings, Mont. 
Bluffton, Ind. 
Boise, Idaho. 
Boulder, Colo. 
Butte, Mont. 
Cattanooga, Tenn. 
Chicago, III. 
Chicopee, Mass. 
Concord, N. H. 
Co\'ington, Ky. 
Crookston, Minn. 
Dallas, Texas. 

more hours to Manual 
the High School. 

Decatur, III. 
Denver, Colo. 
Des Moines, la. 
Detroit, Mich. 
Douglas, Ariz. 
Faribault, Minn. 
Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Grafton, N. D. 
Grand Forks, N. D. 
Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Grants Pass, Ore. 
Green Bay, Wis. 
Helena, Mont. 
Hibbing, Minn. 
Imperial, Calif. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

Training in the Ninth 

Madison, Wis. 
Marquette, Mich. 
Newark, N. J. 
Pasadena, Calif. 
Santa Ana, Calif. 
Santa Barbara, Calif. 
Santa Monica, Calif. 
Sedalia, Mo. 
Sioux Fails, S. D. 
Spring Valley, Minn. 
Streator, 111. 
Syracuse, N. Y. 
Venice, Calif. 
V^isalia, Calif. 
^Vellsville, N. Y. 

Death of With a feeling of personal loss we record the death of 

Miss Miss Wilhelmlna Seegmiller of Indianapolis. In the 

Seegmiller month of May, after an operation for appendicitis, she 
passed on into the more beautiful life. For eighteen years she directed 
and inspired the art instruction in the public schools of Indianapolis, and 


during those same years came to exert a remarkable intiuence over the 
art instruction of the entire nation. Thru her public addresses, magazine 
articles, her books on construction work, and her excellent series of 
books for the use of the school children she won a place of high honor in 
her profession. One who ought to know has said that "in her death the 
country has lost its most inspiring leader among the teachers of beauty". 
It seems cold and unsympathetic to speak of Miss Seegmiller as a 
former president of the Western Drawing and Manual Training Asso- 
ciation, as a woman of rare administrative ability, tho Commissioner 
Kendall has spoken of her as the most remarkable women he ever knew 
in this respect, or as a trustee of the John Herron Art Institute, in which 
capacity she rendered important service to her city, because anyone who 
knew her realized that these were not the big things of her life — in fact, 
were mere incidents. Her life was in her desire to help others, and 
especially the children, to see and feel the beauty in art, in literature 
and in life. Her passion was to transmit the love for the beautiful, and 
in that her life was eminently successful. Her poems — especially "Little 
Rhymes for Little Readers" have been compared with Robert Louis 
Stevenson's "Child's Garden of Verses". Her drawing books have set a 
new standard in art instruction — a standard which says, "Nothing is 
too good for the child". Her life among the teachers of Indianapolis 
because of its gentleness, patience, fidelity to the highest ideals, has been 
and will continue to be an inspiration. Otto Stark, artist, and head 
of the art work in the Indianapolis Manual Training High School in a 
fine tribute shortly after her death said, 

"A teacher in the truest sense of the word, endowed to an unusual degree 
with executive and administrative ability, with noble purposes directing her 
great creative powers, she revolutionized the whole tendency of art education 
in the public schools. Full of initiative, endowed with wisdom and foresight, 
she was ever striving forward. Untiring in her devotion to her work, for which 
she had a passionate love, she inspired love and devotion toward it in those 
whose work she directed. With a tact which grew naturally out of her love for 
humanity she gave herself without reserve to those who needed help, encourage- 
ment and sympathy. 

"Such was the friend who for twenty years spent herself for the good of this 
community and has been a leader amongst us, and these are the qualities which 
endeared her so greatly to the children and teachers of our public schools and 
to her manv friends at home and abroad." 


One cla\ during summer school at Bradley Institute a 
A Message younsj; woman student from Texas who had just been 
from William reading "All the Children of All the People" came to the 
Hawley Smith • i u • • ur^ » axth- u i 

omce with the mquiry, Can t we get William Hawley 

Smith to give us a lecture? I have just learned that he lives in Peoria. 
I want to see him, now that I have read his book." 

It was explained to the young woman that Mr, Smith's health 
might not permit him to give us a lecture, but that we might ask per- 
mission for the members of the school to call on him at his home some 
evening. The pilgrimage was arranged and proved to be the most 
delightful event of the summer. Air. Smith took us into his friendly 
circle at once and told us many personal experiences and stories in his 
delightful and inimitable way. It was a never-to-be-forgotten evening. 
The next day we received the following from Mr. Smith, and gladly 
give it to our readers, wishing, however, that all might have been present 
on that summer evening. 



They have been holding a summer school up at Bradley Institute this last 
few weeks, teaching teachers how to teach various and sundry manual arts. 
Some of them had read one or more of my books and when they happened to 
find out that I lived within a stone's throw of where they were attending school, 
the whole lot of them took a notion that they would like to come out and see 
what I looked like, where I lived, what sort of a home and a wife I had, and 
what manner of man I really was like, anyhow, when seen with the naked eye. 
So one of the number telephoned out, one afternoon, told me what they felt like 
doing, would like to do, and asked if I was willing they should do as they 
wanted to. And, dear gentle reader, if you want to know what my answer was, 
just imagine yourself in my place, and then think what you would say, under 
like circumstances. You see we are all much alike, in the great essentials of 
life, no matter, much, who we are, whether we liave written books, or have read 
what is in them. So, of course, I told them to come, as many as wanted to; 
and they came, to the number of well nigh an even hundred. And that's that 
part of this story. 

Now wife and I live on a little farm of six acres, just out of the city limits of 
Peoria, 111. These teachers got out to our place just at dusk, and so had a chance 
to see the farm, in a sort of over-looking way, before it got real dark; and 
then we went up to the house and sat down under our old haw tree which 
stands just in front of our front door and spreads its wide branches over a 
circle that is seventy feet in diameter. And there we all sat and talked together 


in the dim light that streamed out through the parlor windows, and cast a 
soft halo over the whole bunch. We had a fine visit together for an hour or so, 
during which time we all found out several things about ourselves and others 
that we had not known before, and then something unusual, and quite unlocked 

My wife (and this thing that I am telling about came to pass on the 
anniversary of our forty-third wedding day) always likes to look out for the 
stomachs of our guests as well as their heads and hearts. Now it so fell out 
that we had an Early Harvest apple-tree, down in the orchard, which was 
loaded with ripe apples, in their very prime. And what did wife do, when she 
found these people were coming out, but go and shake that tree, and bring down 
a bushel or more of the ripest, biggest and best that the tree bore (the ripest, 
biggest and best will always come down when a tree is shaken, while the green 
and unfit stay where they are till they are wrenched from their fastenings; and 
it is a good deal so in life), pick them up with the bloom still on them, and put 
them where she could easily get them when the time came for their appearing. 
That time came when we had been sitting under the haw tree and had visted 
about as much as we cared to for that time, and wife and our maid came down 
on us, bearing the apples in a big basket which was about all they could lift. We 
made a ring around the basket, and for the next half hour we ate apples, talking 
as we ate. It was great fun. 

Just before our guests left us, I said a little verse for them, one which I 
dreamed some years ago, and one of the party asked if I would say it over again, 
and let him write it out? Of course I was glad to comply with his wish, and 
so I said it over, and he wrote it down. And then I added that it was always a 
pleasure to me to give away what things I had, which would leave me more 
after giving than before. Whereupon one of the guests said: "How about apples?" 

Now I had no answer pat for this remark at the moment; but after they 
were all gone it came to me what I should have said. And because I couldn't 
say it then, I'm taking this way of saying it now, as follows: What I should 
have said was, "It is the same way with the apples as with the verse. By wife's 
giving them, and your taking them, they have been multiplied many fold; and, 
far more than that, they have been transformed from mere apples to a spiritual 
reality for all parties concerned ! A few minutes ago they were mere bits of 
materiality, now they are immortal ! They are now pleasant memories which 
will never fade out, bright spots in all our heavens of good fellowship. Indeed, 
I wonder if it would be sacrilege to saj' that they were the bread and wine of the 
sacramental feast we all had under the haw tree, and that they were really tran- 
substantiated into the veritable body of spiritual reality, as we ate them together." 
That is what I should have said, and what I would have said, if ray wits had 
worked as promptly as they should have done in view of the opportunity that 
teacher's question gave them. But second thoughts are also sometimes of value, if 
we can utilize them, and I'm doing my best to use what came to me after our 
guests had gone home and gone to bed. In fact, the thoughts I have set down 
came to me after I went to bed and before I went to sleep that night. I wonder 
if it isn't true that some of the best things that ever come to any of us drop in 


on us when we are snugly in bed, are at peace with all the world, and in that 
blissful state between waking and sleeping. I wonder! 

And, once started on this line of thinking, before I went to sleep some other 
things came to me, as follows: It came to me that it is the real business of life 
to change the material things of this world into spiritual realities, ever and 
always, and that if we fail to do that, we are not living up to our opportunities, 
bv a long ways. If I had sold those apples merely, in the ordinary way of 
barter and sale, they might never have been anything more to me than a bit 
of bright metal that would wear a hole in my pocket If I carried it long enough. 
Of course, I might have changed that bit of metal for something that would 
help to build a larger life for me, for all substance must possess the quality of 
being transformed into something higher; but unless I used it in some such way, 
the outcome of the apples would be only of the earth earthy. And the same 
principle holds good, in all the affairs of life. 

Thus, I went on thinking, if those teachers who have been to the Summer 
School, and have there learned how to hammer brass and iron, and fashion wood, 
hay and stubble, and how to teach others to do what they have learned to do — 
if they merely teach the children how to hammer brass and iron, and to fashion 
wood, hay and stubble, their work will never amount to much, for themselves 
or any one else. But, if they can, (and I believe they will, and that the apples 
will help tliem to it — these, secondarily, and the teaching they got primarily, for 
I know tiie teachers the\ worked with, and that they are genuine transformers of 
the stuff and the people they work with), I say, if these teachers who sat under 
the haw tree will teach their pupils so that the hammering of brass and iron, 
and the fashioning of wood, hay and stubble shall be to them a joy unspeakable 
and full of glory, then their lives will be worth living, and they won't have to 
wait till they die before they know what heaven is like. And what is true of 
tliese teachers is true of all teachers, and of all teaching. 

These are the things I thought, and then I went to sleep, all the better for 
their thinking. And when I woke up in the morning these thoughts were still 
with me, and I wanted to pass them around, even as wife passed the apples 
around, so that they, too, might become more and more ; so I wrote them out, 
and here they are for you whose eyes rest on this page. Help yourselves, and 
may God add to the increase ! 

In view of the fact that an increasing number of manual training 
teachers are willing to pay five per cent of their first year's salary and 
moving expenses to a distant city in order to increase their salary one 
or two hundred dollars, the following by John Burroughs may be a 
suggestion to someone: 

"The lesson which life repeats and constantly enforces Is 'Look under foot.' 
You are always nearer the divine and the true sources of your power than you 
think. The lure of the distant and the difficult is deceptive. The great oppor- 
tunity is where you are. Do not despise your own place and hour. Every place 
is under the stars, every place is the centre of the world." 



The twentieth annual convention occurred in Des Moines, Iowa, May 7th to 
10th, 1913, and a very successful meeting is reported. The immense coliseum 
provided an ideal place for the display of exhibits and the space was well filled 
in both educational and commercial departments. The program consisted of 
six general sessions, and the annual business meeting, besides round table discus-' 
sions devoted to art, manual training, household arts, and vocational education. 

Since it is expected that the annual volume of proceedings will be issued 
before this appears in print a full report of the convention is omitted at this 

Urgent invitations for the next meeting were received from Nashville, Tenn., 
Grand Rapids, Mich., and Milwaukee, Wis., the Association finally voting to go 
to the last named cit%' in 1914. 

The following officers were elected for the new year: President, R. W. 
Selvidge, Peabody College for the Training of Teachers, Nashville, Tenn. ; 
Vice-President, Regina Teigen, public schools, Sioux Falls, South Dakota; 
Secretarv, Wilson H. Henderson, public schools, Hammond, Ind. ; Treasurer, 
L. R. Abbott, public schools. Grand Rapids, Mich.; Auditor, R. C. Woolman, 
public schools, Des Moines, Iowa. 


The third regular meeting of the year was held on Friday evening, March 
14th, 1913, with a dinner at 6:30 followed by a program of two excellent 
addresses. The first was on "Side-Lights on the Zeitgeist in Germany," by Dr. 
James P. Haney, recently returned from several weeks of study abroad ; and the 
second was on "The Craftsman and the Municipality," by William Laurel 
Harris, president of the Munical Art Society of New York. 

The last meeting of the year was held on May 9th. After the dinner the 
following program was presented: "Wood as a Medium of Artistic Expression," 
by Professor William Noyes, Teachers College, the discussion being led by 
William F. Vroom; "Interior Decoration from Various Angles," illustrated by 
lantern slides, by Raymond P. Ensign, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn. 

Professor Noyes illustrated his address by the use of a number of enlarged 
photographs which had been prepared for use in the Teachers College exhibit 
at the convention of the Eastern Art and Manual Training Teachers" Association. 
The very simple expedient of making 14"xl9" or larger bromide enlargements 
from 5"x7" negatives of single pieces of furniture or other projects furnishes 
unique and unusually attractive exhibit material. The following is a skeleton 
outline of the discussion : 

1. Woodworking is subject to the same principles of design that underlie 
all the space arts. 



2. Familiarity with the principles gained by: (a) knowledge of the work 
of past masters of the art; (b) repeated application in constructive work. 

3. The necessity for artistic guidance. 

4. Possibilities and limitations of woodworking: (a) The thing made 
should be worth while; (b) Appropriateness to material; (c) Structural sound- 
ness; (d) Convenience in use; (e) Beautification. 

5. Form considerations in creating beautiful things: (a) Mass, the ap- 
pearance of the object as a whole; (b) Line, the character of boundaries, as 
well as notes of light and dark; (c) Color, harmony with surroundings; (d) 
Finish, emphasis of the quality of wood as wood. 

6. Harmony of all these elements. 

7. Logical method of procedure in designing simple wooden structures: 

(a) The fixing of the essentials: (1) The approximate or definite size; (2) 
The kind of wood to be used; (3) The construction, including: kind of joint or 
joints; methods of opening and shutting or locking; appliances for lifting or 
moving or hanging. 

(b) The refining of proportions: (1) Of the mass as a whole; (2) Of 
each part to the whole; (3) of each part to each other part; (4) Of each line 
within itself, if it curves or is a broken line, or is turned on a lathe. 

(c) Decoration. This relates to the treatment on the surface: (1) Carving, 
border or surface (all-over) patterns in gouged lines or modeled; (2) Panels, 
carved in or constructed in; (3) Inlay or veneer; (4) Designing of accessories, 
handles, knobs, keys, plates, escutcheons. 

(d) Finish: Stain, paint, oil, wax, shellac, varnish. 

At the business session the following officers were elected for the year 1913-14: 
President, Fred P. Reagle, State Normal School, Montclair, N. J.; Vice-President, 
Morris Greenberg, 1006 Flushing Avenue, Brooklyn; Secretary, Charles W. 
Ledley, 775 St. John's Place, Brooklyn; Treasurer, Ezra Putnoi, 33 Morrell Street, 


The Fifty-First Annual Convention of the National Education Association 
was held at Salt Lake City, Utah, July 5th to 12th, 1913. The Department of 
Manual Training and Art Education held three sessions at which strong pro- 
grams were presented, besides three sessions held jointly with other departments. 

On Monday morning the program included: "Bringing the Vocational Work 
of the Public Schools Closer to Business Interests," by E. E. Scribner, superin- 
tendent of schools, Ishpeming, Mich.; "Diagnosing a Community's Needs as a 
Basis for Vocational Schools," by H. B. Wilson, superintendent of schools, 
Decatur, 111.; "Report of Committee on College Entrance Requirements," by A. L. 
Williston, chairman, director, Wentworth Institute, Boston, Mass. 

On Wednesday morning, in addition to the annual address by the president 
of the Department, A. L Williston, two papers were read and discussed: 
"The Continuation School in Public Education," by Carrol! G. Pearse, superin- 
tendent of schools, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; "Manual Work in Rural and Village 
Schools," by Professor E. P. Cubberlej', Stanford University, Calif. 


At the Wednesday afternoon session J. L. Fairbanks, a sculptor and painter 
of Salt Lake Cir\', presided, the program dealing with the fine arts: "Art and 
American Life," by Professor R. B. Harshe, Stanford University; "The Schools 
as Art Centers," by T. A. Mott, superintendent of schools, Richmond, Indiana ; 
"The Relation Between the Home and Art Instruction in the Elementary Schools," 
by Miss May Gearhardt, Los Angeles, Calif. 

On Thursday afternoon a joint session with the Departments of Secondary 
Education and Science Instruction was held, with Supt. J. G. Collicott, Indian- 
apolis, presiding. The following papers were presented: "What Do The 
Industries Require?," by L. D. Anderson, superintendent, U. S. Milling, Mining, 
and Refining Co., Midvale, Utah ; "What the Schools Can Do to Meet the 
Demands of Both Industry and General Science," by E. O. Holland, superintend- 
ent of schools, Louisville, Ky. ; "How Far Should Both Academic and Manual 
Arts Courses in the High Schools be Bent to Meet the Needs of Specific Voca- 
tions?," by W. B. Owen, principal, Chicago Teachers College. 

The joint session with the American Home Economics Association was held 
on Friday afternoon, and considered the following topics: "Life, Too Is An Art," 
by Caroline Bartlett Crane, social and sanitar\' expert, Kalamazoo, Mich.; 
"Some Ideals in Household Economics Teaching," by Alba Bales, State Normal 
School, Lewiston, Idaho; "The Contribution of Industrial Education of Girls 
Toward Efficiency and a Fair Minimum Wage," by Irene E. McDermott, 
director of household arts, public schools, Pittsburgh. 


One of the most successful meetings of the Connecticut Manual Arts Teachers' 
Association was held at New Britain on Saturday, April 26th, 1913. The local 
committee took great pains in arranging for the entertainment of the visitors, 
one of the features being a luncheon served at the New Britain Club. 

The speakers in the Art Section were Mrs. Mannier and Miss Buxton, of 
Hartford, Miss Bennett of Middletown, and Miss Douglas of New London. 
The speakers in the Shop Section were William L. Hagen, New Britain, Lincoln 
W. Barnes, New Haven, F. J. Trinder, New Britain, William W. Leonard, 
Hartford, Osmer G. Beardley, Waterbury, and F. L. Glynn, Bridgeport. 

It was the good fortune of the Association to secure Raymond P. Ensign^ of 
Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, to give the principal address of the day, on "The 
Relation of the Teaching of Design to Home Decoration," illustrated. 

In the large hall where the afternoon session was held there was installed 
an exhibit of about 900 drawings and 200 pieces of handwork of all kinds. In 
other parts of the building were hung exhibits from the New Britain Normal 
School and from the Traveling Exhibit which the Association has gathered 
together and sent about the state. As the city was holding a "Child Welfare 
Exhibit" at the time the members of the Association were afforded an excellent 
opportunity- to study what is being done for the children of Connecticut. 

The following officers were elected for the coming year: President, William 
L. Hagen. New Britain; Vice-President, Miss Emma R. Wright, New Haven; 
Secretary-Treasurer, J. Winthrop Andrews, New Britain. To serve on the 


Executive Committee: Miss Isabelle Mackay, Danbury; Miss Mary Bennett, 
Middietown; F. H. Hitclicock, New London; and A. H. Wentworth, New Haven. 

J. WiNTHROP Andrews, Secretarv-, 

New Britain, Conn. 


On April 29tli, 1913, the Ba}' Associations of Fine Arts and Drawing, Home 
Economics, Manual Arts, and Agriculture, met in San Francsico, for the purpose 
of considering the advisability of uniting forces in some form of joint organiza- 

The deliberations resulted in a new organization under the title of the 
California Association of Applied Arts and Sciences. The following officers 
were elected: President, Miss Edith M. Bushnell, San Francisco; Vice-President, 
Miss Matie Pearl Clark, Oakland; Secretary, F. H. Beckmann, Mill \'alley; 
Treasurer, \V. G. Hummel, Berkeley. 

According to the plans adopted the Association will hold three meetings 
each vear, one at the time of the meeting of the Bay Section of the State 
Teachers' Association, one the third Saturday in March, and one the third 
Saturdav in October. These dates are the same as those set for the meetings 
of the Bav Section of the California Association of Manual Arts. 

F. H. Beckm.\nn, Secretary. 

Mill Valley, Calif. 


The Industrial Arts Section of the Texas State Teachers' Association is 
made up of three "Divisions," as follows: Agricultural Division, leader, W. F. 
Barnett, superintendent of schools. Van Alst\ne ; Home Economics Division, 
leader, Miss Mary Gearing, Austin; Manual Arts Division, leader, E. M. 
Wjatt, Houston. 

The principal paper at the general session of the Industrial Arts Section, 
at the recent Thirty-fourth Annual Convention of the Association, was read by 
J. E. Pearce, of the Austin High School, on the topic, "The Industrial Arts in 
Public Education." 

Thru an oversight in assembling the material in the report of the Boston 
Manual Training Club in the June number due credit was not given for certain 
parts of the paper read by Ludwig Frank. Certain of the principles therein 
enumerated were taken from "Practical Arts," a Bulletin issued by the Fitch- 
burg, Mass., State Normal School, and acknowledgement was made at the time 
but omitted from the manuscript when submitted to the Editor. This explanation 
is made at the request of Mr. Frank. 

— Editor. 


George A. Seatox Editor. 


The photograph gives an excellent idea of what might be termed a writing 
table, which was made by E. F. Kranquist, of the Northeastern State Normal 


School, Tahlequah, Oklahoma. Special interest has been added by the well- 
applied brass trimmings. The pockets which are shown on either side of the 
central drawer are 8" deep. 






Even e r 

AT Arte rivo 


Roller Block roR Heavy Sleigh 


2b __Tr^ 



1 ^ 

. _J. I 









Two problems of particular interest to rural schools will be found in the 
drawings contributed to this department by A. D. Bailey, of Bemidji, Minnesota. 
Both the evener and the white oak roller block for a heavy sleigh proved of very 
practical value to the students taking the so-called "Short Course" in the public 
schools under Mr. Bailey's supervision. 

The dinner gong designed by W. E. Hackett, of the Boys' High School, 
Reading, Pennsylvania, will prove a very attractive piece of work. It affords 
work in varied lines, bench-work, wood-turning, and light metalwork ; yet it 
will be easy to complete it successfully. In cutting the tubing, care should be 
taken to have the pieces a trifle over length, in which case they may be tuned by 



Dinner Gong 

.' u 


t c\> 




rti i rti 

) L 






C D 

J- i 


J ! 


/ y . 





XI >i<0 I 

















The rather conventional type of hanging book shelves is presented in the 
working drawings, the point of main interest being the exceedingly happy outline 
that has been achieved for the end pieces. The design is by W. E. Hackett, 
supervisor of manual training in Reading, Pennsylvania. 


The hat and shoe pedestals which were submitted by D. K. Hiett, of East 
Orange, New Jersey, are projects which may have a special appeal to boys whose 
fathers run a retail store. Two of Mr. Hiett's boys made four dozen of these 
pedestals for use in the display window of their father's shoe store. 


A variation from the customary ink stand and pen holder is shown in this 
number, where an envelope holder has been added to the combination. The 
front panel of this envelope holder may be shaped and decorated to suit the 
taste of the individual. If a wood with as little grain as basswood is used, a 
design in color might be placed upon the panel. In working out similar parts, 
the suggestion is made that they be held together by brads while they are being 
shaped, to insure their being alike. This problem has been undertaken with 
interest by the boys working under A. J. Miller, of Pittsburgh. 




The new building for the manual arts work of the high school at Rock 
Island, Illinois, sets a new standard for such structures. In several respects this 
building is worthy of study, but perhaps especially on account of its lighting. 
As will be seen from the floor plans and the perspecti\'e view herewith, the 


largest possible space is given to windows, and when it is known that most of 
the glass in these windows is of the "prism" variety, the exceptional quality of 
the lighting can be understood. For evening work the artificial lighting is al- 
most equally perfect. 

The building is 112x112 ft., and three stories high. There are no basement 
rooms, except where the heating plant is located. Between the ceiling of the 
boiler room and the ceiling level of the first floor there is a space about seven 
feet high which is used for lumber storage. This entire space is 35x45 ft. A part 
of this is partitioned off and made into a dry kiln. The details of this we hope 
to give in a later issue. 

It will be noticed that the woodworking machinery room where stock is 
cut up for the classes is directly over the lumber storage space just mentioned. 
This makes it possible to pass all lumber up thru a trap-door. The mezzanine 
story for storing finished work or lumber is another economical feature of the 
building. The finishing room at the end of the hall is heated bv steam instead 
of an air blast to lessen the amount of dust entering the room. 

Another feature of the building is the cupola room built outside tne main 
walls of the foundry. 











E'uz3 ni'^'''"''''"n n 



- J 




A. G. Hill, supervisor of manual arts, to Avhom we are indebted for the 
drawings here reproduced, deserves much of the credit for the design of this 
building and the arrangement of its equipment. The building was dedicated 
on the 28th of May. 

"■-■:?s> r:.coy? °'_aa' 



Below are the questions used recenth* in a written examination for special 
uniform certificate to teach manual training in the state of Iowa: — 


1. What are the important arguments for teaching manual training in the 
lower grades? 

2. What are the important arguments for teaching manual training in the 
high school ? 

3. How can manual training in the school be related to the local industrial 

4. How can manual training be related to other school subjects? Give 
some definite examples. 

5. How could you present a lesson in manual training so as to encourage 
real creative thinking on the part of the child? 

6. In grammar grade woodworking, how much emphasis should be placed 
upon skill and technique, and how much upon a knowledge of the work and 
ability- to solve problems in construction? 


7. How could independence in solving problems in construction be developed? 

8. Explain how you would teach a class in grammar grade woodworking 
the making of a book rack consisting of bottom and two ends to be fastened with 

9. Draw plan for rooms for high school woodworking, showing location of 

10. Make outline of course of study in woodwork for seventh and eighth 
grades, assuming that such work begins in the seventh grade. 


1. Define perspective. What is so-called "parallel" perspective? Angular 
perspective ? 

2. Make a drawing of some object in parallel perspective. 

3. Draw plan of simple building and make a freehand drawing of same 
in angular perspective. 

4. Make drawings of cylinder and of a cone in upright and inverted 
positions slightly below level of eye. 

5. Compare the drawings of the fourth question, answering the following 

(a) What relation will axes of these drawings have to long diameters 
of the ends? 

(b) How and where will the boundary lines of the curved surfaces 
meet the curves of the ends? 

(c) Give rules for appearance of circles in their different positions. 

6. Define constructive and decorative design. Illustrate. 

7. What are the sources of ornament for decorative design? 

8. Show how material will influence the character of a design as a design 
for silk and one for wood carving. 

9. Make a design for some object to be constructed from wood. 

10. Apply a suitable decoration to the object constructed in question nine. 


1. In what grades would you teach paper construction? Explain three 
problems in paper construction and tell in which grade you would use each. 

2. In what grades would you teach cardboard construction? Explain three 
problems in this work and tell in what grades they should be given. 

3. In what grades would you teach the making of books? Explain two 
problems in this work and tell where they would be given. 

4. In what grades would you teach basket making? Explain three 
problems and tell where given. 

5. In what grades would 3'ou teach clay work? Explain three problems 
and tell where they should be given. 

6. In what grades would you teach whittling? Explain three problems 
and tell where given. 

7. Explain how some historical story or incident may be illustrated by means 
of construction work in the primary grades. 


8. In what grades would you teach weaving? Explain three problems and 
tell where each should be given. 


1. Give names of six woods used in manual training, state the principal 
characteristics of each and their most important commercial uses. 

2. Describe the structure of wood as found in the common lumber tree and 
explain the properties of wood resulting from these facts of structure. 

3. Describe the process of converting a forest tree into lumber suitable for 
high grade construction work. 

4. What is a quarter-sawed board? A plain-sawed board? Explain fully 
the differences in the properties of these two boards. 

5. Name the parts of a common plane and explain the uses of each part. 

6. Explain clearly and in detail how to grind and sharpen a plane bit. 

7. Explain in detail all the operations involved in joining two boards edge 
to edge with a dowel and glue joint. 

8. Of what are the following materials composed: paste filler, varnish, oil 
stain, water stain, spirit stain, shellac, finishing wax? For what specific purpose 
is each used ? 

9. Explain clearly and in detail the differences between the use, action and 
construction of the ripping and cross-cutting saws. 

10. Make drawings showing typical table construction. Explain how the 
top should be fastened, and give reasons. 


During the week of April 28, 1913, there was held in the 4th Regiment 
Armory, Jersey City, New Jersey, a Municipal Exhibit in which all the depart- 
ments of the city government presented exhibits of their work. In addition to 
the Board of Education, the following departments participated: Public Library, 
Streets and Water, Health, Fire, and Police. Conservative estimates placed the 
number of visitors during tlie week at 40,000. 

The accompanying photograph shows the section devoted to the Board of 
Education. The work in manual training from the elementary schools appears 
in the foreground, while in the center may be seen the exhibit of the Technical 
and Industrial Department of the William L. Dickinson High School. 

This high school, a successful example of the "cosmopolitan" t>pe, is making 
a conscious effort to meet the educational needs of "all the children of all the 
people"' of Jersey City. Courses offering preparation for college or technological 
institutions, for commercial or industrial life, are all given under the one roof, 
and all are of equal importance in the recognition given them toward securing 
the diploma of the high school. 

The Technical and Industrial Department was organized in January, 1912, 
with Frank E. Mathewson at its head. Two types of course of study have been 
outlined, of four years' and two years' duration. In the four-years' courses for 
boys the plan is to lay a foundation of general mechanical intelligence during 
the first two vears, giving eighteen periods of work each week to the industrial 






subjects, shopwork and mechanical drawing, and thirteen periods to the academic 
subjects, English, mathematics, and science. The industrial work for the first 
term consists of eight periods of woodwork, four of forging, and six of mechanical 
drawing. In the second term six periods are given to more advanced woodwork, 
six to machine-shop practice, and six to mechanical drawing. In the second 
year the industrial work consists of six periods of pattern-making, six of foundry 
practice, and six of drawing. The mechanical drawing thruout is closelv co- 
ordinated with the shopwork. 

For the work of the last two years the student may elect to specialize in 
some one line and spend the greater part of his time in learning as much as can 
be given to him in a school of any one of the various trades which the school 
is prepared to offer: machine-shop practice, carpentry, cabinet-making, pattern- 
making, electrical construction, printing, architectural drafting, mechanical draft- 
ing. During the last two years he must continue to take a certain amount of 
academic work, depending largely on the kind of special work he has elected. 

The four-year courses for girls closely parallel those of the boys in the 
matter of the relative time devoted to shopwork, drawing, and academic work. 
The shopwork is given in six periods each of domestic science, domestic art, and 
applied design, thruout the two years. At the end of the second year the girl 
may, if she desires, specialize in her work, devoting the greater part of her 
school time to either dressmaking, millinery, applied design, costume design, or 
a domestic science course. 

On the first of February, 1913, the Board of Education admitted to the 
high school a group of pupils from the eighth grade, boys and girls of fourteen 
or thereabouts, who would otherwise have gone to work because of their in- 
abilit\- to complete a four-years' course in the high school. Courses were out- 
lined for these boys and girls in both industrial and commercial subjects which 
would enable them to commence immediately to do some special kind of work, 
demanding a certain preparation for a skilled trade, and thus fit them in the 
shortest possible time to enter the industries, not as children who would be 
obliged to remain at the low wage of unskilled labor, but as children furnished 
with an experience in some skilled trade in which there can and will be future 
advancement. The courses are planned to cover two years, approximately the 
period of fourteen to sixteen years of age, and training is offered to both boys and 
girls in anv one of the occupations which the school is prepared to teach. 

The seventh Annual Convention of the National Society for the Promotion 
of Industrial Education will be held in the cit^- of Grand Rapids, October 19-25 
inclusive. This convention bids fair to be the greatest yet held by the Society 
in point of attendance, the importance of the questions to be discussed, the 
interest in the work of the Society and the cause which it represents, and the 
cooperation of other great national organizations of every kind. 

The convention will open on Sunday, October 19th, with a series of meet- 
ings in the churches of Grand Rapids, which will be addressed by persons 
having special interest in and knowledge of the problems for the practical train- 


ing of workers. There will he a series of meetings during the week culminating 
in the regular program of the Society. 

The annual entertainment night will occur on the evening the 23d, followed 
by a two days' session, a portion of which will consist of a joint meeting between 
the National Society and the Chamber of Commerce of the United States. Such 
important personages as President Redfield of the Society, who is Secretary of 
Commerce, Governor Ferris of Michigan, Harry A. Wheeler, President of the 
Chamber of Commerce of the United States, President Van Hise of the University 
of Wisconsin and Dr. John Dewey will appear on the program. 

The National Committee on \'ocational Guidance will hold its annual meet- 
ing at the same time and place as the meetings of the National Society for the 
Promotion of Industrial Education. The meetings are so arranged as either to 
join or not to interfere. It is planned to bring about at this session of the 
Committee a permanent organization to be known as "The National Vocational 
Guidance Association." 

This 1913 meeting should prove of unusual interest on this account, and 
because each year sees the development of new plans in this field and the 
further maturing of tried plans. Each succeeding meeting finds those present 
better able to speak from experience. 

Cheshire L. Boone, formerly supervisor of manual arts in Montclair, New 
Jersey, has become business manager of the American Federation of Arts, in 
Washington, D. C. The business end of the Federation will be entirely reorgan- 
ized making further expansion possible and placing the resources of the Society 
more completely at the service of its members and patrons. 

Art and Progress, the magazine of the Federation, will be gradually increased 
in size, and scope. It will be enriched with study material, discussions of civic 
art, articles on the management of small museums, and much related art 
material, now more or less scattered about and difficult of access. The manage- 
ment hopes to see the magazine made the official organ of study clubs and art 

The Federation also plans to increase the value of its exhibition service. 
Last year over a quarter of a million dollars' worth of paintings and art objects 
were circulated. In time it should be possible that practically any town may 
have any sort of an exhibition it may wish. Of course the more support the 
movement secures and the more closely exhibits can be routed, the less expensive 
the exhibitions will prove for the individual towns. With its increased facilities 
and its practical ideals the Federation bids fair to take a high place among 
those forces which aim to elevate and improve American art. 

Considerable interesting information is now available regarding plans for 
the educational features of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. James A. 
Barr, who is Chief of the Department of Education for the Exposition and Head 
of the Bureau of Conventions and Societies, has already secured 151 congresses 
and conventions to meet in or near San Francisco during the Exposition. Twenty- 


five foreign nations and thirty-five states have signified their intention of partici- 
pating in the Exposition. 

As now planned July, 1915. will be set aside as "Educational Month," 
during which a large number of educational organizations will meet, and con- 
ventions and exhibits will all be so correlated as to give attending teachers the 
widest opportunities possible to benefit from the various activities of the month. 

The Palace of Education, in which educational exhibits will be housed, is 
in process of erection and will be ready by December, 1913. The exhibits will 
seek to show progress since the St. Louis Exposition in 1904. They will, by 
specializing on promising movements and reforms, attempt to forecast the educa- 
tion of tomorrow. There will be a comparative exhibit of all nations participat- 
ing, and a comprehensive demonstration of educational work in the United 
States in all its phases from the kindergarten to the university. 

The central thought in all exhibits should be a demonstration of the value 
of the course of study in the preparation of the students for life. In general the 
exhibits will consist of printed and written matter, maps, charts, apparatus, speci- 
mens, photographs and equipment, but best of all real children carrying on real 
school work under expert supervision. Such lines as manual training, cooking, 
sewing, laboratory work and physical culture readily lend themselves to class 
demonstration, and arrangements will be made for classes, in turn, to come from 
any cit>', school, or institution to San Francisco during the Exposition period and 
demonstrate the value of special lines of work. 

The classification of proposed exhibits provides for "Vocational education 
toward specific training and occupation," ".Agricultural education in the ele- 
mentary and secondary schools," and "Boys' and Girls' Agricultural Clubs" — 
features of educational work which have not previously been recognized by any 
exposition. All in all the exhibits will emphasize the distinctive features of 
present educational progress. 

Full information regarding plans and space may be secured by writing to 
Mr. Barr, of the Exposition Building, San Francisco. 

Fall River, Massachusetts, has a new technical high school. The building 
is four stories in height and is finished outside in gray brick with granite and 
limestone trim. It contains fort>'-two rooms, most of the shops being located on 
the first and second floors. The school will offer four main courses: a technical 
course for boys, a technical course for girls, a clerical course and business course. 
The work of the first two years will be so planned that pupils who are obliged 
to may leave at the end of this time with a well rounded course accomplished. 

The technical course for boys combines academic instruction with shopwork, 
the latter increasing in amount with the third year, and with opportunitj^ for 
specialization in the fourth year, in woodworking, metalworking, electricity, 
architectural drafting or mechanical drafting. The business course for boys 
differs from the clerical course in that it aims to prepare the boys for the more 
responsible positions in the business world. The subjects given will include 
business organization, commercial design, advertising, salesmanship, and economics. 
Special lectures by business men will be a feature of this course. 


The technical course for girls aims to meet the needs of four classes of girls: 
first, those who expect to become wage earners but have four years to give in 
preparation so that they may enter a skilled occupation, such as dressmaking, 
millinery, or designing; second, those who wish to combine a high school 
education with a study of household arts and science; third, those who have 
done creditable work in drawing and wish to become skilled in the arts and 
crafts; fourth, those who have no definite occupation in mind but who will be 
better prepared for home life by sudying the household arts and sciences. 

The clerical course aims to prepare boys and girls for positions as clerks, 
bookkeepers, stenographers and secretaries. 

William H. Dooley, of the Lowell Trade School, is the principal. 

Several interesting modifications have been made in the mechanic arts course 
in the Decatur, Illinois, high school. The work has been so arranged that special 
students may come and go without interfering with the regular students. Another 
change is the concentration of more work in the first two years of the course, 
so that those who are obliged to leave high school early will have had the 
greatest possible amount of varied work in the time available. Students who 
expect to finish the high school or to go on to college will also by this change 
be better able to decide on a subject for specialization. Forge work, joinery and 
mechanical drawing will be olfered the first semester. All studies in this first sem- 
ester are required and include two hours a week of shop arithmetic, three of free 
hand drawing, five of mechanical drawing, six of woodwork, four of forging, five 
of algebra and five of English. The shop arithmetic is a new course, in which 
the problems are strictly business problems and deal with the work in hand. 
The course in freehand drawing is also new, being designed to teach the 
students how to make sketches of machine parts or problems in building and 
cabinet making. The ability to make such sketches and perspectives clearly and 
readily is regarded as a very essential qualification of a successful mechanic. 

The course of study will soon include machine shop practice and foundry 
work, the equipment for which will be installed in February. Altogether this 
department in the Decatur high school seems to be in a state of healthy growth, 
and awake to the needs of all classes of students. 

A novel plan was originated this summer by the boys of the manual training 
department of the Waukesha, Wisconsin, schools. The sixteen boys organized and 
were incorporated as a manufacturing company, rented the manual training shops 
of the Board of Education, and proceeded to make and sell furniture, and art 
craft articles. The superintendent of schools acted as treasurer of the company 
at the boys' request. When the company began work they had already secured 
advanced orders amounting to several hundred dollars. Three of the boys were 
sent out "on the road" as salesmen. 


by H. Williams Smith. 

The outstanding event, since my last notes, is the publication by the Board of 
Education of the report of the Consultative Committee on Practical Work in 
Secondary Schools. It is a bulky book, 9%x6^/4 inches, containing 412 pages, and 
costing Is 9d. It may be safely asserted that every page is of interest, and that 
the report is worth every penny it costs. Up till now, the Board has issued a 
single sheet on Manual Instruction in Secondary Schools at Id, and dear at the 
price; a fourpenny memorandum on the Teaching of Housecraft; and a penny 
leaflet on the Teaching of Needlework; all, together, ha\ing much the same 
effect upon you, as that on the proverbial donkey when you gave him oats. It 
was high time that sometliiiig better was done by the Board of Education and 
now they have done it, and done it well. The quality of the report is not 
superior to that of the report on Manual Instruction in Elementary Schools issued 
a year or two ago, but the quantity of it is much greater, and it distinctly marks 
progress — very rapid and solid progress. It is to be understood that the report 
contains the record of the labors of a Consultative Committee called together 
by the Board of Education, and that the Board has approved and published it. 
There is no compulsion on any school whatever thruout England and Wales to 
carry out the reforms embodied in the report; it is suggestive only; it aims to be, 
not a tyrant, a despot, but a "guide, philospher, and friend." This is quite as 
it should be, and in conformity with English traditions. The Consultative Com- 
mittee was composed largely of educationists, some well known, others wellnigh 
unknown, with a couple of M. P.'s, and tlie Rt. Hon. A. H. Dyke Acland, a 
former Minister of Education, and President of the Educational Handwork 
Association, was chairman. The Committe called before it fifty-two witnesses 
who included Sir R. Baden Powell, the Chief Scout; S. Carrodus, the Board's 
Inspector of Manual Training for London; Prof. J. J. Findlay; J. H. Judd, who 
lectured at Peoria, Illinois, some time back; Drs. McClure, Nunn, and Rouse; and 
J. Vaughan of Glasgow. The Committee sat for a period of about four years, 
and it will take quite four years more to get their suggestions into practice. The 
report contains an excellent analysis which will put the busy man in touch with 
it, pending leisure to read the report in detail. The report proper takes up only 
65 pages; and is followed by syllabuses of work to page 131; by an historical 
sketch of handwork to page 140; and then to the end by evidence of witnesses. 
The report gives plentiful tokens of having been drawn up by an expert hand, 
and in every way reflects credit on its authors. Its effect should be almost 
immediate and very far-reaching. It gives proof that England is moving with 
accelerated speed to a front place in international manual training. Many 
Americans will, no doubt, wish to procure the report, but we regret that they 
will have to wait for another edition, as we learn, at present writing, that the 
first edition is exhausted; an excellent indication this, of public interest in the 



In Eiiglaiul and U'ales during tlie last educational year, 313,026 girls and 
273 liovs recei\'ed instruction in cookery, 130,602 girls in laundering, 32,782 in 
housewifery, 9,129 in combined domestic subjects, and 190 in dairy work; 
in gardening 1,956 girls and 43,523 boys; handicraft 255,248 boys, and light 
woodwork 4,145 boys. The above were drawn from a total of 6,909,764 children. 

The King desires his children to be dexterous, and himself has practised 
several manual occupations, with a preference for woodwork. One of his sons, 
Prince Albert, is never so happy as when using plane and saw. The upbringing 
of the youthful Royal Family is admired by most English folk, and, as far as 
is possible with such abnormally-placed persons, it is on the Hoes of "learning- 

The Times issues an Educational Supplement once a month (it ought to be 
once a week) in whicii manual training comes in for a share of notice. In a 
recent article, a writer contended for construction as opposed to manipulation. 
He would rather see work done with prepared material than have it wrought 
entirely by pupils. 

Here are a few recent utterances: — "Our Primarv Schools train clerks, 
teachers, and casual laborers. The parents, no less than the schoolmaster, are 
infused with the worship of a clerkly education." Mr. W. Welpton, Leeds 

"Bv our educational system we do not want to make our laborers into 
clerks, but to make them better men in the occupation they take up. Unless it 
makes an agricultural laborer a better laborer, an artisan a better artisan, 
in fact, every man a better man in his own occupation, whatever that may be, 
I think our educational system a failure.'' Lord Joicey (a captain of industry). 

"The American boy, both at home and in school, is braced up to realize tliat 
in this world he must fight for what he uants. His school atmosphere is fresh, 
invigorating. He is made to understand that lessons are a training for life. 
I should sav, not 5 per cent of English boys have any glimmer of that." H. A. 
Milton in Tlir Dally Mail. 

"The Board of Education fully recognizes that facilities for hand and eye 
training, originally introduced into our schools by help of the City Guilds, should 
be provided in every elementary school; that workshop training or its equivalent, 
should be made a prominent feature of the instruction ; and that the teaching 
should be disciplinary rather than commercial." Sir. P. Magnus in The Mnrniiii^ 

It is rather liard on Him of Austria that He of Germany is always referred to 
as tlir Kaiser, but strong individuality in monarchs, as in teacliers, will tell. Tlie 
latest phase of the Kaiser's versatility is the setting of 150 soldiers to building 
two Roman forts, with Roman tools, under archeological supervision, so that 
German school boys may the better comprehend their Caesar — and, perhaps 
Kaiser. The teachers are not so pleased as the boys. They are of opinion that 
there is too much method and too little education in such doings. 


Dr. Rurik Holm is now director of the famous Niias school in Sweden, where 
Otto Salomon labored long and fruitful!}-. Dr. Holm is thirtj-six years of age, 
is a graduate from the University of Lund, where for a while he was Docent 
in History, and has since been an inspector of elementary schools in Gothenberg. 

An interesting and practical branch of handwork has lately been introduced 
into school workshops in Brunn, Germany. The pupils learn to pack and wrap 
prettily and suitably for transportation various objects, to weight them, and to 
fill various post or railway forms for home and foreign trade. Examples of 
this kind of exercise were exhibited at the Congress of Handicraft Teaching in 

At the Public School for Chinese in Shanghai, nature work, coloring, pencil 
work, and some handwork in the way of paper and cardboard modeling is 
being done. The school also possesses a band of sixty members, a strong foot- 
bail team, and the beginnings of a school museum. 

The new buildings of the Kimberley (South Africa) Girl's High School 
comprise a needlework room, science-room, and a well equipped cookery-room, 
The Boys' High School has also a good manual workshop. 

In the opinion of the Catholic Headmasters' Association of Ireland, manual 
instruction is not a suitable subject to be placed on the programme of the inter- 
mediate schools. Perhaps, when Ireland gets home rule and occupies the place 
among the nations which it ought to occupy, it will be found that manual training 
is not only wanted in the intermediate schools (whatever they are) but in all 

The Educational Ne^vs of Scotland recently said some pertinent things on the 
desirability of abolishing the "double" centre. There is a growing feeling that 
the awkward arrangement of two teachers instructing one class will soon have 
to be consigned to limbo. The "single" centres and plenty of them seem now 
the desiderata. 

Wiltshire is going to devote each afternoon to practical subjects in ten 
schools, whilst three afternoons a week will be allotted to such work in forty-six 
other schools. In addition it is proposed to introduce into forty-four schools a 
graduated course of manual work based on plastics, to be followed by paper and 
cardboard modeling, and eventually by some more definite forms of manual 
training. Further, gardening is to be taught in twenty-eight schools, and in 
certain selected schools, metal work, leather work, rug and basket making, etc. 
All this work is to be undertaken by the regular staff of the schools and not by 
specialist teachers. It's a big order ! 

Between 1902 and 1908 the number of school gardens in England increased 
from 349 to 1,505, and the number of pupils under instruction from 5,508 to 
24,316. In Leicestershire alone the gardens increased from 2 in 1903 to 52 in 


1912. What can lie conceived more truly educational, when it can be had, 
tlian a school garden? 

Manchester and Salford are emulating London in their Recreative Evening 
Classes. \\'ood and metal working, straw-hat making and basketry, leather- 
embossing and paper-flower making are taught. Not least, of many other subjects, 
the children are taught to dance. 

In Manchester, cookery is taught at 47 centres to 8,089 girls, laundry work 
at 16 centres to 3,585 girls, and housewifery at 10 centres to 572 girls. 

Mrs. Rurgwin, the superintendent of London's special schools, — school for the 
rnentall}- and ph3'sically deficient — claims that the change from whole-time class 
teaching to a system of half-time practical work has been a decided success. 

The Evening Play Centres of London, founded by the novelist, Mrs. Humphry 
Ward, now number 21, with an attendance last session of 1,300,000, and a weekly 
average attendance of about 50,000. This and otlier causes are contributing to 
a dearth of real bad boys in London. We don't want a dearth of bad boys of 
the "Tom Sawyer" type. The authorities used to send 100 boys a year to Welsh 
farms with a view to reforming them; now they can't rake up half that number. 
Further a large industrial school at Feltham has had to be closed on account of 
the famine of bad boys. It is proposed now to give similar advantages to the 
good boys. Dickens pointed out this anomaly fifty years back. 

The visit of forty-seven members of the Columbia Park Boys' Club, San 
Francisco, to London attracted great attention. It was interesting to learn that 
proficiency in handicrafts was an essential recjuirement in the selection of the 
fortunate lads to go on a world tour. 

Queen Alexandra opeiietl the twenty-ninth exhibition of the Home Arts and 
Industries Association which was founded by Charles Godfrey Leland, the 
famous American \vho spent much of his life and did a grand work in England. 
This association seems destined to live long and prosper since high society 
smiles regularly upon it. 

Mrs. Page, wife of the American Ambassador, was present recently at a 
school-garden prize-giving in St. Pancras, London. 


Stories of Useful Inventions. By Dr. S. E. Forman, The Century Co. pub- 
lishers, New York City, 1911. 7':!x5 inches; 248 pages; price 60 cents, net. 

This book ought to find a broad field of usefulness in school and in the 
home. It gives in a clear and simple, yet forceful manner the story of the 
Match, the Stove, the Lamp, the Forge, the Steam-engine, the Plow, the Reaper, 
the Mill, the Loom, the House, the Carriage, the Boat, the Clock, the Book and 
the Message. "From the history of these inventions we learn how man became 
the master of the world of nature around him, how he brought lire and air and 
earth and water under his control and compelled them to do his will and work. 
* * * These stories, therefore, are stories of human progress; they are chapters 
in the history of civilization." As such they are suitable for supplementary 
reading in the regular academic school work and for regular reading matter 
in the vocational schools. The style is such and the illustrations so plentiful 
that very many children will find it interesting home reading. 

It is not possible to give each child experience in every line of industrial 
endeavor in shopwork or other industrial pursuits. It is possible, however, to 
give each boy experience in at least one line of endeavor. Just such readings as 
books such as this contain will assist tiie pupil to "carry over" habits formed 
in one line of industrial activity into another. There is no reason why this 
kind of reading shoidd not be given early in the course, even in the intermediate 
grades. Follow it with readings of industrial subjects differentiated to suit 
individual or group needs and we shall have a correlation of academic and 
industrial activities that is superior to our present type of correlation where this 
informational matter must be obtained by an insufficient experience and at the 
expense of time that ought to be given to more serious practical experience in 
handwork. — Ira S. Griffith. 

Color Balance Illustrated: An Introduction to The Munsell System. By A. 
H. Munsell. Press of the George H. Ellis Co., Boston, 1913. Paper, 51/2x71/2 
inches; 32 pages. 

A color primer or manual, prepared at the request of many teachers, as an 
introduction to the study of color by definite and measured relations. It outlines 
a plan of study for nine school years, with model lessons which have proved 
successful in the schoolroom. It is illustrated by numerous line drawings and 
a color plate, to assist teachers in gaining clear ideas of color groups whose 
quantities and qualities preserve visual balance and are therefore called 

Those who wish to pursue the study further will find frequent references to 
a larger treatment of the subject in "A Color Notation" and "Atlas" by the same 



'I'lif L'sc 1)/ till- P.'/mt in Decorative Design. By Maud Lawrence ami 
Caroline Slielcitm. Scott, Foiesman and Company; 7^2x10 inches; Part I, 78 
pages of text, 23 plates; Part 11, 86 pages of text, 3U plates; teachers' editions 
$1.25 each; pupils' editions, 35 cents each. 

The pupils' edition of these two hooks, one for the grades and one for the 
high school, consists of plates; the teachers' edition includes with the plates, 
much helpful and well organized text material. Opposite each plate is an 
explanatory page. In the teachers' edition the plates are placed together in the 
latter half of the books. A complete table of contents is found in each volume. 

The plates are grouped to show a natural development from the renderir^g 
of a Hower or spray direct from nature, thru the study of details, conventional- 
ization, making a unit, and the decorative design, to the application of ligiit 
and dark and color. The subject matter is equally well arranged and is 
logical and definite. All the important principles of design are presented togethei 
with many lesson outlines, and analyses of design material. 

The real distinction of the books, however, is the quality of the plates. 
TheN are clear, large, and cleanly-printed to begin with; those showing pencil 
rentiering are wonderfully faithful in reproduction of such handling, and show 
brilliant execution on the part of the artist; those done in values are very 
soft and attractive; while the color plates are so harmonious, so subdued yet 
fresh in tone, so altogether charming that it would seem they must satisfy the 
most critical judge. 

The high school hook contains studies in the crafts, wood-block printing, 
embroidery, leather, metal, and jewelry, all commendable in design. It remains 
onlv to add that the exterior of the books is as pleasing and satisfying as the 
contents. — V. E. W. 

Art and Industry in Education. The Arts and Crafts Club, Teachers College, 
Columbia University, 7x9 l-j inches; 103 pages; price 50 cents. 

This is the second number of a publication by the Arts and Crafts Club of 
Teachers College. Like the first it is an artistic piece of magazine-making and 
in subject matter is even more attractive to the general student than the first. 
There are several brief articles which will prove of interest to manual arts 
teachers, notably Cement and Concrete, What's in a Name?, Good Furniture, 
A Problem in Fine and Industrial Arts, and Experimental Work in Industrial 
Arts as a Means of Efficiency. 

The Arts and Crafts Club have performed a real ser\ice in thus bringing 
to teachers in distant places a breath of the atmosphere which permeates a 
great educational laboratory such as Teachers College. 

The Boy Mechanic. Popular Mechanics Co., Chicago; 7^/4x10 inches; 469 
pages ; price $1.50. 

Those who are familiar with the magazine, Popular Mechanics, will find in 
tills bof)k a valuable collection of the brief, descriptive paragraphs characteristic 
of that journal. Seven hundred different things boj-s can make are presented, 
with eight hundred accompanying illustrations. This wealth of material is not 


arranged in any particular order but an index is given at the close. The subject- 
matter includes every imaginable mechanical device, from toys to household 
conveniences, and bits of helpful information are inserted here and there to fill 
out uneven pages. 

The Service of tlie Hand in the School by Woutrina A. Bone, Longmans, 
Green, and Co.; 5x7^2 inches; 212 pages. 

The author of this little handbook, who is a lecturei' on education in the 
L'niversity of Sheffield, England, modestl\- calls it "a little record of school 
practice." The book is more than that; it is a careful study of the psychology of 
handwork, of the motives v^'hich underlie the activities of children, and of the 
related social and historical material. It is in such matters tliat the value of 
English books on manual training is generallv found for Ainerican teachers, 
since, naturally different materials and conditions make the descriptions of 
models and working directions of little use. Manv of the models included in 
English books on manual training ma\- seem trivial but American teachers can 
surely profit from a study of the point of view, and of the thought-content 
of a manual training course, which is well expressed in Miss Bone's book. 

—V. E. W. 

Basic Principles of Domestic Science b\' Lilla Frich, Muncie Normal Institute, 
publishers, Muncie, Indiana; 6^i;x9H inches; 19S pages. 

This is a convenientl\- arranged book which ma\- be placed in the hand'- 
of students of domestic science. Lessons in tlieory are placed opposite ti^e 
lessons in corresponding practice. The practice lessons consist of directions ami 
recipes, illustrated with half-tones. The lessons are arranged by semesters. At 
the close of each section blank pages for note-taking are grouped, and space is 
allowed for tlie insertion of additional note-paper. Many tables and dietary 
studies are included, making the book comprehensive as well ?s practical for 
school-room use. The author is supervisor of domestic science in the Min- 
neapolis public schools. 

Elementary A pplied Chemistry. Bv Lewis B. Allyn, Department of Chem- 
istry, State Normal School, Westfield, Mass. Ginn & Co. 

This volume consists of selected experiments designed to illustrate the iih\si- 
cal and chemical changes involved in manv common occurrences. A rather 
wide range of subjects is treated; for example, experiments in simple filtratioTi 
acids and alkalies, standard solutions, baking powder, inilk and allied products, 
food preservatives and food values, including the Kjeldahl method for nitrogen 
and the extraction method for fats. Because of the large number of more ad- 
vanced experiments, the best results could be obtained from the use of the book 
with students who have had a good year of general chemistry preparation. 

The appearance of the book is very attractive. — George C. Ashman'. 

Tlie Essentials of Physics. By George Anthony Hill. Ginn & Co., Boston, 
1912. 71/2x514 in., pp. 344. 

This is a text-book on elementary physics by a former assistant professor 
of physics at Harvard University. 


Pltinc Geometry. By William Betz and Harrison E. Webb. Ginn & Co., 
HoMon, 1912. yi/ixS in., pp. 332. 

The aim of this book is to effect a compromise between the reformers and 
the ()\ erconservative writers on mathematics. Many construction problems and 
practical applications of geoinetric principles are found in the book. 


Cli'ilJ Labor aiid Poverty. The May number of the Child Labor Bulletin 
published by tlie National Child Labor Committee, 105 East 22d Street, New 
York, N. V. Price $1.00. 

E.xceptional Children in the Public Schools of New Orleans. Report of the 
Committee of the Public School Alliance, March, 1913. Anyone studying excep- 
tional children should procure a copy of this report by Dr. David S. Hill of 
Newcomb College and Joseph \L Gwinn, superintendent of schools New Orleans. 

Souvenir of the Manual Training and Industrial School of New London, 
Connecticut. This consists of twenty-two plates of views of sliops and other 
workrooms, also courses of instruction. 

Manual Training in the Public Schools. By Louis C. Petersen, No. 2, Vol. IV. 
of the Normal School Bulletin published at the Southern Illinois State Normal 
Lniversity, Carbondale, III. 

Isidor Ncivman Manual Training School. Catalog for 1913-14 with 
illustrations showing many of the rooms in this attractive school, also some of 
the finished work in needlework, pottery and woodwork. 

.Y« .-1 ppreciation of the American Home as a Basis of Public School Art 
Bv Ethelwyn Miller and Gertrude Davidson. Series XI, No. 3. Miami Univer- 
sity Bulletin, Oxford, Ohio. 

The School of Industrial Arts, Trenton, Neiv .Jersey. An illustrated catalog 
sliowing strong work in several art crafts. 

Binder Ticine Industry. By the International Harvester Company, Chicago. 
A beautifully printed and illustrated booklet of fort\-eight pages. Articles on 
fibre and binder twine that have appeared in The Harvester JForld. 

Types of Schools for Young Children. A pamphlet issued by The Froebel 
Societv, 4 Bloomshurv Square, London, England. Price, 2d net. Contains an 
address indicating how the problems raised by Madame Montessori are being 
solved in England. 


Manual TRAINING Magazine 



John W. Curtis. 

EDUCATION in its broadest sense begins at the cradle and ends 
at the grave. That part of an education which may be secured 
in our public schools is expected to begin with the kindergarten 
and terminate with liberal university training. In order to provide 
properly for educating the youth of the land our people organized the 
schools with the above ideal in mind. They expected each student to 
adapt himself to the system. Until recently not enough time and 
thought have been given to adapting the schools to the needs of the 
people as a whole. We are now coming to view the problem from a 
different standpoint. We are realizing that the public schools which are 
supported by the people belong to them and that they must be made to 
serve all in the most efficient manner possible. We have known for a 
long time that only a small percentage of those who enter the kinder- 
garten ever finish the university course and that some of those who 
finish are failures so far as the world's work is concerned. We have 
known that thousands of healthy vigorous children leave school before 
they qualify for high school entrance and that many who enter the four 
year high school leave before completing the course. Many who 
graduate from the high school never enter the university; hence the 
result would be discouraging even if all university graduates were 
highly successful as useful citizens. 

Many causes may be contributing to these conditions but one of 
the most convincing to the average American youth is the belief that 
it does not pay to continue in school. In some cases we are convinced 
that it has not paid them to remain in school because the school failed 



to give the opportunity offered elsewhere to prepare for useful service 
in the community where the student lived. 

Since the number of young people who enter the university is so 
small as compared with the great army who go to their life work 
without adequate training, I believe the university has guided the high 
school rather too carefully in preparing candidates for college entrance 
and that the high school, in truly imitative fashion, has based its 
entrance requirements upon the supposition that all grammar school 
students are certain to knock for admission on their way to the uni- 
versity. This arrangement is satisfactory for those who really make 
the complete journey; but it leaves us the problem of providing for 
the ninety and four who seek not this higher education and who need 
in place of it practical education which will qualify them for useful 
remunerative service and efficient citizenship. In order to solve this 
problem our most progressive educators have brought into the school 
some of the activities which thoughtful young people have been seeking 
elsewhere. We are delighted with the progress of the students who 
have developed so satisfactorily under the influence of these new op- 
portunities ; but we know that even greater results would have been 
achieved in many communities if the new subjects had received the 
welcome which they deserved. 

In preparing for greater future progress, we may profit by a study 
of some of the causes which have retarded this work in the past. The 
reader may know from experience that during the latter half of the 
nineteenth century there lived in this country some well meaning 
people who were thinking and teaching in the first half of the eighteenth 
century. We have always had our share of the world's conservatives 
whose devotion to ancient standards, thru their respect for the ideals 
of their educational ancestors, has been the foe of progress, the brother 
of waste, and the friend of inefficiency. 

Educators did not vote unanimously to make manual training an 
active member in the educational fraternity. Even after it has won its 
way and has secured recognition as an important branch in our edu- 
cational system, some of our administrative officers are not burning 
midnight "standard oil" trying to secure a program which makes its 
highest success possible. Some school patrons did not, at first, feel 
the need of a change in our educational program. They seemed to 
think that what was good for Paul and Silas was good enough for 
them and their children whether or not the social life of the world 



had changed any in the centuries since Paul was persecuted for being 
a progressive. Some of our most influential teachers who intended 
being manual training's best friends have really been its worst enemies 
by claiming for it results which it should not be expected to secure. 
Manual training may serve as a splendid tonic for such purposes but it 


should not be recommended as a sure cure for laziness or chronic 
indifference. It encourages neatness, accuracy, and honesty ; but it 
should not be branded as a failure if it does not convert a sloven moral 
wreck into a neat useful citizen. Nothing else demonstrates the 
difference between right and wrong quite so clearly as constructive 
work which enables the child to discover for himself any errors which 
he may make. He learns to test the result of his own work and to 
despise inaccuracy. A lie in wood or iron can be seen. Jacob Riis 
once said, "When I first saw the Viking Ship, dug out in Norway, a 
thing which most impressed me was the marks of a lazy carpenter's 
ax upon the prow of the ship. He had been too lazy to grind his ax 
and the record was there plain to be seen after a thousand years". 
Manual training also aids in developing self-reliance in students and 
causes them to feel that independence which comes from a knowledge 
of the development of one's creative power. 


When the teaching of practical subjects was proposed, some people 
actually believed that the classical languages disciplined the mind 
and developed a culture which could be secured in no other way. I 
find no fault with the ancient lagnuages. We certainly want them 
continued in our curricula for those who need them ; but we have 
learned that other subjects have a very high cultural value and that 
they discipline both mind and body and at the same time give practical 
information. This teaching of practical information has not hurt the 
classics but it has helped the boys and girls whether or not they have 
studied either Latin or Greek. I am glad that patient instructors 
drilled me for a few years in Latin and guided my foot-steps for a 
while in the mysteries of Greek; but I do not wish to encourage all 
others to study those subjects just because I gained benefit from them. 
What others should study depends largely upon what they are pre- 
paring to do as a life work. 


The majority of school people are coming to see that manual train- 
ing properly planned and efficiently administered contributes to the 
success of the curriculum as a whole. As manual training men, it 
is our privilege to prove that this special work vitalizes the regular 
subjects. We should see to it that our constructive work really con- 
tributes to the success of other subjects instead of expecting the other 
subjects revised for the convenience of manual training. 

In the past manual training teachers have, more or less meekly, 
accepted the conditions given them and have usually made the best 
possible use of the time assigned for their subjects. It seems to me that 
the time has come when adequate equipment, suitable rooms, classes 
of reasonable size, and ample time for the work should be secured. 

Encouraging results are being reported from many quarters but 
comparatively few cities are providing properly for promoting this 
important work. Even with the inadequate provision which has existed 
in most places, manual training has enabled many students to acquaint 
themselves with several industries and has qualified them to choose 
more wisely the occupation which they entered as a vocation. In other 
words, they are being guided in their choice of an occupation rather 
than being forced to find it by accident or thru wasteful experience 
with its accompanying tragedies. 


Educational experts contend that our schools should be made still 
more efficient in preparing the \outh of the country for citizenship and 
many are reaching the conclusion that this may be done by devoting 
more time to subjects which prepare students for entering upon some 
remunerative pursuit. It is certainly desirable that "our future citizens 
be better workers and that our future workers be better citizens''. All 
are agreed that every child should become a useful worker and a reli- 
able citizen and many believe that manual training is aiding materially 
in securing this result. It has afforded a means of stimulating the 
dormant creative instinct with which most students are endowed and 
has aided in developing it into creative genius which may be defined 
as the capacity for hard work or to be composed of 2 per cent in- 
spiration and 98 per cent perspiration. Where given a fair op- 
portunity, it has aided in broadening culture and in strengthening 
character. It has enriched our schooling, dignified useful toil, and 
prepared the way for the organization of our modern vocational schools. 
In fact, manual training has emphasized the need of vocational educa- 
tion. It has rendered genuine service to many but has not met their 
needs in a vocational way. It has often given good technical skill but 
in striving for general cultural ends it has ignored, in a large measure, 
the development of speed in the execution of work. The following 
concrete example illustrates my point. A young man who had done 
excellent work in my manual training classes went with me to the 
country during summer vacation to assist in improving a ranch. He 
was a faithful, thoughtful worker but he persisted in employing the 
same accuracy in sawing sheathing for a barn that he had learned in 
cutting joints in making a writing desk and he exercised the same care 
in locating post holes for a wire fence that he had learned in locating 
holes for a game board in the school shop. The result was one of the 
straightest lines of fence ever constructed but the cost was greatly 
increased by the time consumed in unnecessary exactness. The present 
demands of the world are becoming too exacting to approve some of 
the manual training we have been doing. When a young man leaves 
school now the world wants to know what he can do, how well he can 
do it, and how soon he can get it done. Changing conditions make it 
undesirable that a man know how to do only one thing. This means 
that we must teach him to do several things intelligently, some one 
thing well, and that thing with reasonable speed. 





Twelve or fifteen years ago Memphis possessed what many people 
considered an excellent school system. The grammar schools prepared 
the most persistent pupils for the high school and in its turn the high 
school prepared the faithful few for the university. Those w^ho 
graduated from the university were well prepared, so far as schooling 
is concerned, for professional pursuits. In other words, Memphis in- 
vited every youth in the city to become a teacher, a lawyer, a doctor 
or a minister; but she encouraged none to prepare in school for efficient 
service in her hundreds of factories and thousands of offices. 

It seems that the young people in Memphis were no exception to 
average American boys and girls. They did not complain because the 
Greeks and Romans used such dreadful languages. They seemed to 
have believed those ancient people did the best they could in the age 
in which they lived ; but the majority of young Memphians who had 
no thought of a college career simply dropped out of school at twelve 
or fourteen and secured employment where they could qualify for 
efficiency in the local industry which they expected to make their life 
work. Some of our thoughtful citizens saw this was not best for the 
industries and that it was very unsatisfactory for the young people. 

These citizens and the board of education sought means of inducing 
a larger number of students to continue longer in school. After the 
usual prolonged discussion and the uniformly favorable recommendation 
of successive presidents of the board for six or eight years, they intro- 
duced manual training. Of course, the shop was put in a dark 
basement, and the sewing teacher was supplied with rickety folding 
chairs, and permitted to use the gymnasium as a classroom when it was 
not occupied by classes in physical training; but fortunately a reasonably 
satisfactory equipment was supplied for domestic science. The board 
was especially fortunate in securing capable teachers whose efficiency 
compensated, in a large measure, for the lack of adequate equipment. 
The work was highly successful from the first. 

The enrolment in the high school doubled in two years. This 
evidenced the fact that Memphis needed more skilled workers in her 
shops, factories, and homes instead of university graduates some of 
whom were prepared for nothing more than holding down an engineer- 
ing job tending a peanut roaster. I respect the peanut vendor who 
sells honest measures at fair prices provided he is vmprepared to render 


a more useful service to the community ; but I think we agree that a 
man who has received sixteen years of schooling at public expense 
should make a greater return to society than is possible as a street 
vendor. He is not a citizen but a parasite if he make an inadequate 
return to the people for their generosity in providing for his prepara- 
tion for useful service. 

Memphis is not only a southern pioneer in manual training but she 
is one of the most progressive cities in the entire south. When her 
citizens had demonstrated the success of the new work in the school 
instead of being satisfied with their achievement, they were encouraged 
to strive for still more satisfactory provision for industrial training for 
the youth of the city. The next step was an attempt to secure a new 
building for a manual training high school. To make this possible a 
bond issue had to be authorized by the state assembh'. 

The legislative committee visited Memphis to determine whether 
or not her people were becoming too radical in educational matters. 
They had to be shown why Memphis should sell half a million dollars' 
worth of bonds to provide for what some of these learned men termed 
the "frills" in education. The domestic science instructor and her 
students were ready to aid in convincing these men that Memphis really 
knew what she wanted. These domestic science people knew the 
advertising story of the groceryman who said to young house-wives, 
■'Don't argue with your husband. Feed the brute"; so they fed the 
legislators and convinced them that a domestic science department 
promises greater happiness in the homes of the city, better health in the 
community, and better citizens for the state. The bond issue was 
authorized and the building was constructed. 


At this point our progressive board of education did a thing which 
in time will mean more to Memphis than any other similar achieve- 
ment of recent years. This was the organization of a vocational school 
for both boys and girls. This Vocational Grammar and High School 
is an integral part of the public school system of the city but it is 
organized in a separate building. The relation of this school to the 
ward schools of the city is similar to that borne by the other high school. 
We believe that a separate school gives better opportunity for suc- 
cessful work than can be secured as a department in a composite high 




school. If a vocational department is organized in the average high 
school it is so over-shadowed by some of the older, stronger, and un- 
sympathetic departments as to prevent the best results. In other words, 
the environment of such a department in the average high school is 
not conducive to its success. The efficient vocational school is possible 
only when the academic and vocational subjects are properly correlated 
and when the vocational subjects receive the same consideration from 
principal and teachers that is granted to each of the traditional subjects 
of the school. In organizing this school as a unit in the city's educa- 
tional system, we have tried to provide genuine vocational training for 
students in grades seven to ten inclusive. This grammar-high-school 
arrangement insures that continuity of method and practice which is 
so helpful thru the last two years of the grammar school and the first 
two years of the high school. This plan has already resulted in greatly 
increasing the percentage of students who continue in our high school 
department after completing the eighth grade work. Any student who 
has completed the work of the sixth grade in a ward school may enter 
the vocational school where he continues the regular subjects and pre- 
pares for useful service in the industries of the city. 

We believe that vocational education has a broader meaning than 
mere trade instruction, hence we are making the course for our first 
two years very general and then increasing the vocational opportunity 
in the two high school years. Thruout the course, we strive to make 
our academic teaching as vital and thoro as possible. We teach spelling 
in connection with each subject, place especial emphasis on all historical 
facts of industrial importance, devote less time to place geography and 
more time and thought to commercial and industrial phases of the 
subject, and we try to enrich and vitalize our English thruout the four 
years by correlating it as closely as possible with the vocational subjects. 
We see no reason for waiting until students pass into the high school 
to teach them important truths concerning physiology and hygiene, 
chemistry, physics, sanitation, plant life and animal life, and other 
matters that prove to be of keen interest to them. They are certainly 
capable of understanding such things and they need the knowledge 
which this teaching gives them. We are presenting these subjects in an 
elementary way in the seventh and eighth grades and then repeating 
them from a more advanced point of view later in the ninth and tenth 

Our enrolment has been larger from the first day than our board of 


education expected it to be. We organized with 73 students ; during 
the year the enrolment was increased to 188; and now (near the close 
of the second year) it is 272. The school, as a whole, has hardly had 
what should be called an experimental stage because it has rendered a 
genuine service to the young people of Memphis from the very begin- 
ning. During the first year of the school's history more than 20 per 
cent of our students, basing the estimate upon the gross enrolment, 
received sufficient special training to enable them to enter helds of 
increased usefulness. Of course, we include in this 20 per cent only 
such as have received increased pay as a result of the training received 
in the vocational school. As far as I have been able to learn, the 
compensation received by our students has ranged from $5.00 to $12.50 
per week. One of our fourteen year old girls, small for her age, entered 
in grade 7-1 when the school was organized. At the end of our first 
year she finished the seventh grade course and went to clerk during 
vacation in one of the large department stores of the city. In some 
way, one of the managers learned that she had studied stenography for 
a. year in the vocational school. When his regular stenographer was 
absent one day he gave our student a trial and liked her work so well 
that he continued her in his office thru the summer at $6.00 per week. 
He gave her to understand that she may return when school closes 
and receive increased pay. 

We are trying to make the school equally helpful to those who 
expect to become mechanics, those who intend entering commercial 
pursuits, and that important group who expect to be our city's home- 
makers. Young men who have been out in the commercial life of the 
city long enough to appreciate the need of definite training to prepare 
them for meeting additional responsibilities have entered this school. 
A still larger number of young women who dropped out before nnishing 
the grammar school course, and some who have finished the regular 
high school course, have come to us for training in commercial branches 
and in domestic science and domestic art. These young people are w ith 
us for a purpose and, of course, they are doing excellent work. Many 
of those who entered when the school was organized nearly two years 
ago are now filling responsible positions in the life of the city. Some 
of them have married and are telling us of their successful housekeeping 
which they attribute largely to the training received in the vocational 
school. Others have accepted positions where they are rendering service 
as successful stenographers, bookkeepers, etc. 

100 M.^XL'.^L TR.-ll\L\G MAGAZINE 


Our pru.urani proNitlcs that oiie-third of the school day shall be 
devoted to vocational education by each re.milar student; but many of 
our pupils .i^ive much more than the re^jular time to these subjects. 
Some, who for various reasons are classified as irregular students, devote 
half of the time to their vocational work; and the postgraduate students 
are permitted to spend the entire day in the vocational subjects of their 
choice. In addition to this, we provide for extra work outside school 
hours in order that ambitious students may make still greater progress. 
No teacher of a vocational subject offers less than two hours of outside 
work after school each week and our shop instructor gives his boys the 
entire forenoon of Saturday each week. This Saturday work has 
secured excellent results. 

We allow irregularity both in the daily program and in hours of 
attendance when that course seems best for the student in question. We 
are not endeavoring to prepare any of these young people for college 
entrance; but we are striving to prepare each of them for a prosperous 
career and for useful citizenship. In other words, we are trying to 
adapt the school to the needs of the people instead of having the students 
adapt themselves to the school. Where students have unusual home 
duties, we extend to them the service of the school for such part of the 
day as they find it possible to attend. If a girl must keep house and 
can be away from home only one-half of each day, we enroll her for the 
half day. This half-day plan for irregulars is proving highly satis- 
factory. Some are in school only during the forenoon and others only 
in the afternoon ; but nearly all of our students are full day pupils and 
the majority of them pursue the regular course including the vocational 
subject of their choice. 

In this vocational school where we are striving to do both intensive 
and extensive work, we meet some of the same problems which have 
confronted us in manual training in different parts of the country. 
Most people are ready to grant that some of the training offered is of 
very great value from every point of view and that it should be provided 
at public expense ; but occasionally a mother comes in and says, "I want 
my daughter to study bookkeeping or stenography but I don't want her 
wasting her time at school studying cooking or sewing. I can teach 
her those things myself". Since the vocational subject is elective, the 
mother has the privilege of deciding which one her daughter shall 
pursue. I usually say the most striking thing at my command in favor 




of every girl taking both cooking and sewing at some time during the 
course and then let the matter rest for the time. In several instances I 
have observed that, during her first semester with us, the daughter has 
secured the mother's consent for exchanging the commercial work for 
the home-making course at the beginning of the second semester. 


Some mothers can teach their daughters to cook and sew but very- 
few do teach them. Of course, our training in homemaking is much 
broader than sewing and cooking and this makes it doubly attractive to 
young women. When the mothers really understand what the course 
embraces, they are usually glad for their daughters to pursue the course 
even if they are able to learn much concerning these subjects at home. 
Since these subjects of our course seem to have met with less apprecia- 
tion than any other branches of the work, I wish to show you how 
easily the average mother may be mistaken in regard to what her 
daughter is learning about housekeeping. Not long ago I made an 
inquiry which secured convincing evidence that our young women from 
the very best homes really need exactly what our homemaking courses 
provide. I prepared a list of twenty short practical questions asking for 
information concerning what our girls knew about domestic science 
and domestic art before they entered the vocational school. In order 
that the answers might be tabulated, they were required to be expressed 
by yes or no. Ten of the questions sought information concerning the 
selection and preparation of foods and ten called for information in 
regard to the testing of fabrics and the making of clothing. Believing^ 
that girls who have elected home economics in school are more likely 
to have shown interest in such work at home than those who have 
chosen commercial subjects, I selected thirty girls who are studying 
home economics in order to make the test as fair as possible to home 
training. I believe you will agree with me that the girl who comes to 
us and elects cooking and sewing is more likely to have learned some- 
thing about these subjects at home than the one who elects stenography 
or bookkeeping declaring that she never could sew and that she never 
expects to cook a meal. 

In regular school classification, the young women who answered the 
twenty questions ranged from 7-1 to high school graduates inclusive, 
and in age from fourteen to twenty inclusive, their average age being 


16^ years. In order that you may know how well prepared these 
young women were, at the average age of 16^ years, for assuming the 
responsibilities of household management, I report a few of the facts 
shown by the tabulated answers to the twenty questions. Only eleven 
of the thirty had ever made bread of any kind ; seventeen had made 
candy but only thirteen had ever prepared a complete meal ; only eleven 
of them had canned fruit of any kind, and only three even thought 
they knew why bread is more healthful after it has cooled thoroly. 
Fifteen had made attempts at renovating millinery, but only nine had 
succeeded in trimming a hat ; only ten had ever made a garment of 
underwear, while but two had made a shirt waist; twenty-one had done 
some of their own mending, but only two knew how to determine 
whether a piece of cloth is made of cotton or of wool, and one of these 
is the daughter of a dressmaker. The truth is clearly seen by every 
one who has made a careful study of the situation. The average girls 
from the best homes of the land are not receiving such training in the 
home as is needed to equip them for the position of homemakers which 
is the assured calling of the majority of American women. 

The Memphis Vocational School is giving thoro commercial training 
to such of our young women as may, for various reasons, wish to engage 
for a time in commercial pursuits ; but, recognizing the supreme need 
of broadly educated homemakers, we are offering especially rich courses 
planned to equip girls for the responsibilities of the home. They are 
being given a thoro knowledge of food principles and the relation of 
elementary chemistry and bacteriolog\' to the preservation and prepara- 
tion of foods. They are being taught how to cook for the sick and for 
the \\ell, for the child and for the adult, for the active and for the 
sedentary, for the brawn worker and for the brain worker. They are 
learning how to select and purchase foods without being cheated and 
how to prepare and serve them without cheating those who do the 
eating. They are learning that cooking is both a practical art and 
an applied science. Some of them are also developing an appreciation 
of the fact that it is usually more remunerative and always far more 
useful to be a first class cook than to be a second class lawyer, doctor, 
or teacher. Since every family is to be clothed as well as fed, we are 
giving liberal instruction in domestic art. Our girls are being trained 
to select durable appropriate materials. Th?y are learning to make 
their own clothing as well as the clothing for the other members of 
their families. They are being taught to design, cut, make, and trim 



suits for various occasions. They are learning to renovate millinery and 
to design, make, and trim hats. These hats compare favorably in ap- 
pearance with those for sale in the market, they cost much less, and at 
the same time furnish a fine educational problem in applied art. 

Vocational education in its broadest sense is one of the demands of 
the twentieth centun,^ In addition to the splendid work which our 
schools have been doing, the vocational school must fill the usually 
wasted years with rich courses of valuable work and useful study. It 
must strive to give to every youth such training as will cause him to seek 
rather than shirk the duties of citizenship. It must reduce poverty by 
educating for efficiency. It must teach more useful and less useless 

The Memphis Vocational School is endeavoring to perform its part 
in this important work. It will have a large part in sending forth boys 
and girls with good morals and healthy bodies who can read under- 
standingly, speak intelligently, write legibly and forcefully, cipher cor- 
rectly, and think logically. When it has developed in them self-control, 
tact, handiness, and the power to work hard and effectively, the com- 
mercial, industrial, and home-economic world will be theirs to choose 
from because their real worth will have but few competitors. 



Thomas S. Armstroxg. 

THERE is a growing tendency to put manual training on a 
practical commercial basis, at the same time keeping the educa- 
tional end in view. The plan here presented includes both 
phases, separating the two entirely, ^et uniting them in the final results. 

The educational side is carried on thru lectures and recitations, 
graded on the knowledge acquired and the quality of the work. An 
hour and a half each week is devoted to this work, the lectures treating 
of materials, tools, processes, and shop systems, and the recitations 
following the same lines. Much supplementary reading is required. 

The commercial side includes the amount and kind of Avork, and 
conduct in the shop, the pupil's standing being estimated on a wage- 
scale reduced to percentages. This credit counts one-half, the educa- 
tional credit the other half, the average of the two giving the grade for 
the monthly report card. 

The Manual Training Department is organized into a regular 
manufacturing establishment, with its offices, shops, and subsidiary 

The office force is composed of the manager and assistant manager 
of the plant, who are the director of m.anual training and his assistant. 
There is also a clerk, who is one of the students. The shop force is 
made up entirely of students. 

One division of the plant is the drafting room, presided over by a 
superintendent, who is directly responsible for the work in this depart- 
ment. Under his direction is the designing department, presided over 
by a head designer ; a checking department with its head checker ; a 
tracing department with its head tracer ; and a blueprint room with its 
foreman. Each of these heads is responsible for the work done under his 

Another department is the wood shop, supervised by a manager who 
is assisted by superintendents of each of the different rooms into which 
it is divided, viz; the bench, machine, stock, finishing and tool rooms. 

The workmen in the bench room are divided into groups, the 
foremen of the groups being responsible for certain jobs. It is the duty 
of the foreman to issue all orders for stock, to lay out the work for the 






K. B HE£S. Sup't 




Date /-50-/3 



men under him, and to see that this work is done according to specifica- 

In the machine room the same system of grouping is carried out, 
there being a foreman of the lathe-men, foreman of the sawyers, planers, 

The superintendent of the stock room issues all stock from orders 

No. // 

3KSTON. MlNS^^ jTg^g^^y 1Q1-3 

fflanual Sraininq Srpartmpnt 

y^ , Wl : "BMESss..- CrookBlon Siqh Prbool thos s Armstrong DirKm 

f. 73 

approved by the manager. It is his duty to keep a record of supplies, 
and to report all shortages so that the stock may be kept intact. He 
may or may not have subordinates to assist him, according to the amount 
of materials handled. 

The foreman of the tool room is responsible for all tools under his 
charge. He checks out and checks in the tools to the workmen, and 
sees that they are kept in good repair. 

This may seem a large number of officers but it must be borne in 
mind that the inexperience of the boys makes it difficult for any one 
student to direct many at a time, or to oversee any great amount of 
work. Thus the groups are purposely kept small, often numbering but 
three, a foreman and two workmen. This gives the foreman nearly as 
much time for actual work as his men. However, he is held directly 
responsible for the amount and quality of work on the particular job 
entrusted to his group. While the superintendent is responsible for 
all the work in his department his responsibility is not so great but that 
he has the larger part of his time for actual bench work. Also these 
officers are rotated often enough so that all may have a chance to show 
their executive ability. The boys are shifted from department to depart- 
ment so that they may become familiar with all the work; for instance, 
in the drafting room a boy may be in the tracing department on one job 
and in the designing department on the next. Or. in the shop he may 
for a time be foreman of a bench group, and next in the tool room learn- 
ing to sharpen tools. 



The method of handling the work is that followed in any well- 
organized manufacturing establishment. All articles made are known 
as orders, and given a number. These are all received in the office of 
the General Manager where each is entered on a separate order sheet, 
Fig. 1. and recorded in the order book. The order sheets follow the 


M^ANLTAL Training Department 

Crookston Hioh School. Crookston. Minn. 

A. B. Hess, Sup't. ^ -. Thos. S. Armsyong. Director. 

NAME U.f'T.-^^c^-^C^i^-!-^...^^^,^^^ DATE J/^^//^ 








c? O 


Wage Per Hr 






work from department to department, being taken care of by the 
different officers thru whose hands they pass. The officers are responsible 
for all the entries concerning materials used, names of workmen, etc., 
which entries are checked and rechecked by the various heads to insure 
accuracy. When the work is finally completed the order is approved 
by the manager of the shop and turned over to the office, where the 
cost of production is figured. After it is approved by the general 
manager, who all this time w^ith his assistant has been directing the 
students in their various operations, the order is recorded and placed on 

The boys as officers and workmen are all placed on a wage schedule, 
being paid so much per hour. The salary of each pupil is determined by 
his application, conduct, amount and kind of work produced, and his 
natural abilitw His money value is reduced to a credit system, based 
on percentages. For e.xample a boy getting five cents an hour working 



an hour and a half a day, by the time he has put in thirty full hours, or 
a month's work, receives $1.50, or 80 per cent. At the end of the 
month he receives a check payable to himself issued by the Department, 
which is his monthly commercial standing. This, as above stated, is 
combined with his educational grade, to give him his monthly report, 
Fig. 2. 

A system of time-cards is used in keeping a record of the time and 
work done on each order. Every boy is required to hand in a card 
properly filled out at the end of each session. Fig. 3. These are collected 
each day, and from them a record of the student's time is kept, and the 
cost of the production of an article is determined. The clerical work 
is all done by the student clerk in the office, and as each student serves 
in this capacity in his turn, all receive valuable clerical training, and 
become familiar with the entire system. 

On the bulletin board is posted the wage schedule, and each Monday 
morning a list of the students, with the wage of each individual and 
the time put in the previous week. Everyone is required to do seven 
and one-half hours per week, and all delinquencies must be made up. 
Extra credit is given for overtime. 

This system as here outlined is now in practical operation and has 
proven to be eminently satisfactor3\ Since its introduction the interest 
of the boys has increased in a marked degree, the output has been 
materially added to, and the efficiency of the department has doubled. 



Mary S. Clay. 

THREE years ajio drawing, to the pupils of the Ensle\' High 
School, meant cop\inii: with pencil or paints frtjm any picture 
which happened to strike their fancy. But with a new point of 
view, changes were introduced. \'ery little copying was allowed, the 
work being almost entirely drawing from flowers and objects; and 
later simple design. Drawing was not a "general favorite", being a 
required subject for the girls. At that time music and drawing were 
the minor subjects for them. Naturally, those really interested in the 
work were in the minority, and there was constant "cutting of classes'". 

Beginning two years ago, the classes were given more design, which 
was developed in fancy stitching. This proved a most fortunate step; 
the pupils became interested, and instead of avoiding the classroom, 
insisted upon spending every vacant period on the new work, until they 
were literally driven out. First, bags of all varieties were designed ; 
later, sofa pillows, table runners, shirt waists, and other garments were 
worked out with added interest. So fascinated were the pupils with the 
work that it was continued by many of them during vacation. 

A year later the pupils were divided into two sections, those who 
really wished to draw, and others who were more apt at handwork. A 
domestic science department was now added to the school, and neces- 
sarily made a change in our plans. The actual carrying out of the 
designs in the drawing department, could no longer be done in sewing, 
and the cooperative plan had not yet been tried in our schools. 

Crochet was engaging the attention of almost every woman and 
girl in the community, and there were constant entreaties of, "Please 
teach us to crochet". We talked of it often and worked up a lively 
interest. Finally, we were ready to have the first lesson. A five cent 
spool of thread and steel hook composed our equipment. The arduous 
task of teaching the girls how to manage their hands was begun. It is 
difficult to realize how awkward these girls were, since many had never 
handled a crochet hook and much patience was required for both 
teacher and pupil. 

After a chain could be made properly, a very simple pattern in 
Filet crochet was attempted. This was drawn on the blackboard for 






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all to copy in their note-books, introducing the application of design to 
squared paper. We used National Xote-Book paper, ruling extra lines, 
making spaces about y square. Limitation of design was necessary in 
this form of work. Some were quick to learn, while others were very 
slow, but the main point — interest — was gained. 

The simple design being satisfactorily completed, more elaborate 
articles, with original patterns, were made. The thread and hook were 
now changed to suit the work, and no objections as to the cost of 
material required were ever raised by either parents or pupils. Each 
pupil selected the article she wished to make, a scarf for table, dresser, 
or piano, and then the most suitable material was considered. When the 
possibilities of this work were realized, many of the girls did not stop 
at one piece. The classes were sufficiently small to have individual 
instruction, after the work was started. One of the girls crocheted 
inserting to trim a dress elaborately, which she herself made, and a 
large number acquired such proficiency that their work would equal 
that of a professional. 

The next step, the making of medallions, was more advanced. 
These were made into yokes, collars, and cuffs, and used for trimming 
waists and dresses. While these pieces were not all of original design, 
the experience enabled the pupils to originate patterns later. Much 
ingenuity was required in order to join the medallions and shape pieces 
correctly. Several of the girls sold their work, which was encouraging. 

Figs. 1 and 2 convey a more satisfactor}' idea of some of the work 
composing our annual exhibit, which was generally regarded as marking 
a distinct advance over those of previous years. 

C. W. Arlitt, 

THE course of study in almost any high school that pretends to 
have a manual training department of any size usually will 
include, in the shopwork, the subject of pattern-making. The 
complaint has sometimes been heard from manual training instructors, 
that pattern-making does not seem to hold the interest of the students 
in the same way as the other branches of shopwork. This is probably 
often due to the fact that the instructor fails to make the proper 
selection of patterns for his classes. There is danger, it would seem, 
that sometimes patterns will be required of the class that have no 
future practical value for the making of molds, and subsequently castings, 
therefrom. A student does not find interest in making a pattern, only 
to have it later graded and then finally, perhaps, burned up or disposed 
of otherwise. But if he can see the practical use of his pattern, whether 
it be the pattern of something of some service to the school or to himself, 
it will only help to create a greater interest in his work. Instructors 
can add enthusiasm to their work in this branch, by carefully selected 

The addition of a molding equipment and a cupola for the melting 
of iron, seems desirable, so that the students can see the practical use 
of their patterns for the making of molds, and later be able to pour 
their own metal, in this manner more forcibly appreciating the necessity 
of observing the reasons for the various essential principles upon which 
these two professions are founded. The cupola described in this article. 
Fig, 1, was designed and constructed along the lines of cupolas for 
commercial service, in a general way at least. Various modifications 
were made in the plans as at first designed, the necessity of such changes 
being brought out by various tests, until the final cupola, as shown in 
the drawings, resulted. 

The working principle of an iron cupola may be briefly stated. 
Cast iron scrap may be melted readily, if it be placed in the presence of 
a good heat producing material, as coke or coal, and brought to a molten 
condition by the introduction of a very strong blast of air. The scrap 

1 Copyright, 1913, by C. W. Arlitt. 






iron, together with some "pig" iron to make a clean mixture, must be 
placed in a suitable furnace, or cupola, as it is termed, which must be 
lined with some very refractory substance, such as fire brick and fire-clay. 

The vertical swing principle is essential in a cupola of 24" or less, 
inside diameter, to permit cleaning and repairing, since it is almost 
impossible for a person to work in a space of this size while it stands in 
a vertical position. Therefore a bearing has been made on each side, 
which serve for the blast inlets as well. The shell may thus be tilted 
forward until the top end lies on the ground, from which position the 
cleaner may readily enter to do his work. The shell is held in the 
vertical position by means of a trace chain, fastened to the cupola by 
a hook, the other end of the chain being held to the wall of the shop in 
the same manner. 

The cupola shell consists of a piece of sheet steel, -^jr'^ thick, 24'' 
inside diameter, and 5 feet long, riveted up one side. See Fig. 2. This 
shell was found in the stock yard of the Alamo Iron Works, a local 
firm, which very kindly gave it to the manual training department, 
indicating their willingness to assist in this phase of education. 

Two blast openings or tuyeres, each 4" in diameter, were cut with 
a cold chisel in opposite sides, at a distance of 4" from the bottom of the 
shell. Half way between these two openings, or in front, a piece 3^ 
by Zh" was cut out, which provides an outlet for the melted iron. 
Exactly opposite the outlet, at the top of the shell, a piece 9" by 12''' 
was removed, thus providing for a charging door. A sheet iron door 
is hinged on, and bent to fit the curve of the shell, closing the charging 
opening while a "heat" is being run. 

Entirely around the bottom, with the exception of the space cut 
out for the outlet, a \V' by 2" angle iron was riveted inside the shell, 
with the 2" edge projecting at right angles to the shell. This provides 
a shelf to set the fire brick upon. A spout of "V" shape design is 
bolted to the shell at the outlet hole, to convey the iron to the ladle. 
A heavy sheet steel door, Y' thick and 25"' in diameter, is hinged at the 
back of the cupola, so that it may be pulled up and held in place by 
means of a catch, against the bottom. The catch is located to one side 
of the spout. 


On each of the tuyere openings mentioned, a heavy casting has been 
bolted, which is bored out to 4f" diameter, to take a 4" by 6" black 







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steel nipple, turned off to make a good rit in the casting. Each of these 
castings has been made to rit the curve of the shell. See Fig. 3. They 
are the bearings of the cupola, these bearings resting in two heavy 
castings, each of which has a semi-circle in it the size of the outside of 
the bearing. The cast iron pieces containing the semi-circle each have 
two holes bored out and tapped on the under side, into which pieces of 
1" by 2' 6" pipe have been screwed to act as legs for the shell. These 
legs are set in concrete, as are also the two side braces of V' pipe. 
Reference to the drawing will assist the reader to understand what has 
been said. 

Attention is called to the angle at which the top of the shell is cut, 
and how the stack has been cut to match this angle. The purpose here 
is to allow the cupola to tip forward without having the two parts 
binding on one another, which would be the case if the two cylinders 
met on a line perpendicular to their length. The stack is made of No. 
12 black sheet iron and is hung by means of eye-bolts and guy-rods. 
It is 6 feet long, which is quite sufficient to carry the heat and gases 
well out of the shop. 

The amount and distribution of the blast in a cupola is of prime 
importance. Lack of a good blast makes for slow melting and cold 
iron, sometimes resulting in the loss of a heat and possibly choked ladles. 
The tuyeres have been placed low in the cupola to produce good, hot 
iron in the shortest possible time. The fact that they are low prevents 
the melting of very great quantities of iron at one time, as is required 
in commercial cupolas, but sufficient iron may gather on the bottom, 
before it runs into the tuyeres, to make the largest casting that the 
schools will likely rind need to cast. 

On a platform, about 8 feet behind the cupola, is a Buffalo "B*^ 
Volume Blower No. 4 with downward discharge of 9" diameter. 
This was installed to provide the blast for the Buffalo forges of the 
forge shop. The blower is run at about 2,700 R. P. M. Twelve 
inches below the discharge outlet of the blower, a "T" joint of gal- 
vanized iron, also 9" diameter, has been placed. In this vertical pipe, 
as well as in the projecting one, dampers have been placed, so that the 
entire discharge of the blower may be used at the cupola or for the 
forges at will. Four feet from the "T" joint the horizontal pipe has 
been closed and two 4" galvanized conductor pipes soldered into the 
end. These two pipes lead to the sides of the shell to the black nipples 
in the bearings, previously spoken of, thus permitting one pipe and one 















\ ) 




nipple to be soldered end to end. Reference to the sketch will illustrate 
this more clearly. It will be noticed that just outside of each nipple in 
the galvanized pipe, a 2Y' bushing with screw plug has been placed. 
These are to be opened when first lighting the fire, permitting a natural 
draft to enter each side. 

The lining consists of 81 Athens fire brick each 2^"x4i"x9" placed 
on end on the angle iron provided for them. These bricks are packed 
in carefully, being chipped when necessary, to make a good fit, so that 
they will not fall out of place when the cupola is tilted. All bricks are 
set in the best quality fire clay and all holes must be carefully filled 
with the same material. Thirteen and one-half bricks are needed for 
each layer. 


The process of firing and charging a cupola needs brief mention. 
It is often difficult to secure a satisfactory heat, due to oversight of 
some essential detail. Before placing the fuel for the fire, the steel 
plate door at the bottom of the shell should be pulled up and secured 
by means of the catch provided for the purpose. After the door is 
well secured, the cupola may be tipped forward about a foot, and made 
fast by means of the chains previously spoken of. Then light cinders, 
very slightly dampened and of about a waterbucketfuU in quantity, are 
sifted thru a No. 6 sieve and then passed in thru the top. This amount 
will usually be enough to cover the bottom well. The cinders should 
be so placed so that there is a slight slope from all points toward the 
spout opening. A long pole, with a piece of round, flat-faced wood 
nailed to one end should then be used to tamp the dirt lightly, leaving 
the surface as regular as possible. Be careful that the cinders are not 
packed too hard and are used only slightly dampened. 

The spout itself, and just inside of the spout on the door of the 
shell, should be smeared with a paste made of ^ portion best sharp sand 
and I portion best fire clay. Mix dry and then add water to make a 
thick paste. The ladles for handling the metal should he lined with 
the same materials. After all the smearing is done, and time has been 
allowed to dry out somewhat, start a light wood fire on all clayed 
surfaces keeping it burning until they are well baked. 

The cupola may now be drawn up to a vertical position again and 
made fast, after which a substantial prop, such as a 1" or IV' pipe 
should be tightly fitted under the middle of the door, with its lower end 


resting on a very heavy block of metal or stone, since it would be unwise 
to depend on the catch alone to resist the weight of the charge in the 

Light shavings, oily waste, or other easily lighted material may 
now be passed thru the charging door at the back. On this soft kindling 
should be placed, followed by heavier wood, which should be harder 
wood. Only enough wood need be used to make a good heavy bed of 
fire. The plugs in each of the blast pipes should be removed and the 
spout stopped up with a piece of red clay, after which the fire may be 
lighted by dropping in a piece of oily waste that has been set afire. A 
small quantity of kerosene oil poured over the wood will often assist in 
getting a quick fire. The object in closing the spout is to cause a strong 
natural draft from each side and thus get the wood well lighted at the 
sides first. It will spread to the front readily enough. 

After the fire is well under way, a bucket of furnace coke is 
shoveled in thru the charging door, and allowed to burn until it is 
good and red. When this coke is well kindled, add small quantities 
at a time until a solid "bed" is burning. It is absolutely necessary that 
the bed be afire in all places, else the "heat" is liable to be a failure. 
This bed must be 18" deep over the top of the tuyeres. Just as soon 
as the bed is burning nicely, which will require from 45 minutes to an 
hour, scrap iron and "pig" iron to the amount of 300 or 500 pounds 
should be thrown on the bed, followed by more coke and then more iron. 
The proportion of scrap to "pig" iron will depend upon the mixture 
desired for casting. The plugs in the blast pipes must be screwed in 
place now and the blast put on. If all details have been carefully at- 
tended to, the iron should begin to run in from 7 to 10 minutes. By 
this time all "hands" should be ready to work. 

The first ladle of metal can probably be taken out in 15 minutes 
after the blast was put on. A sharp pointed tapping bar is used to cut 
a small hole in the clay forming the stopper in the spout. The weight 
of the molten metal will be sufficient to wash a clean place after it is 
started by tapping. The cupola "tender" must stand ready with a 
"bott stick" having a piece of red clay on its end in the shape of a cone 
to stop up the opening as soon as the ladle is full. In a reasonable length 
of time the cupola may be tapped out again, the length of time interven- 
ing to be learned by trials. As soon as a ladle is full, it should be 
carried to the molds and carefully poured. - A "skimmer" should go 
with each pair of ladle carriers to hold back the slag that may float on 
the metal, using a hooked iron rod for the purpose. 


The chief items of expense entering into the construction of the 
cupola are as follows: 


One stack No. 14 Bl. Iron 6 ft. 24" $10.00 

Guys, Two Trace Chains 4 ft. .52 

One Cupola Shell 5 ft. 24" Donated 

One Blast Pipe with T-joint No. 18 CJalv. Iron 6 ft. 9" 8.70 

One Bottom door M inch 25" 1 .44 

Galv. Blast Pipes 8'6" 4" . 85 

One Large Hinge .15 

Charging Door, No. 14 Bl. Iron 10"xl4" .42 

One Angle Iron lV-2"x2" 24" 2.60 

All castings, about 60 pounds 2.40 

Legs, Four Bl. pipe 26" l" .44 

100 Fire Brick 3 . 50 

Labor cutting holes in shell 1 .40 

Bolts 50 


As the shell was donated, its cost is not included in this summary. 
Such a shell made to order would cost about $12 to $15. Fire clay, 
sand, tapping bars, ladles and a few smaller items will place the total 
cost of the cupola up to $70.00. 

In conclusion, several of the students should be given credit for the 
making of the patterns for all castings used in the construction. The 
drawings for this article were made by one of the boys. It was only 
thru the voluntary and continued assistance of various boys of the 
manual training department that the construction, setting up, and test- 
ing out was made possible. None of the work interfered with the 
regular classes. It is now possible to make castings from the boys' 
patterns for later use in the machine-shop. 

Instructors of manual training who may see fit to add a cupola to 
their equipment will find it desirable to make a more detailed study of 
the method of charging a cupola and the taking off of a successful heat, 
by careful reading in reference works. An article of this nature must 
necessarily be limited in length ; the endeavor has been to present only 
the most essential points involved in the construction and operation. 



Arthur F. Payne. 


THERE is one problem in art metaKvork, spoon-making, that has 
a distinctive charm of its own. Every worker in metal sooner 
or later wants to make a spoon. Handmade spoons are in- 
variably of copper or of sterling silver, altho I see no reason why 
aluminum should not be used in some cases. Copper is usually used 
for the large nut spoons and silver for all other kinds. 

There are five different methods of making spoons, the method 
varying according to the material used and the use for which the spoon 
is designed. The first and easiest method is often used in making nut- 
spoons of copper similar to those shown in the second and third photo- 

A design is first drawn on paper. Both sides should be made exactly 
alike by folding a piece of paper down the center and drawing one 
half of the spoon on one side of the center line. Fold the paper and 
rub the design on the back with some hard object, and the drawing will 
be transferred to the other side of the center line. Transfer the design 
onto a piece of 18-gage copper, and cut to the line with the shears, or 
saw it out with the small saws mentioned in previous articles. Then 
place the spoon bowl over the hollow in the block of hard wood that 
was used in making bowls, and with the ball pein hammer beat the 
spoon bowl into the hollow as smoothly as possible. 

iCopyright, 1912, 1913, by Arthur F. Payne. 




The handle if it were left flat would not be stiff enough to serve 
its purpose, so a ridge is raised down the center of its entire length 
for the purpose of stiffening it. This is done by laying the handle face 
downward on a piece of soft wood and using a thin neck hammer to 

beat up the ridge. This ridge can 
plainly be seen in the illustration; 
in the one on the next page it is 
not defined so sharply, but it may 
be seen that the narrow shank of 
the handle is well rounded to give 
the required stiffness. 

After the spoon is beaten into 
shape on the wood it is carefully 
planished, polished, colored, and 
waxed as described in previous 
articles. When using this first 
method great care must be taken 
to make the spoon stiff. If this is 
not done the spoon will bend when 
used, and there is no greater abom- 
ination than an object that is so 
poorly constructed that it breaks 
down when put to the use for 
which it was designed. 

The fourth illustration shows a 
group of copper nut-spoons made by 
the second method, which is somewhat similar to the first method, the 
chief difference being that in the second the spoon is sawn out of 15-gage 
metal. This does away with the necessity for the ridge in the handle, 
but the spoon is somewhat heavy and feels rather clumsy to handle. The 
illustration shows an effective means of decoration for nut-spoons, that 
of saw-piercing a design on the handle or in the bowl. Enamel could 
also be used to advantage in small designs on the handle, as the cells 
could readily be etched out in such thick metal. 

The third method of spoon-making is used largely in the making of 
silver teaspoons, and is especially convenient when making spoons with 
large bowls, similar to the silver soup-spoons shown in the fifth illus- 
tration. In this method the spoons are sawn out of a flat piece of 15- 
gage silver. The spoon is not sawn out full size, but shorter in length, 
narrower in the bowl, and thicker in the shank, as is shown in the 










sketch. The larger spoon of the two is the shape of the finished spoon. 
It is 6" long, and the bowl is If" wide at the widest part; but when 
it was sawn out of the flat silver it was 5" long, and the bowl w^as 
1^" wide, and the shank was y^" wide, as shown by the smaller spoon 


in the sketch. The spoon was beaten and hammered into the desired 
shape b}- the use of the ball pein and neck hammers on the flat and 
round stakes. 

The first step is to stretch the bowl wider by hammering on a flat 
anvil, striking the silver with the hammer held at a slight angle in the 
direction in which it is desired to make it wider. The method of 
hammering the bowl is shown in the accompanying sketch, this ham- 
mering making the bowl thinner and wider. Next, the spoon is held on 



edge, on a rounding convex stake and the shank is hammered narrower 
with the neck hammer. This will lengthen the spoon and at the same 
time will make the shank narrower and thicker. The tip of the handle 
is widened in the same manner as the bowl, and then the spoon will 

— 6" 


have to be annealed, and the process repeated and continued until the 
spoon is beaten roughly into shape. The rough edges are then filed 
smooth, and finalh^ the entire spoon is carefully planished. 

The spoons may be polished by hand or on a lathe ; in either case 
remember the "fire scale", a description of which has been given before. 
The best course to pursue with silver spoons is as follows : polish all 
the scratches and file marks out with emery cloth, if the spoon is to be 
hand polished; or on the felt or leather wheel, with powdered pumice 
stone, or coarse "tripoli", or oil and emery, if the polishing is done on 
the lathe. Then anneal the spoon thoroly to bring the fire scale on to 
the spots where it has been filed or polished off. Next planish the spoon 
on smooth tools with smooth bright hammers, and polish lightly with a 
piece of canton flannel with a little red rouge for the final finish. 

The fourth method of making a silver spoon is to literally forge it 
out of a bar of silver. This is the most difficult but is the least expensive 
of the five methods, as there is less silver wasted. To make a teaspoon 
6" long we shall need a piece of silver 4" long, V' wide, and Y' thick. 
The method pursued is exactly that of the blacksmith, the silver being 
heated almost red hot, and held by a pair of pincers while the bowl is 
forged out on an anvil. A forty-pound anvil may be bought for $4.00. 
Its flat polished surface and round horn make it an ideal tool for the 




spoon-maker, beside being of constant use in many other ways to the 
art metalworker. 

Silver may be forged easier if it is nearly red hot ; care must be 
taken however not to hammer it while it is red hot as it will crack. 
The bowl should be hammered until it is hard, and then shank and 




handle; thus saving time by getting the entire spoon hard before an- 
nealing a second time. When the spoon is forged roughly to shape, 
trim it with the shears and file, then planish and polish as described 

The fifth and last method of making silver spoons is that of cutting 
the bowl from a piece of 18-gage silver, beating it into shape, and 
making the handle from a piece of 13-gage silver. The handle of the 
spoon shown in the illustration, page 123, was made from a piece 3V' 
long, j%" wide, and 13-gage thick. The shank was hammered on the 
edge until it was square, and the tip hammered out on the flat anvil 
until it was thinner and wider. This process lengthened the handle to 
4f". After the bowl and handle are soldered together it is necessary 
to planish the spoon again to make it stif^ and hard as the soldering 
anneals the silver and makes it soft. 

The spoon shown illustrates an ideal use of this process of spoon- 
making. The fact that the spoon and handle are two pieces, soldered 
together, has been honestly recognized ; and, furthermore, it has been 
emphasized and used as a means of decoration. This is one of the 
basic principles of good design, and should be kept constantly in mind 
when working in any material and especially in art metalwork where 
there are so many opportunities to make use of it. 

(T/ie End.) 


James McKinney and Sarah M. Mott. 


THE continuity of the articles on Shopwork and Mathematics in 
Grade I was somewhat impaired by introducing the making of 
toys in the October number. While toys may be made at any 
time during the year, it is usually found that the interest in furnishing 
house, store, or theater is sustained until the completion of the desired 
room and, therefore, toys are most frequently made at the close of the 
year after the larger pieces of work have been completed. This article 
will return to the playhouses and give some of the furnishings in detail. 
The dining-room has a most attractive ''homey" look with its well 
proportioned furniture stained a dark shade. The rugs, curtains, and 
wall paper harmonize and, while the pupils have a variety of colors 
from which to choose their decorative scheme, it is a somewhat circum- 
■scribed choice. For instance, reds, rather dark blue, and tan are 
the choices offered for dining-rooms and the furniture is stained oak 
-or mahogany color. Tan, brown, and green are the sitting-room colors 
with dark green or brown furniture, while the bedrooms have pink, 
light blue, and yellow figured dimities for hangings and bedspreads, with 
light rugs and wall paper and white painted furniture. The shops, 
stables, etc., have no wall paper; the inside and the furniture are painted 
white. The theaters are papered and the curtains and other furnishings 
are dark red or green. This harmony in furnishings we hope will carry 
over into the actual home surroundings and be a help in making 
■selections there. Pictures and other decorations are added sparingly. 
Simplicity is the keynote of the furnishings. 

The sideboard is an interesting little piece of furniture and is con- 
structed as follows : 

Stock for Sideboard, Fig. 16. 

Body: U"x2^'x4". 

Back: i''x4y'x4". 

False Drawers: i^xf" any length over 2". 

False Doors: ^"xU" any length over 2". 

Shelf: \"^\\" any length over \" . 

Pillars: \"y.\" any length over 2". 

^ This study was begun in the June, 1913, number. 








Tig. 16. 



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Tia. 19. 

Fining Table.. 




Body: — The edges of the body block are planed smooth and then 
the whole block is thoroly smoothed by sandpapering. 

Back: — One edge is planed smooth, then measured to width, and 
planed to size. 

Shelf: — A piece 4" long is cut off from the strip, the sawing being 
done with the back-saw and bench-hook. It is then measured to 1'' 
wide and planed to size. (The false doors and drawers are treated in 
the same manner.) 

Assembling: — One nail is entered in the back and driven in part 
way. The body is now held firmly in the vise and the back nailed on. 
Before the second nail is put in the final adjusting of the back should 
be made. 

In fixing the shelf, it is best to have a guide line for the nails drawn 
on the back. The nails should be driven in till the points show thru 
the back. The shelf is now placed on the nail points and then the nails 
are driven "home". The pillars can now be cut off to length and nailed 
on from the top side of the shelf. 

If the shelf should seem to be too difficult for some children, it may 
be left out without altering the appearance of the model very much. 

The dining table is oblong and large enough to admit of seating 
the family of paper dolls at a meal. 

Stock for Dining Table, Fig. 19. 
Top.- i''x4^"x7'\ 
Pillar: f''xf'' any length over 2'\ 
Base : ^^2^^ any length over 5". 

The method of making this table is a repetition of the one used 
in the small table. (Fig. 7.)- 

Assembling: — To find the position for the nails which fasten the 
top on to the pillars, a line is drawn 2'^ from the edge; two other 
lines, 2" from each end are drawn to intersect this middle line; the 
points of intersection give the placing of the nails. The nails are 
driven in till the points show thru the top; the pillars are placed on 
these points and the nails are driven in. The position of the base is 
found by placing it on the pillars and then adjusting the margin by 

2 See the June, 1913 number, p. 455. 


grandfather's clock. 

The grandfather's clock which stands in the dining-room is another 
delight to the small housekeeper and invariably calls to mind the little 
mouse that ran down as "the clock struck one". 
Stock for Clock, Fig, 21. 
Body: r'x2i"x7''. 
Top: i"xl"x any length. 
Face: \'x2"x any length. 
Base: ^"s.XV'x any length. 
Making of Clock: — One edge of the body is planed smooth, then 
measured off to width (2") and planed to size. 

The length, 6", is then measured off. The sawing is done with 
the back-saw, the work being held in the bench vise. The pieces for 
the top, face, and base are planed to width and cut off to length. In 
sawing these thin pieces the miter box or bench-hook should be used. 
Assembling: — The top should he nailed on first, care being taken 
to make it flush with the back. The face can next be nailed, and then 
the base. In nailing these thin pieces the brads should not be thicker 
than No. 19. 


The piano gives the distinctive touch to the living room, the tables 
and chairs of which are among the first furnishings made. These were 
described in the June number. 

Stock for Piano, Fig. 22. 
Body: r'x5J"x6''. 
Key Board: %"xV'xl'\ 

Making of Piano: — In smoothing the body, only the edges should 
be planed, the remainder of the work being done with sandpaper. The 
keyboard is planed smooth and cut off to length. 

Assembling: — Two H" brads are driven thru the keyboard. A 
pencil line is drawn 2" from edge on the body. The nail points are 
placed on this line and the nails are driven home. 


But while most of the little girls have been working away furnishing 
their rooms, the boys have been equally busy getting their shops in 






5 B^flt» 




-j liojoo 



Fic. 2 0. 
Stage: ro^ TMEflT5.E:. 


F.c 21. 




■ Biiac 




r.o 25. 


I I 


3 ^|<£ 



Hg 24- 

( fOU iTflGE. ) 



order. The desk is most important and furnishes a logical point of 
departure for the doing of small sums. The counter, piled with its 
wares of colored clay or its rolls of dry goods, looks quite business like. 
The paper bags and small baskets, used in storekeeping, are made by 
the children. 


5t015E: COUMTEI^. 

SntLF BliflCKElT. 

(rott Stobe.) 

Stock for Desk, Fig. 17. 
Top: i"x3f'x4". 
Ends: f'xZY'xT'. 
Rails: ^^'x^''x any length over 4'^ 
Making of Desk: Top: — One edge is planed smooth. Then width 
is measured and planed to size. 

Ends: — One edge is planed smooth. Then width is measured and 
planed to size. To find the bevels, V is measured on one edge and 
4" on the opposite edge; a line is drawn connecting these two points. 
The saw cut is made along this line, the board being held in the vise. 
Rails: — The rails are smoothed by sandpaper and then cut off to 

Assembling: — A distance of |'' is measured from each end of the 


top and a line is drawn thru each of the points across the board. The 
nails are entered on this line and driven in till the points show thru. 
The ends are held in the vise and the top is nailed on. One nail is 
put in each of the rails. 
Stock for Stool, Fig. 18. 
|"x2|''x any length. 
^" rod of soft wood any length. 
Stock for Counter, Fig. 25. 
Top: f"x3f'xlO". 
Front : f ''x3i''x9^''. 
Ends: r'x2f''x6"". 
Making of Counter: Top: — One edge is planed smooth. Then 
width is measured and planed to size. The width of the front and 
ends is got by the same method. The length of the ends is measured by 
making two parallel measurements of 3" from one end. The points 
are connected by a pencil line. The sawing is done with the back-saw, 
the work being held in the vise. 

Assembling: — The front is nailed on to the ends, the ends being held 
in the vise. The top is laid on the frame and the position of the nails 
marked with a pencil. It is then placed on the bench and the nails 
driven in part way. The top is now placed on the frame once more 
and the nails are driven "home". 


One year several children converted their boxes into theaters. The 
stage and its properties were built ; the benches made ; the curtains hung, 
and then the children had great pleasure in dramatizing stories for 
which they used the small paper dolls made and given them by the 
Second Grade. 

Stock for Stage, Fig. 20. 

Floor: Y'x5V'x\0'\ 
Supports: f"x2J:"xlO". 

Floor and Supports: — One edge is planed smooth. Then width 
is measured and planed to size. The supports are measured to length 
and cut off. The work should be held in the vise during the process of 

Assetnbling: — The position of the nails going thru the top is found 
by drawing a line 1'' from the end. The nails are driven in till the 


points show thru. The support is now held in the vise and the top 
nailed on. 

Stock for Small Chair, Fig. 23. 

Seat: l^xl'^x any length over 1". 

Back: -fY'xlV'x any length over 2V\ 
Stock for Small Table, Fig. 24. 

Top: ^-x3V\y\ 

Pillar: ^"x^"\ an\- length over U". 

Base: yx2"x any length over H". 
The method for making and assembling this chair and table is the 
same as was given for the other table. (See Fig. 6, in the June, 1^13, 
number, p. 155.) 

The mathematics so fully outlined in the previous articles goes hand 
in hand with the work mentioned in the present article. As an in- 
creasing number of like articles are finished, the problems increase in 
difficulty as, for example, the problems given about one or two chairs, 
tables, etc., are made to apply to five or ten. Sometimes all the chairs 
made by the entire class are brought together for a lesson, when the 
problems, given to the class and originated by them, would often cause 
a grown-up to think. When the pianos are finished, there is an excel- 
lent opportunity for the child who likes to deal with large numbers, 
each piano costing two hundred, five hundred, seven hundred dollars, 
etc. And when the house is entirely finished and the child wants to 
put his own value upon it, as he becomes for the time a real estate 
dealer, then indeed do the figures reach astonishing proportions. Here 
it is that the child is the leader and the teacher the counsellor. The 
work is stimulating alike to pupil and teacher and when the days for 
drill come, as come they must, the child finds a responsive echo in 
thinking of familiar things which he has made. 

{T/ie End.) 


IN our last issue we made a plea for a reasonable amount of time 
for manual training in the seventh, eighth and high school grades 
and pointed to the fact that no teacher can do effective work with 
large classes of pupils coming to him for so small an amount of time 
as one hour a week. At that time we cited the case of a school where 
one teacher taught, or made an attempt to teach, 390 different pupils in 
woodworking per week. Since that time we have received a letter that 
reveals a worse condition than the one cited. We withhold the names 
of the cities and of the writer for obvious reasons. 

Dear Sir: — 

I am taking the libert>- of addressing you for the purpose of commending 
the editorial in the October issue of The Manual Training Magazine on the 
subject of time given to manual training. 

By way of introduction allow me to state that I have been teaching grammar 
school manual training since 1905. I taught one ^-ear in the public schools of 
A and six and one-half years in B from whence I came to C in September, 1913. 

In A and B much the same conditions prevailed as you depict in the 
editorial. During the time I was in B I never had less than 350 pupils per week 
from the sixth, seventh and eighth grades and at one time 525 were registered. 
I emphatically state that no thoro educational end can be served by such an 
organization and I so stated to the superintendent, but he thot I was trying to 

Where school authorities are so blind and arbitrary it is little wonder that 
manual training falls into disrepute with practical people who see thru the 
educational hypocrisy. 

The writer of the letter further states that he is glad to know that 
he is not alone in his conclusions concerning the false economy in 
teaching woodwork one hour a week. 

As stated in our previous article we believe that not less than 2J 
hours a week should be given to woodworking whenever it is taught in 
either the seventh or eighth grade. Perhaps the best allotment of time 
for these grades is three hours a week divided into two periods of H 
hours and to have these hours arranged to come on consecutive days. 
The instruction of the first day will then hold over and become effective 
the second day. Under such a time schedule one teacher will give 



instruction to from 150 to 225 pupils, depending upon whether he 
teaches three or four periods a day and upon whether he has 20 or 25 
pupils in each class. In the city of London each teacher of wood- 
working has two classes a day, one in the morning for three hours and 
one in the afternoon for 2h hours. He has therefore ten classes a 
week, and there being no more than 20 in a class, his maximum number 
of pupils is 200. This is enough. 

„ An interesting definition of pre-vocational work came out 

Pre- ... 

Vocational '" ^ discussion at the conference of the city and town 

Work superintendents in Indiana on the si.xth of November. 

In discussing the meaning of vocational education Professor Black of 

the State University defined pre-vocational work as "manual training 

raised to a higher power". We like this definition because it puts the 

emphasis where it belongs. There is danger in some quarters that in 

our enthusiasm for the practical and for factory methods we may go 

back to the methods of teaching handwork which were in use before 

the coming of manual training. We have already seen such methods 

used, and we have heard enthusiastic accounts of methods of teaching 

elementary woodworking that were tried out and found faulty years 

ago. There is danger that very poor instruction in handwork may pass 

inspection under the new term pre-vocational. It has passed and too 

often continues to pass as manual training because of ignorance and 

inefficiency. But the term pre-vocational ought to stand for something 

better. It ought to be "manual training raised to a higher power'. It 

ought to include all the good elements in the best manual training and 

have added to it new elements which make for speed and practical 

efficiency. In the pre-vocational work we ought to be especially sure 

that no habits are learned which must be inhibited at great expenditure 

of effort as soon as one becomes a workman. On the other hand, this 

does not mean that in our pre-vocational teaching we must adopt a 

shop method of teaching. We know better than that today if we are 

not blind to the manual training experiences of the past forty years. 

To depend upon shop methods of teaching as they are usually found is 

to depend upon no method ; it is to trust to luck- — to repeat the mistakes 

of a century ago. Even the factories have discovered this and are 

establishing corporation schools in which good pedagogy- is coming to 

have a more and more important part. We surely want to keep close 

to the shop methods of doing work — close to shop technique — hut this 



is by no means the same thing as depending upon shop methods of 
teaching, though some are failing to see the difference. The manual 
training movement has brought forth some methods of teaching hand- 
work which are so fundamental that they cannot reasonably be ignored. 
And so we say that to speak of pre-vocational work in the manual arts 
as "manual training raised to a higher power" is to place the emphasis 
where it belongs ; namely on manual training and on a higher type of 
manual training. — C. A. B. 

A We are de-sirous of stimulating a more active, critical 

^""^^^ interest in the kinds of projects used in giving instruction 

Competition . ... ' , 

m manual trammg, and on that account we are an- 
nouncing in the advertising pages of this issue a prize competition which 
we hope will interest every reader. We hope that this method of calling 
out problems for comparative study will meet with approval. If we 
can have a general response to this offer we believe every reader will 
benefit by it. We want to hear from beginners in teaching as well as 
men who have spent years in the service. 



One of the most attractive annual programs issued by the organizations 
familiar to readers of this Department is the "Year Book of the Manual Arts 
Association of Alieglieny County, Pennsylvania." This 20-page booklet contains 
a directorv of the officers and committees of the Association, the program for the 
year, the Constitution and By-Laws, and a list of the names and addresses of 

The program includes the following: October, a social meeting; November, 
reports on the International Congress of Hygiene, and the meeting of the 
National Council on Industrial Safet}-, by the president of the Association, Dean 
C. B. Connelley, Carnegie Technical Schools; December, reports of the dele- 
gates to Universitv Work, Miss Edna T. Mitchell, instructor in household economy, 
Liberty Manual Training School, and Miss Alice D. Fairman, instructor in 
domestic art, Peabodv High School; January, Industrial Education: Industrial 
Background, and Kind of School, by E. H. Bartholomew, instructor in manual 
training. South High School : reports of delegates to University Work, by Joseph 
M. Speer, supervisor of manual training, north side and south side districts, and 
John T. Hawthorne, supervisor for east end and central districts; February, 
Vocational Guidance, by O. W. Burroughs, director of vocational guidance, 
Pittsburgh public schools; March, Essential Sociological Qualifications for Good 
Citizenship, bv Dr. Roswell P. Johnson, University of Pittsburgh; April, Some 
Fundamental Factors in Manual Arts Training, Dr. H. B. Davis, principal, 
Pittsburgh Teachers' Training School. The x'\ssociation year closes in May 
with a social meeting under the direction of a special committee appointed by 
the president. The annual business meeting, with election of officers and com- 
mittees, also occurs in connection with the May meeting. 


The Club purposes this winter to bring out a committee report hinting at a 
flexible course of study in manual training for the grades. This report will 
deal with the subject in a broad way from the standpoint of the boy rather 
than the work attempted. It is hoped that it may be made available for general 
distribution thru its publication by some agency that will give it a wide circula- 

The winter's program always includes two or more trips to the social 
camp owned bv the Club on the Concord River at Bilierica, a "get-together" 
dinner at some hotel, several meetings for round table discussion of special 
problems by members of the Club, and meetings arranged for the purpose of 
hearing well-known speakers from other cities. 




The seventh annual convention of the National Society for the Promotion 
of Industrial Education, held in Grand Rapids, Michigan, October 23-25, was 
a success in everj^ way, the audiences being the largest the Society- has ever 
known. The schools were closed on Thursday and Friday and the teachers at- 
tended the sessions in large numbers. 

The Friday afternoon session, devoted to a consideration of vocational 
education of girls and women, was the climax of the convention. The spacious 
auditorium of the Fountain Street Baptist Church was crowded to the doors, 
and many persons were unable to gain admission. Mrs. William F. McKnight, 
former president of the Ladies" Literary Club, Grand Rapids, presided, 
and the following addresses were given: "What Industrial Training Should 
We Give the Average Girl?" Miss Ida M. Tarbell, Associate Editor, "American 
Magazine;" "The Place of Home Making in Industrial Education for Girls," 
Mrs. Eva White, Agent for Vocational Education, Massachusetts State Board of 
Education; "\^'hat the National Society- is Planning to do for the Vocational 
Training of Girls and Women," Miss Cleo Murtland, Assistant Secretary', Na- 
tional Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education. 

Three important contributions were made by the Society at this convention 
in the form of Bulletins published: 1. "The Short L'nit Course for Trade Ex- 
tension and Part-Time Trade Extension Schools," by Wesley A. O'Leary, in 
collaboration with Secretary C. A. Prosser; 2. "Report of the Committee on the 
Selection and Training of Teachers for State Aided Industrial Schools for Boys 
and Men," A. Lincoln Filene, Chairman; 3. "What Chambers of Commerce 
Can Do for Vocational Education," by Alvin E. Dodd, with the collaboration of 
Secretary Prosser. These reports will repay careful study. 

Two other addresses attracted special attention, Professor Dewey's analysis 
of the question of "unit" versus "dual" control of vocational schools, and Professor 
Richards" statement of the principles that should guide in the study of an industry 
for purposes of vocational education and vocational guidance. Lack of space 
prevents a more adequate account of the conventior. 

At the business session on Saturday morning President Redfield was reelected, 
as were also the outgoing members of the Board of MLnagers with tvvo exceptions. 
The reports of officers and committees presented indicate that the office of the 
secretarv of the Societv is a veritable hive of industrv. 


Three days earlier in the same week with the convention of the National 
Society- there was held a Vocational Guidance Conference, October 21-23, at 
Grand Rapids, which resulted in the organization of a National Vocational 
Guidance Association. Five sessions were held, with a splendid array of papers 
and addresses and enthusiastic audiences. 


The officers of the new organization are: president, Frank M. Leavitt, Uni- 
versity of Chicago; vice-president, Miss Alice P. Barrows, director of the 
vocational education survey, New York, N. Y. ; secretary, Jesse B. Davis, princi- 
pal. Central High School, Grand Rapids, Michigan:; treasurer, James S. Hiatt, 
secretary, Public Education Association, Philadelphia. Five members were elected 
to serve Avith the officers as an executive council. It was voted to place the 
membership dues at $1 per year. 

At a meeting of the executive council on Friday evening important policies 
were shaped, and plans laid for aggressive work during the year. It was 
decided to designate education, published by the Manual Arts 
Press, Peoria, Illinois, as the official organ of the Association. 


The executive committee of the Club held its first meeting of the year on 
September 26th, and decided to devote the first part of the year's work to an 
intensive and firsthand study of certain technical and trade schools in New 
York and vicinity, giving part of the time also to art interests. 

The first step in this direction has been made possible thru the kindness of 
Frank E. Mathewson, a member, who has invited the Club to hold one of its 
meetings at the Dickinson High School, Jersey City. This is one of the most 
progressive high schools of the kind in the east, and an exceptional opportunity 
will be given the members to visit the school while 't is in full operation. 

Another school to be visited will probably be Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, tho 
this has not yet been definitely settled. 

The first regular meeting of the Club was held on Frida\' evening, Novem- 
ber 14th, at w'hich time the members were presented with a booklet containing a 
copy of the ex-president's letter, marking the close of the first decade of the 
Club's existence ; the revised Constitution and By-Laws ; list of members ; and a 
retrospect of last year's work. The committee in charge of the publication con- 
sisted of the officers of last year, president, William F. Vroom ; vice-president, 
Morris Greenberg; and secretary, Charles W. Ledley. 

— The Publicity Committee. 


During the past year the Society has increased its membership over 100 
per cent, and a number of important committees have been at work, as follows: 

Research : This committee has been entrusted with the work of getting 
together a set of standard cross-sections which will meet all requirements, and 
also the task of compiling and publishing a set of suitable data sheets. 

Publication: This committee was directed by the Board of Governors to 
publish a Journal of the Society, which has been accomplished, the first number 
appearing in September, 1913. This committee has also done valuable work in 
editing papers prior to publication. 

Employment: This committee, thru a Department of Employment, has been 
particularly active in securing positions for membeis, and has been of special 


benefit to employers who, hitherto, have been compelled to hunt thru piles of 
advertisements or else trust to the tender mercies of agencies. 

Meetings: Assisted by the president, this committee has secured lectures and 
papers from members for the monthly meetings, and also has purchased a 
stereopticon for use in illustrating the same. 

— Walter M. Smyth, Secretary, 

74 Cortlandt St., New York, N. Y. 


A meeting of manual training teachers was held at the Parker school. Con- 
cord, New Hampshire, on October 17th, 1913, for the purpose of considering the 
organization of a state manual training association. Eleven men were present, 
and after full discussion it was decided to organize "The New Hampshire 
Manual Training Club." This was done, and the following officers elected: 
President, F. E. Browne, Manchester; vice-president, E. W. Beck, Nashua; 
secretary-treasurer, A. W. French, Concord. A committee was appointed to 
draw up the details of organization, incli.ding Constitution and By-Laws, and to 
prepare a report for a future meeting. 

— Raymond P. Oilman, Secretary, pro tern. 

The fifth annual meeting of the Drawing Section of the New Hampshire 
State Teachers' Association was held at Concord, October 17th, 1913. The newly 
elected officers are: president, Arthur W. French, Concord; secretary-treasurer, 
Charles M. Curl, Manchester. Exhibits from a large number of cities were 
displayed, including work in pencil, crayon, water color, and pen and ink, 
from all grades of the elementary schools, and from high schools and manual 
training schools. 


The Maine Teachers' Association held its twelfth annual meeting at Bangor, 
October 30, 31, 1913. The program provided for fifteen separate departments, in 
addition to other organizations meeting at the same time and place. One of the 
topics on the program of the Department of Libraries was "Books for Vocational 
Training," by Miss M. G. Fickett, of the Western State Normal School. 

The program of the Department of Manual Training and Drawing included 
the following topics and speakers: "Vocational Guidance as a Phase of Manual 
Training Work," E. H. Harlacher, Gorham ; "Things to do in Paper and Card- 
board Construction," Miss Gertrude Morrell, Aroostook State Normal School, 
Presque Isle; "Why Drafting in the High School?," W. S. Arnold, Bangor; "An 
Office Built by the Boys," Ernest Curley, Lewiston; "A Shop Built by the Boys," 
C. G. Wheeler, Brunswick; "Electric Wiring as a High School Project," G. A. 
Brown, Western State Normal School, Gorham. 


In the Department of Home Economics the following topics were discussed: 
"Industrial Education," W. G. Mallett, principal, Farmington State Normal 
School ; "The School Luncheon," Miss Mar>- S. Coombs, Eastern State Normal 
School, Castine; "Science in the Practice of Home Economics," Professor S. C. W. 
Easley, University- of Maine; "Progress of Home Economics in Maine," State 
Superintendent Payson Smith; "Methods in Teaching Domestic Science," Miss 
Mary Byrne, Brunswick. 


One of the largest and most beneficial meetings of the Manual Training 
Division of the Minnesota Educational Association was held at Minneapolis, 
October 22 to 25, 1913. About 150 manual training men met to discuss the 
current topics in their line of work. 

The program was arranged by George M. Brace of St. Paul, president of 
the Manual Training Division, and it was perhaps the best program ever given 
before the Association. Several speakers of wide reputation addressed the meet- 
ing, the program including the following topics and speakers: 

"Furniture Designs for High School Manual Training," H. J. Scharr, Vir- 
ginia; "The Best Books on Manual Training," Mr. Cooper, Mankato; "Equip- 
ment for Manual Training in Rural Schools," Mr. Davis, International Falls; 
"Working Drawings for Grades," Mr. Pfeiffer, St. Paul;" Manual Training for 
Agricultural Schools," Mr. Knox, Medford ; "Manual Training for (1) the Wage 
Earner, (2) as a Cultural Subject," Supt. R. E. Denfeld, Duluth; "The Manual 
Training Teacher," Pres. L. D. Harvey, Stout Institute, Menomonie, Wis. 

It was voted by the Association to hold a special meeting in the spring to 
exhibit the work of the state and to discuss its progress. Two meetings were 
held, one on Thursday' p. m., and one on Friday p. m., concluding with an 
informal banquet of tlie manual training men. 


On September 20, 1913, the manual training teachers of the Iron Ranges of 
Northern Minnesota met and formed an Association for the purpose of studying 
conditions prevailing in this section and to cooperate with other similar Associa- 
tions and with the practical and other school men of the community. The 
Association has members from about 20 towns and cities and a membership of 
about 30. 

The Association held its first meeting at \'irginia, Minn., at which a program 
was given and the election of oflicers as follows: president, H. J. Scharr, Vir- 
ginia, Minn.; vice-president, R. W. Jackson, Chishnlm, Minn.; Secretary and 
Treasurer, M. B. Elson, Gilbert, Minn. 

The members present visited the largest pine saw mill in the world, located 
in \'irginia, after which they were banqueted by the Domestic Science Department 
as guests of the Board of Education. 

The next meeting will be held at Hibbing, Minn., November 15, 1913. 



The College Art Association will hold its third annual meeting in Chicago, 
on the 29th and 30th of December, in the Harper Memorial Library building 
of the University of Chicago. Over fifty colleges and universities are represented 
in this association, which aims to promote and standardize efficient instruction in 
the fine arts in American institutions of higher education. The committee on 
courses of study will make important reports at the Chicago meeting. Holmes 
Smith, of Washington University, St. Louis, is president of the association and 
C. F. Kelley, of the University of Illinois, is secretary. 


The Association of Indiana Industrial Teachers was organized at the 
December, 1912, meeting of the Indiana State Teachers Association. Its second 
meeting was held at Gary, October 31st and November 1st. The program in- 
cluded the following speakers and subjects: F. D. Crawshaw, Manual Arts for 
Vocational Ends; H. I. Wilhite, Logansport, Shop and Drawing Work in the 
Seventh and Eighth Grades; H. M. Appleman, South Bend, Incidental Teachings 
In the Shop; Harry E. Wood, Indianapolis, Semi-Industrial Work in the Grammar 
Grades; G. E. Wulfing, Gary, The Purpose and Plan of the Gary Public Schools. 

The officers of the association are M. L. Laubach, Terre Haute,, president, 
C. F. Wintersteen, Hartford City, secretary, and Paul Covert, Indianapolis High 
School, vice-president. 

The convention of the National Society for the Promotion of Industrial 
Education at Grand Rapids, October 23-25, provided opportunities for the exe- 
cutive committees of several Associations to meet for the purpose of discussing 
plans and policies for the year, and to lay out programs. Among the Associations 
that were able to transact important business in this way were: the Michigan 
Industrial Arts and Science Association, the Wisconsin School Arts and Home 
Economics Association, and the Illinois Manual Arts Association. 

The Cleveland, Ohio, Manual Training Club has been making a careful 
study of the various manual training and industrial schools in its section of the 
state. Corporation schools, Y. M. C. A. schools, and public schools have been 
investigated. The Club proposes also to take up a study of the advisibility of 
introducing elementary industrial schools as a means of retaining more pupils 
in school. 

The New York State Teachers' Association held its annual convention in 
Syracuse, November 25th. The Art, Manual Training, and Home Economics 
Sections have united to form a stronger organization, under the name Manual 
Arts Section. The principal address at the combined session was given by 
Professor Dexter S. Kimball, Sibley College, Cornell University, on "Function 


as a Factor in Design." In the afternoon three divisional round tables were 
held, with the following leaders of discussion: Vocational and Manual Training, 
Lewis H. Wilson, State Education Department, Albany, N. Y.; Art Education, 
Miss Matilda Miett, superv'isor of drawing, Syracuse; Home Economics, Miss 
Elizabeth Lange, State Normal School, Buffalo. 

The California Teachers' Association of Manual Arts has been discontinued 
as a separate organization, its place being taken by a number of smaller Associa- 

The Buffalo, New York, Manual Arts Association plans a series of five 
special meetings for the J'ear, one to be devoted to each of the several lines of 
work represented in the membership. The first meeting, held in October, was a 
social evening. The second is to be devoted to a discussion of the problems of 
vocational and technical training. The third meeting will consider topics 
related to manual training; the fourth, domestic science and domestic art; and 
the fifth, art and music. A vigorous campaign Is being waged by the member- 
ship committee to enlist the interest and active support of everybody in the city 
connected with the various arts and crafts. 

The Connecticut Manual Arts Teachers' Association holds two meetings 
each year. In October and April, the program consisting of a general session, 
and sections devoted to shopwork and art Interests, respectively. 

The Kansas Manual Arts Association has t^vo important committees at work 
in preparation for reports and discussion at the next meeting. One committee is 
making a study of "Uniform Courses of Study in Mechanical Drawing," and 
the other "A Course of Study in Woodwork for the Grades." One of the topics 
for discussion at this meeting Is to be 'The Importance of Exhibits: How to 
Prepare and Use Them." 


George A. Seaton, Editor. 

A problem that can well be undertaken in any region of winter snows is 
the sled shown in the drawing of C. M. Williams of Elyria. From 90 to 100 
of these sleds have been made under Mr. Williams' direction each year for 
the past seven years and the needs of the town do not yet seem to be supplied. 




fiUTTIAJC OAf /?lJ/^A/f:f>-S 

^ — Mid^/^^ay 6«''k*c«'. oc^' o/n 'no hofttt 



The runners are made from white ash % by 5% inches, the top of yellow 
poplar and the crossbeams of white ash, oak or any hard wood 1 by 1 inch. 
The ends of these beams are finished round with a hollow auger. Each cross 
beam is braced with a strip of the runner iron bent and attached as shown in 
the sketch. 

The runner irons are made from Vz inch half oval strips and are 3 feet 9 
inches long for a 3-foot sled, 4 feet 3 inches long for a 3%-foot sled and 4 
feet 9 inches long for a 4-foot sled. They are all to be drilled as shown in the 
sketch, the third hole from the right being placed half way between the two 
adjacent holes, a distance which will vary with the length of the sled. 








The method of applying the runner irons is suggested in four sketches. The 
runner is first placed in the vise with its top edge flush with the top of the vise 
and the end of the runner near the corner of the vise. The first screw is then 
put in place as shown in Fig. 1. Care must be taken not to have the wood 
extend above the vise or it will split when the screw is driven in. The iron 
is next grasped near the wood and bent as shown in Fig. 3. The runner's 
position in the vise is now reversed and the bending continued as indicated in 
Fig 3, while all the screws are placed except the one at the rear end, 

continual care being exercised to 
keep the wood flush with the top of 
the vise. The rear end of the run- 
ner is finally placed in the vise as 
shown in Fig 4, the iron is bent 
around the end with a hammer and 
the last screw driven home. 

Of the making of book racks there 

BOOK RACK. . J , 1-1 

IS no end, yet the one shown m the 
photograph is out of the usual run and is surely quite attractive. The design is 
b\' W. E. Hackett, Reading, Pennsylvania. 


A large majority of the furniture problems of the manual training shop 
have their origin in the needs of the living room of the house so the light 
serving table shown for use in the dining room will be of especial interest. The 
design for this easily constructed and satisfactory piece of furniture was sent 
by R. E. Poplett, of Mattoon, Illinois, under whose supervision the project 
has been undertaken. 


For those who have a bird in their home the drawing contributed by E. F. 
Kranquist of the Northeastern State Normal School, Talequah, Oklahoma, 
may be very suggestive. A small round top table is made and tv^'o of its legs 
are allowed to extend above the top where they are joined together by a gabled 
cross arm which provides a support for the bird cage. 


Any who are interested in making stools for either tiie drawing or 
domestic science departments, will find the working drawings of the square- 
legged stool of value. This has been used in the Odd Fellows Orphans Home 





Bird Table 

/-/^Lr LAf> >JO/r/r 

DOW£^L />/A/'5 OR 2g 








ii, 1 1. 

Ci^?Sj.? Pedestal 



A eB 




at Lincoln, Illinois, hy Harold C. Porter, who says concerning the stool, "The 
advantage of this kind of a stool is in the leg. Two true surfaces are first obtained 
from which it is quite eas\- for a boy to obtain the desired other two sides. The 
rails can be made from %-inch dowel rods. In putting them together, I 
made a clamp by means of which I did away with the use of two or three bar- 
clamps and with this arrangement was able to put a chair together with hot 
glue in about 25 minutes. The top is square with rounded corners." 


An article of occasional use about the home and of frequent use around 
the school is the pedestal. The one illustrated in the photograph is from the 
design of W. E. Hackett of the Boys' High School, Reading, Pennsylvania. The 
two uprights are joined together in a rather unusal half-lap joint. 



A three-story annex to the high school has been erected in La Crosse, 
Wisconsin, as the result of a generous bequest from Frank P. Hixon. This 
annex is devoted to the uses of the manual arts department and includes, also, a 
gymnasium. It is connected with the high school building by two corridors. 

On one floor are located the rooms for mechanical drawing, for woodworking, 
and tvvo vacant rooms to allow for later expansion of the department. On the 
lower floor are found a lumber-storage room with outside entrance, the lathe 
and mill room, the machine shop, the foundry, the forge shop, and a wash and 
locker room. The remainder of the building is devoted to the gymnasium, with 
swimming tank, shower bath-room, and locker room. 

The mechanical drawing room accommodates twenty drafting tables. In this 
room each student will spend ninety minutes a day, two days each week, thruout 
the four years of the high school course. The room for benchwork is equipped 
with twenty-four benches, a small jointer, a patternmaker's lathe, a small band 
saw, and a revolving oil stone. Here joinery, cabinet making, and pattern-mak- 
ing will be taught, the machine equipment in this room being provided for the 
work in pattern-making. The bench room is separated from a finishing room by 
a glass partition. This bench room is the best lighted room in the building. 

An elevator connects the bench room with the lumber room on the floor 
below. Adjoining the lumber room is the mill and lathe room, equipped with 
ten wood-turning lathes, a planer, rip-saw, cut-off saw, jointer, tenoner, mortiser, 
grindstone, and band-saw. In this room the students, in milling lumber ready 
for the woodworking shop, will be given experience on each machine so that 
they will know how to operate all of these machines when they enter a com- 
mercial shop. 

The machine shop is equipped with substantial benclies underneath the 
windows and the usual complement of machines, run b\" electric motor, includ- 
ing a planer, cold-metal saw, three engine lathes, drill press, sensitive drill, 
speed lathe, tool and cutter grinder, emery wheel, and milling machine. The 
course in machine shop practice is given to seniors for ninety minutes a day, 
three days a week. 

The foundry equipment consists of a cupola, a brass fumrce, and a core 
oven. Stalls or brackets \\ ill be provided on the wall under the windows for snap- 
flask work, and the center of the room is to be used for floor-moulding. Ninetv 
minutes, three days a week, is the time allotment for this room. The \vork will 
be taken by second and third year students in the last lialf of eacli \ear. They 
will mould the patterns made in the pattern-making course. 

The forge room is equipped with twelve down-draft forges, anvils and tools, 
two fans, two sixteen-foot benches with blacksmith's vises, a trip hammer, emerv 



wheel, and power shears, the three latter being connected with a five-horse-power 

An interesting thing in connection with the new building is that the instal- 
lation of all equipment, except the foundry equipment, was done by the students 
of the manual training department. Much of the furniture, also, was made by 
them. This work of installation was done slowly and carefully as a project, and 
thru the study of shafting, putting in belts, and placing the machines so that 
each machine would have sufficient clearance and would interfere with no other 
machine, the boys gained invaluable experience and an insight into many 
practical problems in the factory world. 

The students have done considerable productive work the past year, including 
six teachers' desks, twenty drawing-tables, and five benches for the new annex, 
together with many odd jobs and repairing. Arrangements have been made 
for a large order of furniture for the schools to be made this year, in fact the 
department expects to handle all the school repairing and furnishing. 

The aim of the work in this department is not the teaching of any one trade, 
but rather the giving of a general foundation in the basic principles applicable 
to all trades. However, practical methods and commercial shop record keeping 
are employed as much as possible to give the student familiarity with industrial 
life. The work of the department is intended as a means of vocational guidance, 
and as a means of building the kind of character that will result in vocational 
efficienc}'. Supervisor Erwin A. Peart has summed up briefly the points boys 
finishing the course should have gained: 

1. An equivalent to two years apprentice work. 

2. How to work metal and wood. 

3. A general knowledge of the common lines in manufacturing and a 
realization of the relation of one to the other. 

4. The ability to read working drawings intelligently, making the workman 
more independent and taking up less of the time of the foreman he may 
be under. 

5. The ability to think for himself and to proceed with the problem in hand 
in a workmanlike way. 

With these aims in view and with a new building, generously equipped, the 
La Crosse manual arts department should go far toward setting new and higher 
standards for western Wisconsin. 


Prevocational classes were organized in two of Tacoma's school buildings at 
the opening of the present school year. In a circular of information sent out to 
patrons, Superintendent W. F. Geiger stated that these classes are intended to 
benefit three t}'pes of pupils; first, those who are likely to be compelled to earn 
their own way as soon as they become fifteen years of age; second, those who are 
mechanically inclined, that is, those who are planning to follow a trade; third, 
those whose needs seem not to have been met by the regular grade work and 
who desire a course of study which will give them more manual training or 
home economics. 


The prevocational classes are open to any boy or girl who has completed 
successfully the work of the sixth A class, who has the recommendation of the 
principal from the last school attended, and whose parent or guardian makes 
a written request for the pupil's admission. This presents the prevocational 
class as a privilege, not as a last resort for backward pupils, a distinction which 
has much to do with the attitude of both parents and pupils. 

Separate classes for boys and girls are provided, the membership in each 
class being limited to twenty-five. This totals fifty pupils at each of the two 
centers. The school day begins at nine o'clock in the morning and closes at three 
t^vent\-five in the afternoon. One half of the school day is devoted to manual 
training or home economics; the other half to arithmetic, language, penmanship, 
spelling, hygiene, history or geography. 

Pupils completing the required two year's course in the prevocational classes 
will be admitted to high school on an equal footing with those from the regular 
grammar grades. 

The academic work in these classes is a good example of reduction to 
essentials, and the following outlines show how correlation with shopwork may 
be accomplished and how a vocational content may be given to the old established 
subjects in the school curriculum: 

Fundamental processes with fractions and decimals. 


The measures and their applications. 

Areas of rectangles, triangles, and circles. 

Percentage and applications. 

Problems to be drawn from shopwork. 


Keeping simple accounts. 
Geography : 

Simple map reading. 

Study of natural resources, industries, and products. 

Trade routes and industrial lines. 

Location of trade centers. 

Visits to wharves, mills, and factories. 
History : 

Important facts of U. S. History, presented biographically. 

Special emphasis on Civics in last half of last year. 
Hygiene : 

Health rules for shop and home. 

Care of body. 

Reading along industrial, commercial, and historical lines. 
Spoken and Written English : 


Dictation for punctuation, capitals, margins. 


Letter writing: 


Applying for a position. 

Ordering goods. 

Aclvnowledge receipt of goods. 

Asking for a recommendation. 

Writing a telegram. 


Postal information. 

Explanation of processes. 
Grammar for the advanced division: 

Nouns — Kind, number, possessive case. 
Verbs — Tense, agreement. 
Pronouns — Case. 
Adjectives — Comparison. 
Spelling : 

From words in other work. 


The Board of Education in St. Cloud, Minnesota, recently adopted a plan 
for giving credit for outside work toward graduation from the high school. The 
purpose of the plan is to unite the home and the school ; to connect the work 
of the school with the life going on outside, and to encourage the pupils to 
spend a part of their spare time at some useful occupation. It is hoped that the 
plan will direct their work in a measure toward everyday, practical tasks; will 
train them for service, not merely the acquisition of knowledge; and that they 
will become better fitted for the actual conditions around them, for complete 
living. The ideal toward which all such work tends is industrial, social, and 
home efficiency. 

The arrangements of credits for gaining the high school diploma are as 

16 Units are required for graduation, at least 15 of which shall be regular school 

credits. One credit may be granted for systematic and definite home or con- 
tinuation work as outlined below. 

17 Units are required for graduation ZL-il/i credit, two of which may be for home 

or continuation work. Standings must average pass plus or above SO. 

18 or more units are required for graduation ^i-ith honor, three of which mav 

be for home or continuation work. Standings must average pass double 

plus or above 90. 

Pupils may graduate on the old plan, with 16 or more regular school units. 
To graduate ^-it/i credit on this basis an average standing of pass plus must 
be obtained, and for graduation zi-it/i honor, standings must average pass double 



The following outside \\ork when properI\- certified will receive credit as 
indicated: Regular Aveekly piano, violin, cornet, pipe organ or voice lessons, 
under an accredited instructor, ^i unit per year for not to exceed four vears; 
Acti\e meinbership in an\ iiigh school or appro\ed city musical organization % 
unit per year; High school glee club or chorus \vork \'\ unit per year; (Credit 
for music work is limited to 1% units) ; Literary society work, or rhetoricals, de- 
bate, public speaking or expressive reading ^4 unit per year; Granite or paving 
block cutting, or work in any of the local trades, shops, factories or industries ^4 
unit for each summer vacation; Clerking in store, bank, bindery, publishing house 
or office ^/4 unit for three months; Steady work on a farm, followed by a satis- 
factory essay on some agricultural subject, Vi unit for three months; Horticulture, 
gardening, poultry raising or bee culture with essay ^,4 unit for one season; 
Raising one-fourth of an acre of onions, tomatoes, strawberries or celerv, one 
acre of potatoes, two acres of pop corn, five acres of corn or alfalfa, ^4 of a unit; 
Running a split road drag or doing other forms nf road building for three months, 
^i unit; Judging, with a degree of accuracy, the different types of horses, cattle 
and hogs, \i unit; Selecting, drying and testing seed corn, ],\ unit; Faithful 
definite work in the home, with well written essay on suitable topic, ^4 unit for 
three months; China painting, oil painting, crayon, burnt wood, art needle 
work or other handicraft or home decoration work, with exhibit, ^4 unit; Three 
months' employment In a dressmaking establishment, ^4 unit; Three months' 
employment as nurse, '4 unit; Three months' summer vacation travel, with 
written description, J4 unit; "See Minnesota First" trip under approved instructor, 
Avith essay, V-i, unit. 


The following home tasks when well done and certified by parent or guardian 
will represent % of one unit or credit: 1. Shingling or painting the house or 
barn; 2. Making a canoe or boat; 3. Swimming 300 feet at one continuous 
performance; 4. Installing three or more electrical conveniences In your mother's 
home; 5. Taking sole care of an automobile for one season; 6. Preparing one 
meal alone daily for three months; 7. Baking the bread for three months; 8. 
Cooking meat and eggs three ways and making three kinds of cake, exhibit; 9. 
Making beds daily for three months; 10. Doing the laundry work weekly for 
three months; 11. Making a waist, dress or night-gown or other wearing ap- 
parel or articles for the home; 12. Making a hat or cap; 13. Keeping a 
flower garden, with ten choice varieties of flowers; 14. Recognizing and describ- 
ing twenty different native birds, trees and flowers; 15. Sleeping for one year 
In the open air or with open window; 16. Keeping a systematic savings bank 
account for one year, with regular monthly deposits. 


Thru the cooperation of the Consumers' League and the Board of Education, 
a prevocational school has been organized in Louisville. Louis A. Bacon Is In 


charge of the industrial work and Miss Edith Lovell has the academic work. 
The industrial work at present consists of woodworking, printing, and book- 
binding. The students are grouped in two divisions, each division spending 
half of each daj' in the industrial work. There are twenty boys and twelve girls 
enrolled. These were selected from those children who had already left school 
to go to work or who intended to do so as soon as thev were fourteen years of age. 
The school hopes to hold these pupils two years. The way will be made possible 
for them to enter the high school when their teachers recommend them for 

The work in woodworking and other industrial subjects differs from the 
work in manual training given to the other seventh and eighth grades in the 
city, in that the time element is considered and that the work is differently 
organized. In manual training a boy makes a table by himself, making and 
finishing all parts alone. In the prevocational class children work together on 
several tables, one group working on legs, another on the tops, another on finishing 
and so on. In the print-shop the pupils work under a pupil-foreman and turn 
out printing jobs for the schools. 

The academic work is made very practical and is closely linked v.ith the 
shop ■tvork. The bovs and girls are doing the same work in both shop and 
classroom in this school. 

As in prevocational schools in other cities, the work in the Lousiville school 
aims to hold the pupils in school longer by vitalizing all phases of school work; 
to give the pupils an idea of the various practical activties of life and the 
industries of their city, thus forming a basis for vocational choice; and to give 
them acquaintance with industrial standards, especially the value of time. For 
instance of this last point, the boy who is slow but accurate is praised for his 
accuracy but is urged to a quicker pace, while the boy who is quick but in- 
accurate receives such training as will improve his accuracy without loss of 

One feels, in noting points like these in the prevocational school, that this 
individual, corrective instruction is what every pupil in the public school needs, 
but, unfortunately, the deficiencies do not as frequently reveal themselves under 
the usual routine and the large number of pupils under one teacher in the 
average schoolroom forbids the analysis of personal peculiarities and the 
individual attention necessarv to correct them. 


At Ellendale, in the southern part of North Dakota, is located the North 
Dakota State Normal and Industrial School, a school with a large field of activity 
and courses of studv adapted to the needs of several different types of students. 
Willis E. Johnson, formerly vice-president of the Northern Normal and Industrial 
School of Aberdeen, South Dakota, became president of the Ellendale institution 
this year. Under his administration the school will undergo a few important 
changes and v.ill continue its policy of broad service and of education for 


efficiency. Two changes alread\- made are the elimination of preparatory students 
and the arrangement for practice teaching in the city schools. 

Three main classes of students are served by the school ; eighth grade grad- 
uates who desire a high school education, or a high and normal school education; 
high school graduates who desire normal training; and any students, regardless 
of preparation, who wish to gain proficiency in some subject or line of work by 
means of short courses. 

The work of the school is arranged in two main departments, normal and 
industrial, altho the work of the two departments necessarily joins in the pre- 
paration of students for teaching manual training or domestic economy. The 
industrial department, besides its work of teacher-training, trains young men and 
women for industrial life or for further technical study in higher institutions. 
For this purpose the department is subdivided into departments of mechanic arts, 
agriculture, fine arts, commercial work, stenography, and dressmaking. Students 
of this main industrial department have open to them also, intensive one-year 
vocational courses covering fifteen trades. 

Of special communits' service is the work of the winter term of short courses. 
A definite effort is made to give men and women coming for this short course 
work just what will fit their immediate need, in work in the sliops, the kitchen, 
or the academic classes. Seventy people availed themselves of short-course 
opportunities last year. 

The school has a total enrolment of three hundred and thirty-nine, and has 
twenty-two instructors. A. E. Dunphy heads the department of mechanic arts. 


In Concord, New Hampshire, is found an example of a vocational class 
which has developed from the work of the manual training department. The 
Morrill school, in Concord, has been used for several years as the headquarters 
for manual training, with A. W. French in charge. Every year there appeared 
in the manual training classes boys who ^vere older than the remainder of the 
class. Mr. French has made a study of this type of pupil and finds that many of 
these older boys can continue their education but a few years and do not expect 
to and usually cannot attend high school. They show exceptional talent for 
mechanical work but if they leave school with no further preparation than that 
offered by the regular elementary school they become unskilled laborers. With 
the increased cost of living the status of the unskilled laborer becomes steadily 
worse, and it was with the hope of helping some of these boys to escape this 
condition that the industrial class was organized, in September, 1911. Ten 
pupils were selected for the first class. Last year the number was increased to 
twenty, averaging over sixteen years in age. 

Mr. French tells of the work in the annual school report, in the following 

"The boys in this department go to the Morrill School six hours a day for 
five davs a week. One half of the time is spent on academic work and the other 
half on shop practice. The academic work consists of English ; the writing of 


compositions on things learned in the shops, on lectures and shop talks, business 
letters, and reports. Mathematics is taught by first reviewing arithmetic and then 
taking up shop problems such as figuring cost of stock for certain jobs, speeds and 
sizes of pulleys to run the machines in the shops. In commercial geography the 
industries, transportation, social and labor conditions are studied in order that the 
boys may gain a practical knowledge of the conditions in the world at large. 
In civics the cit>', state, and national governments are studied and once a week a 
class meeting is conducted by the boys at which debates and discussions are held. 
Current events are studied from newspapers and magazines. In all these sub- 
jects an effort is made to correlate the work very closely with the shop practice 
and the future life of the pupils. The academic work is all taught by the 
same men who teach the mechanical branches. This work could not be taught 
in the other schools for several reasons, the principal one being that these boys 
need male teachers, who are familiar with shop conditions and discipline and 
know just what problems the boys will meet on going to work. 

In the shopwork the pupils are first placed in what is called the prevocational 
division and given instruction in several kinds of work in order to find out 
for what each is best fitted. Just as soon as a boy shows a talent for one kind of 
work more than another he is given as much of it as possible, not with the idea 
of teaching him a trade but of preparing him for it so that when he leaves school 
he will at once apply for an apprenticeship in the work. This differs from 
the work in the mechanic arts course in manual training in that it has a com- 
mercial value and has to be up to a commercial standard. 

The shopwork includes mechanical drawing, wood-turning, forging, machine- 
shop practice, and printing. The work done is largely repair or order work 
for the schools, such as laying new floors, making new desks or tables, placing 
partitions, and printing programs, cards, tickets, report blanks, etc. Some motto 
cards printed at the annual exhibition are exceptionally well done. 

The work of the industrial course has received public recognition and en- 
dorsement from the Board of Trade and the Central Labor Union. This en- 
dorsement together with the increase in enrolment indicates that the course is 
meeting a local need. 


The manual training work in the El Paso, Texas, schools seems to progress 
and widen in its scope in spite of disturbed conditions due to the city's location on 
the border of Mexico. Manual training, mechanical drawing, domestic science 
and domestic art have been taught in El Paso for five years. 

There are eight shops, one mechanical drawing room, ten sewing rooms, 
four domestic science laboratories and one laundry in use at the present time. 
The work in these branches is carried on by a corps of thirteen instructors, in- 
cluding the supervisor. 

Woodworking equipment only is at the service of the manual training 
classes. The work is begun in the fourth grade and is carried thru the tenth 
grade. It includes cardboard construction in the fourth grades; work with thin 
woods in the fifth; bench woodworking in the sixth and seventh; joinery and 


cabinet making in the eiglitli ; advanced cabinet making in tlie nintli and wood- 
turning and pattern-making in the tenth. A two years course in meclianical 
drawing is given in the liigh school. In sewing the work is begun in the fourth 
grades ami is carried thru the ninth grade. The first two years are given entirely 
to hand work. In tlie sixth and seventh grades the making of simple garments 
is taught and machines are used. In the ninth grade cutting and fitting is taught 
together with fancy sewing. In cooking the work is begun in the eighth grade 
and carrieil thru the first year of high school, in the American schools; and in 
grades five to seven in schools made up entirely of Mexican pupils. The laundry 
work is given in the fourth grades in Mexican schools. 

Some innovations in the department this year are: the organization of a 
class in dietetics and invalid cookery for the graduate nurses from the local 
hospitals. The demand for this class has grown out of new requirements in- 
augurated by the State Board of Examiners, for graduate nurses. The local 
hospitals have nut as yet made provision for this kind of instruction, and are 
very appreciative of this move on the part of the domestic science department of 
the public schools. This class is under the direction of the high school domes-tic 
science instructor, Miss Margharetta Le Baron, and is open to any nurses in the 

In the manual training classes an attempt is being made to give the boys in 
the upper grammar grades and high school some real practical work in doing 
odd jobs about the schools, as the painting of signs, building racks for bicycles, 
framing pictures, refinishing and repairing furniture and installing equipment. 
Plans are also under way for the construction of a portable schoolroom, of the 
knock-down type, to be used as an overflow room at buildings where crowded 
conditions exist. In the sewing classes the bean bags, for use in the physical 
training work throughout the schools, are being made, also towels and curtains 
for the domestic science rooms are to be made by the classes. 

The Chamber of Commerce, of the city, has set aside a section in their 
building for a permanent exhibit of the work along industrial lines being 
carried on in the public schools. This exhibit will include this branch of in- 
struction from the kindergarten thru the various types of work in the primarv 
grades, and domestic art and science, manual training, mechanical drawing and 
art, in the grammar grades and high school. The aim is to make this exhibit 
thoroly representative of all that is being done in this line in the public schools 
so that visitors passing thru the city, who do not ha\e time to visit the various 
schools, may see in a concise form what is being done along modern educational 
lines in the city schools. One section of this exhibit will consist of pictures and 
descriptive matter showing and explaining the various shops and laboratories, 
machinery and equipment, and individual pupils and classes at work on the 
construction of the various models on exhibition. 

At the regular monthly teachers' meetings, the manual arts teachers have 
decided to take up, in addition to the regular state reading circle work, the 
stud\' and discussion of the various movements, of tiie present day, along the 
lines of industrial and vocational education. The different members of the 
corps volunteer to write to the school oflRcials in places where new plans are being 


tried and to obtain as much data as possible concerning the plan and its success 
and to report on this investigation at the monthly teachers' meeting. The aim of 
this plan is to encourage teachers to keep in touch \vith advancement in their 
line of work, and to bring to the El Paso schools the best ideas along lines of 
industrial training. 

The supervisor W. A. Burk is assisted by three new instructors in the de- 
parment this year; Mr. E. C. Beezley of Detroit, Michigan, Miss Janet Mack of 
the College of Industrial Arts, Denton, Texas, and Miss Blanche Bailey of the 
Santa Barbara Normal School of Manual Arts and Home Economics, Santa 
Barbara, California. 

Troy, New York, has a new school building, called the Central School, which 
includes grammar grades, vocational classes, and a commercial high school. The 
building is five stories in height and cost close to a half million dollars. 

Departments of manual training, household art, and household science have 
their headquarters in this building. In time, it is planned, the manual training 
department will develop into a department of vocational training, but because 
of the pupils' lack of experience in manual work, the instruction this year will 
be confined to work of a prevocational nature. 

W. C. Smith is principal of the school; S. W. Rounds directs manual train- 
ing; and Miss Mettie B. Hills is in charge of the special work for girls, assisted 
by Miss Helen Ryan and Miss Mary Quigley. 

At Bellows Falls, Vermont, the manual training department includes work 
for grades six, seven, eight, and nine. The boys are devoting the time allotted 
to this department in projects connected with the school. Later in the year 
they will spend some time in making individual projects for their own use, such 
as pieces of furniture. At the suggestion of the superintendent of schools, the 
department has undertaken the building of a grandstand for the public play- 
grounds. When completed it will be 36x18^2 feet and will seat two hundred 
people. Cement foundation blocks will be used at the base of each support. 
The plans have been drawn by the high school class in mechanical drawing. 
Each boy is required to figure the amount of lumber required, the quantity of 
cement to be used, and the time spent in construction. 

In addition to the work being done on the grandstand the boys have re- 
finished many desk tops for the schoolrooms, have laid about SSO stiuare feet 
of wall surface with alabastine, have refinished woodwork, built saw-horses, 
placed blackboards, and have built a tool cabinet. The latest project is tinishing 
three dozen chairs purchased unfinished. 

Edward E. Parlin is supervising the manual training in Bellows Falls. 

Departments of manual training, domestic scieice, and domestic art have 
been installed in Laramie, Wyoming, at a cost of $2,000 for equipment. The 
equipment for manual training consists of double benches, with ten drawers; 
speed lathes with a three horse-power motor; a thirty-two inch band saw; 


and a tool sharpener. At present the subjects taught are joinery, cabinet-making, 
and wood-turning. 

The domestic science department is equipped with electric hot plates, electric 
ovens, electric cooking vessels, magnesium-topped tables, a sixty-gallon hot 
water tank, an individual heater, porcelain sink with double dripping boards, and 
lavatories, cubboards, etc. The domestic art rooms are supplied with the nec- 
cessarv tables, lockers, mirrors, sewing-machines, models, and electric irons. 

The Laramie schools are organized on the "six and six" plan, four vears in 
the Senior High School and two years in the Junior High School. The work in 
the special subjects is optional in the Senior High School, and ninety minute 
periods are given to them. In the Junior High School the work is mandatory. 
Fortv-five minute periods in woodworking alternate with periods in industrial 
and mechanical drawing, while cooking and sewing alternate for the girls. 

Ernest Gilbert, of the Peru, Nebraska, State Normal School, is director of 
the manual training in Laramie. 

Increased interest in art metalwork as a manual training subject is evidenced 
by its introduction this year into the curriculum of several schools, among them 
the College of Industrial Arts in Denton, Texas. Equipment has been installed 
for the use of twelve students at a time. The work is given to such students as 
have had one year of college work, following high school graduation. One 
and one-half hours a week for twenty-three weeks are devoted to the class. 

The facilities of the manual training department of the Huntington, 
Indiana, high school have been increased this year by the addition of equipment 
for mechanical drawing ami art metalwork. The wood-working shop of the 
department is equipped with eighteen benches, six wood-turning lathes, a band 
saw, a table saw, and planer. The beginning students in the high school have 
had three years of woodworking in the grades, so that advanced work is possible. 
W. A. Shock is supervisor of manual training in all the schools and teaches the 
mechanical drawing. F. C. Mahoney has charge of the bench and lathe work 
in the high school. Ninety-two boys are enrolled for the mechanical drawing 
and manual training. 

The girls of the high school are given domestic sciene and domestic art. A 
kitchen is equipped for the use of twenty girls at a time. Miss Mary Grayston 
is in charge. Six sewing tables and five sewing machines furnish the sewing 
department, which is directed by Miss Amy Barnes. 

An annex, costing about $70,000, is being added to the high school in 
Sacramento, California, for the use of the manual arts and vocational training 
departments. Rooms will be provided for forge work, mechanical and freehand 
drawing, sewing, cooking, and millinery work. The annex will be in use in con- 
nection with both the day and evening schools. 


by H. Williams Smith. 

Manual training books of all kinds keep tumbling out of the British publish- 
ing houses, and are to be found in numerous shop windows, in many free 
libraries, on scores of second-hand bookstalls, and, sometimes, on a teacher's 
bookshelves. Some of these books are so bad that I do not know how it can pay 
a man to publish them, and some are so good that I do not know how it can 
paj- a man to write them. Some of the books would be dear at a gift, and some 
of them are worth saving up to get. Some of them are as superfluous and twice 
as harmful as a dime novel, and some of them are equal to the best books issued 
on other school subjects. It is probable that a host of the smaller frv will be 
chased into fitting obscurity by the appearance of a very big fish indeed in the 
shape of "The Book of School Handwork," to be published in six large illustrated 
volumes by the Caxton Publishing Company, of London. The book is under the 
editorship of H. Holman, M. A., who is one of the makers of British manual 
training, and much else besides. He has enlisted a staff of contributors who are 
specialists in their own particular subjects. A volume will appear about every 
two months until the six are complete. The price is somewhere about $13.00 the 
set, which can be paid by instalments. The present notice of the book is not 
written to boom its sale in America, but as a mere item of news, which indicates 
how manual training is progressing in England nov,- that it has got into its stride. 

A London Correspondence College has recently instituted a course in "The 
Pedagogics of Educational Handwork," to meet the requirements of those desiring 
to qualify as teachers of Handwork. Among the subjects dealt with in the 
course are the following: Home industries in education; Play, its nature and 
educational value; The aims of Handwork; Physical and Psychological values 
of Handwork; Primitive and modern industries; Handwork and the defective 
child; Handwork and art; the history of Handwork. For the complete course, 
which may be commenced at any time, a fee of £1-11-6 is charged for 40 lessons. 

At the British Association many are the papers read and efi^orts made for a 
none-too-appreciative British Public. P. B. Ballard, NL A., read one paper on 
"The Need for Experimental Evidence of the Value of Handwork;" and W. F. 
Fowler another on "Manual Work in Education." The London Count>' Council's 
Chief Inspector, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, read an extremely interesting paper on 
"Educational Research." Among the topics for research suggested by him was 
"The Eff^ect of Handwork on Other Branches of Instruction and on General 
Mental Efficiency." 

Teaching is as yet by no means generally recognized as a profession in the 
British Isles, but it is hoped that a good step towards recognition will be made 



by the recent fonnatioii of a Teachers' Registration Council. Hanciwork teachers 
are to be incUuled aiui a special representatixe is to watcli over their interests. 
Sanguine expectations ha\e been raised that salary and status will he bettered 

Tlie Daily Mail recently devoted much space to a description of the evening 
classes conducted by Ben Wilde at Blackley in Lancashire. In one class thirty 
or forty small boys look eagerly on as the teaclier prepares a savorv stew, and 
learn how to make "damper" of flour and water as they make it in the Australian 
bush. In another class the boys sole and heel their own boots, and repair any- 
thing from a stirrup leather to a school bag. In another class the boys build a 
model bridge to the pattern of which they put a real bridge over a real stream 
when the weather permits. Swimming and life saving, ambulance and nursing 
classes are in full swing. Then there is the "handyman's class," where a real live 
painter shows them how to paint a door and paper a room and whitewash a 
ceiling; where a tinker sho\vs them how to solder, and a tailor aids them in 
improvising football "shorts." Is it any wonder that the Manchester City Council 
has decided to open up similar classes in other parts of the city? My word, 
it's worth while being a boy these days ! 

Speaking at the annual meeting of the West Riding (Yorkshire) Association 
for Technical Education, J. Eagles, the new president, made an attack on the 
teaching of handicraft in elementary schools. He said that the manual work 
done in schools was wasteful and expensive, and tliat the children would be 
better educated at half-time work in the factories. British teclinical education 
lives in such a glass house itself, that Mr. l'"agles had better not throw any more 
stones. Virulent attacks on inanua! training ha\e not yet ceased, but it is rare 
that one is made by a technical teaclier. More and better manual training should 
make for more and better vocational training. Perhaps Mr. Eagle's head is not 
sticking far enough above his groove to find out such things. 

A special course of handwork for teachers was arranged last summer in 
Prague, 119 teachers attending. The materials used for the work were paper, 
reeds, tin and clay. A feature of the course was toy-making, for which the 
fruits of plants, cones, ears of corn, poppy beads, chestnuts, acorns and gallnuts, 
osiers, birch twigs, hawthorn, sloe and pine tree barks, moss, and the roots of 
heather were used. The toys, which were made were trees, bushes, animals, 
tools ami dolls, and they were arranged in groups illustrating fairy tales and 
articles in school readers. 

The New South Wales Government at the beginning of the present year 
inaugurated special training in home management for school girls in the larger 
city centers, and the system is now to be extended to the country schools. The 
Minister of Education, Mr. Carmichael, in addressing a large audience of women, 
said that instead of letting tlie girl dabble with a few French sentences that 
were never to be of service, or of inaking her learn algebra and geometry — very 


good things in tiieir way, but not of much use when it came to nursing a baby or 
cooking a chop — the Government had determined that during the two most 
important years of her school life the girls of the State should be trained in the 
direction of domestic science. 

The vacation school of the Passmore Edwards Settlement in Tavistock place, 
W. C, which Americans can locate if I state that you could throw a stone at it 
from the roof of the Hotel Russell, has been held every summer for twelve years. 
Last August it had an average attendance of nearly 1,100 a day, including 
hundreds of the poorest children from the crowded St. Pancras streets. The 
occupations have included drill, gymnastics, dancing, woodwork, cobbling, rug- 
making, needlework, quiet games (I hope there were noisy games, also) story- 
telling, painting and clay modeling, a sandpit for the tiny tots; cookery and 
singing games. Passmore Edwards was a journalist and newspaper proprietor, 
and this settlement beats every kind of statue in keeping his memory green. 

A requisition was received by the London County Council from a head 
master for material for mending and patching garments in connection with the 
handwork lessons. The district inspector strongly supported the application and 
reported to the following effect: "This is a poor school (he meant a school at- 
tended by the poor) and during the past two years a scheme for instructing the 
boys in patching, mending, and sewing on of buttons has been encouraged by 
the head master, assisted by two women teachers. Instruction is limited to one 
hour a week in each of the three lower classes, and all the teachers concerned are 
unanimous in their testimony to the good effects of the lessons. The boys patch 
and mend their clothing, which is often in a deplorable state, and thus are 
taught to take a certain pride in their personal appearance." That inspector 
might have thought, too, of the added comfort where every gap stopped kept so 
much more wind out. After cobbling comes clothes-repairing, and the London 
Teacher plaintively asks "When are we to stop." Ell tell that paper when. 
When all the useless, timewasting, mediaeval survivals are pushed out of the 
school by subjects which meet the needs of the present day. 

The London County Council cannot get enough instructresses of household 
management. On one occasion when 96 were wanted only 84 applied. This 
dearth of candidates is attributed to the following causes: (a) The development 
of the subject in other parts of the country; (b) the high standard adopted by 
the Council in reference to the qualifications; (c) the want of prospects. To 
these should be added, a low scale of salaries. The L. C. C. like most other 
education authorities wants tp get things on the cheap. They want to obtain 
scholarly, motherly women with very high qualifications who will work for 
very low wages. It's a clear case of iion pos. 

A London head mistress appealed for the supply of material for paper-flower 
making by a class of backward and mentally-dull children, as she deemed the 
occupation to be of great educational value, inasmuch as it necessitates careful 


rneasuriiii:, drawing and cutting, and not only provides training in accuracy, 
but also forms an elementary art study mucli enjoyed by tlie cliildren. She 
added that since it dirticult to grow plants in iier hemmed-in locality, the 
paper flowers, when made, were usetl for decorative purposes, and serve to make 
the school brighter and more cheerful. 

In London are employed 399 manual instructors, assistants and nine sup- 
plementary instructors included. There are four organizers and five tool re- 
pairers. Salaries for these amount to £53,4SO. l*p to the last summer holidays 
97 instructors and assistants were passed to the higher maximum. The amount al- 
located for apparatus and materials for manual training in tlie C^iuncil's estimates 
for the current year is £11,000. Sixty-seven applications were made for the 1913 
awards of pupil-teacherships of manual training. Ten candidates were chosen. 
Some of the instructors are now leaving their centers for one or two sessions a 
week and conducting handwork in the ordinary class rooms, for the lower stand- 

The salaries for domestic economy instructresses vary from £75 to £115 
a year in Manchester, from £80 to £110 a year in Bristol, from £70 to 
£120 a year in Glasgow, and from £80 to £115 in Surrey and Middlesex. The 
increments are usually £5 per annum. Some of the extra-metropolitan authorities 
pay better salaries than does the London County Council. 

Englishmen are supposed to be greatly averse to putting all their goods in 
the shop window; this in a metropolitan sense. In a literal sense, T/ie School- 
master has objected strongly to an exhibition in a High Street shop window at 
Barton-on-the-Humber of an interesting collection of specimens of woodwork by 
scholars attending the local day schools, and concludes, "in our opinion advertise- 
ments of this kind are non-educational and unprofessional." 

A housecraft school has been opened at Pentre, Wales, which is fitted up as 
two cottages, having a parlour, bedroom, kitchen, and larder. Between the 
two cottages is a central lecture hall with a full equipment for teaching cookery 
at one end and laundry work at the other. The course includes sick nursing, and 
special attention is given to the care of babies, needlework, and the making of 

Manual occupations are carried on wherever possible by the patients in 
English lunatic asvlums, as an aid to their cure, or an alleviation to their incur- 
ableness. Some time ago a party of London manual instructors visited a great 
asvlum, anil were surpriseti and delighted to see ho\v strong manual training was 
ill the curriculum. A patient in Banning Asylum, Kent, during the past seven 
years has done work valued at £l,00(i, including a chancel screen, a communion 
table, a reredos and a lectern, all of which have been placed in the church 
attached to the institution. 


Light ff'oochvork. A course of Handwork Correlated with Practical Arith- 
metic, Drawing and Composition. By W. S. Alderton and J. T. Baily. Published 
by Edward Arnold, London, 1913. Price, 2s 6d net. 

If "light woodwork" were receiving as much and as favorable attention in 
America as it is in England at the present time this book by the Headmaster of 
the Abbey School at St. Albans, and the former Secretary of the National Associa- 
tion of Manual Training Teachers, would hnd a warm welcome in America, as 
it already has in England. But whether one is teaching elementary woodwork 
or not if he is trying to correlate arithmetic, drawing and construction work in 
any material he will do well to examine the methods of this book. Fractions 
become friends, decimals lose their mystery, geometry is a delight and composi- 
tion writing the logical expression of a happy experience. Many American 
teachers -need the broader viewpoint of this book. 

The book is conveniently arranged and well printed and bound. It contains 
many well-designed models which will be attractive even to teachers who do not 
appreciate the real educational significance of the book. — c. A. b. 

Types of ScliooJs for Young ChilJre?i. Published by The Froebel Society, 
4 Bloomsbury Square, London. Price, Is. 2d by post. 

In the year 1900 there was published by the University of Chicago Press a 
series of nine monographs entitled Tlie EletiT^ntary Scliool Record, which contained 
some of the most valuable material on elementary education that we have ever 
seen ; yet, for some reason, this series of monographs has never been reprinted, 
though it was out of print and in demand almost immediately. It has remained 
for the Froebel Society of England to republish selections from the monographs 
in paper-cover form. The parts selected are the reports of school work done by 
the younger children. 

We commend the action of the Froebel Society, and now we wish that some 
other publisher, English or American would republish the other discussions by 
Professor John Dewey in this Series. For example we need to have available 
the chapter on "Psychology of Occupations" and his "General Introduction to 
Groups V. and VI." in which he discusses skill and ends and motives, also 
"General Principles of Work, Educationally Considered." Such ^vritings never 
get out of date. — c. A. B. 

Hand-Forging and Jf'rougitt Iron Ornamental Work. By Thos. F. Googertv. 
The Popular Mechanics Co., Chicago. 5^4x8 in.; 197 pages, price, $1.00. 

To Mr. Googerty belongs the credit for having produced a unique book that 
ought to have a marked effect upon attempts at ornamental forging. Too often 
such work is attempted without full technical knowledge of the subject, and 
therefore falls short of the goal. While no book can take the place of art training 
and experience as a craftsman, this book will do all that a book can do to make 



up for deficiencies in the teacher, and in tlie liands of the craftsmen and stiulents, 
it is a valuable guide to artistic work in wrought iron. — C. A. B. 


School Janitors, Mothers, titid Health. By Dr. Helen C. Putnam, American 
Academy of Medicine Press, Easton, Pa., 1913; 4"sx7^i ins., 201 pp. Price, 
$1.00, postpaid. 

Quoted from page 170, this sentence is designated the "key-word" of this 
little book: "School is a part of life, not 'preparation' only, and to practice 
pupils in standardizing details affecting health means improving our vital 
statistics — the measure of a nation's right living." The mission of the book is 
"a constructive appeal to organizations of mothers, the housekeepers, to fulfill 
their responsibility for children's well-being outside the walls of the family 
residence as well as inside." "Health habits educate more than health maxims." 

The book consists of three parts, entitled: "I. Prevention of School Fatigue;" 
"II. Mothers" Clubs and Clean Schoolhouses ;" "II. School Janitors and Health;" 
and two added chapters on "Practice Aspects of Biologic Science in School 
Administration: The Problem of Janitor Service," and "The Training of Janitors 
in Sanitary Care of School Premises." 

This is not a theoretical treatise on sanitation, but a collection of practical 
and workable suggestions to parents who are sufficiently interested in their 
children to wish to know how to surround them with the proper environment 
in school as in the home. Why should parents tolerate for their children while 
in school conditions as to dust, cleanliness, and exposure to disease which they 
would not think of permitting to exist in their own home? 

The ideal of this little book is that the best possible conditions for conserving 
and promoting the health and morals of growing children are not too "expensive" 
for any community. Its use as a textbook and guide by fathers and mothers, 
and teachers for that matter, singly or collectively, is sure to result in good for 
the children. — William T. Bawden, Teachers Col. 

Jf'estern Draiving and Manual Training Association ; Proceedings 1913 Meet- 
ing, Des Moines, May 7-10. Wilson H. Henderson, Hammond, Ind., Secretary. 

The twentieth annual report of this association, like previous reports, is a 
volume of unique and permanent value, representing, as it does, the history of 
the art and manual training movements in the making. In the addresses of 
welcome at the Des Moines meeting, and in many others on the more general 
topics, full account was taken of the industrial interests of the time. Lack of 
space forbids discussion of the addresses In detail, but mention should be made of 
the following as of direct interest to manual training supervisors and teachers: 
Art in Vocational Schools by Walter Sargent; Manual and Vocational Education 
by John W. Curtis; Education for Industrial Occupations by George F. Buxton; 
Oriental Art and Handicrafts by Josephine C. Locke; The Relation of Forestry 
to Manual Training; and in the department round table, Technical Carpentry as 
a Subject for Grammar Grade Instruction by Louis F. Olson; and The Possibili- 
ties of Technical Carpentry as a Part of Manual Training in the High Schoo! by 
Clinton S. Van Deusen. 

REl'lEJVS 175 

Report of the Consultative Committee of the English National Board of Edu- 
cation on Practical JVork in Secondary Schools; T. Fisher Unwin, London, W. C. ; 
411 pages; price Is 9d. 

This is an invaluable addition to the literature of manual training including, 
as it does, discussions on handwork as a necessary part of a secondary education, 
the teaching of the various forms of handwork and the correlation of these with 
other branches of school work, the rural secondary school, special questions 
relating to the teaching of domestic subjects, handwork subjects and examinations, 
and lastly, the training of intending teachers of educational handwork. The 
appendix contains syllabuses of various handwork subjects and an historical 
sketch of the development of constructional handwork as an educational subject. 

—V. E. W. 


Fifteenth Annual Report of City Superintendent of Schools, AV-xc York, on 
Evening Schools. Discusses many evening school problems, and presents sta- 

Public Schools of Ufica, Ne^i• York. Includes discussion of the vocational 
school and bureau. 

The Manual Training and Industrial School of j\eiv London, Connecticut. 
Consists of photographs of the school and its work. 

Bulletin of Courses in the Industrial and Household Arts, Glens Falls Public 
Schools, Xeiv York. This pamphlet is interesting as an exposition of the work 
of a department which has made a special study of correlation between art, 
handwork, and household art. 

First .Annual Report of the Pittsburg Board of Education, 1912. First report 
under the new system of school administration and control. Many illustrations 
of interest to superintendents and supervisors. Includes report of Frank H. Ball, 
director of industrial training. The fine appearance of this report is to be com- 

Annual School Report, Concord, iXeiv Hampshire, 1911, 1912. Describes 
Morrill School industrial class. 

Friends of Our Native Landscape. A leaflet describing the object and or- 
ganization of an Illinois association of nature lovers. 

The Moniessori System of Education. T. Fisher Unwin, London, W. C. 
An account of a personal inspection by an English student of childhood. 

Advance Information as to the Panama-Pacific Exposition, 1915. An illustrat- 
ed pamphlet suggesting the scope and opportunities of the exposition. 


Rfport of II Coitjncncf on tlir Tr/uf/i/nr of UanJ'uraft in London Elementary 
Sehodls; Lniulon County Council; P. S. King and Son, London, England. Of 
value for historical and comparative purposes to American teachers and students. 
Concerns the work of intermediate grades. 

Francis J!'. Parker Seliool Year Book; 1913. Published annually by the faculty 
of the Francis \V. Parker School, Chicago. The 1913 volume discusses the 
morning exercise as a socializing influence. Price 3 5 cents. Illustrated. 

T/ie Eiementriry Industrial School of Cleveland, Ohio, by W. N. Hailmann. 
This is Bulletin No. 39 of the 1913 series, published by the United States Bureau 
of Education. Describes an interesting experiment, including opinions of pupils 
and parents. 

Siii^irestioiis for the Teachini^ of Needlei'sork. An English pamphlet publish- 
eil b\ the National l^oard of Education. 

./;/ A ppreciation o\ the American Home as the Basis of Public School Art, 
by Ethelwyn Miller and Gertrude Davidson. This is a Miami University Bulle- 
tin, published at Oxford, Ohio. Contains an outline of subject-matter relating 
to the topic with valuable references to both books and magazines, on such 
subjects as pergolas, gates and gateways, doors, etc. 

Cataloir of the (^ass Technical High School, of Detroit, Michigan. Describes 
one of the newer technical high schools, with continuation school departments. 

.In Educational Survey of a Suhurhtni and Rural lUiuuty, by \\. N. Morse, 
E. Fred Eastman, and A. C. Monahan. A survey of Montgomery county, Mary- 
land, as a typical example of nual educational conditions. Bulletin No. 32, 1913. 
United States Bureau of Education. 

The Kent State Normal School Quarterly, Tirst Annual Catalog, 1913. A 
catahig of a new normal school in Northeastern Ohio. 

The Child Labor Bulletin, August, 1913, Child Labor Stories for Children, 
published by National Child Labor Committee, 105 East 22iid Street, New York 
City. Intended to interest children in the work of the committee. 

Fifteenth Annual Report of City Superintendent of Schools of Ne-xu York 
Concerning Art in Higli Schools, Drawing in Elementary Schools and Shop- 
work in Elementary Schools. Interesting illustrations of drawing work, and 
statistics regarding some new phases of shopwork. 

The Neivton Public Schools: Annua! Report of School Committee, Newton, 
Mass. The material of this report is jiresented in a new and unicjue way as 
answers to pertinent questions. 

Dr. Alwin Pabst. 
(See Editorial.) 





E. H. Harlacher. 

ONE of the principal causes back of the present widespread 
interest in manual training in the public schools is the rapidly 
growing demand on the part of society for "education for 
service", for education that fits a man for his job. Each of us leads a 
more or less job-centered life, and to the great majority of us the job 
decides our worldly weal or woe. So important is this felt to be that 
some of our labor unions would add it to our inalienable rights — life, 
liberty, happiness, and a job. If the state is to be held responsible for 
the employment of its citizens it must furnish them an opportunity to 
prepare for this employment. 

For a long time it was held by both employer and employed that 
school preparation for manual vocations is impossible. They held to 
this position, even while admitting the possibility of professional train- 
ing and even of commercial training, until the three-fold wedge of 
correspondence schools, agricultural schools, and shop schools was 
driven home and toppled over their wall of prejudice. The idea of a 
pre-trade preparation in our public schools came with a rush. It is 
upon us at this moment. Once manual instruction for purely educa- 
tional or cultural purposes was very progressive thought; at present it 
is admitted without question, and we have passed on to a consideration 
of its value as prevocational training. 

It is interesting to note that the superintendents scattered over the 
country were the first to appreciate that a new demand is being made on 
our manual training departments. The explanation is not diflGcult to 
find, for it is the superintendent who is in closest touch with the people. 
He stands between the school and the world. In this case he lacked 



definite courses of study, suitable textbooks, trained instructors, and in 
many instances adequate funds; but he is making good. 

It has often seemed to me, however, a strange paradox that the 
superintendent many times discredits his own work. After months or 
years of campaigning, planning, and sacrificing, he locates the manual 
training center in some out-of-the-way place distant from the academic 
centers of the public schools. The attic or the basement, unfortunately, 
often must receive this last addition to the family. Rarely does the 
superintendent visit an entire recitation, tho manual training recitations 
frequently violate good pedagogy. The quarters for this department 
are often dingy, poorly lighted and ventilated, even when compared with 
the poorest schoolroom in the system. The manual training periods are 
slipped in any way to suit the regular program. Boys instinctively 
feel that somewhere there is a low valuation placed on this line of work. 

Some of us are properly housing our departments this year for the 
first time. I predict a radical change in these schools and in these 
communities. Much of this discrediting is done unconsciously, and 
none of it intentionally, and it is, therefore, with confidence that I call 
attention to this method of vitalizing the courses in manual training. 


Manual training courses of study may be divided conveniently into 
four parts : ( 1 ) The elementary construction period, following the 
busy work of the kindergarten and ending with the fourth grade; (2) 
The advanced construction period ending with the sixth grade; (3) 
The formal manual training period ending with the eighth grade ; and 
(4) The vocational manual training period ending with the last year in 
the high school. Recognizing that there arc periods having different 
requirements as to aim, content, methods of presentation, projects, and 
materials upon which to work, superintendents are in a position to 
vitalize the work by formulating it and distributing the responsibility. 

One trouble with some of the work in manual training now going 
on is that it is being attempted at the wrong time or in the wrong place. 
A progressive community pushing an ambitious instructor is often to 
blame for this. For example, not long ago I saw some fifth grade boys 
making wooden picture-frames joined at the corners by half-lap or 
middle-lap joints. The teacher seemed blissfully ignorant of the fact 
that the children were being given something that was more appropriate 


for the ninth grade. The "beavered" joints were anything but satis- 
factory. Not only this, but the novelty which these boys should enjoy 
when they are read)- for this model has been destroyed. Working on this 
theory, I think it would be well if all work in wood could be kept out 
of the fifth and sixth grades. 

There is another form of misplacing almost as unfortunate, and 
that is an unwise extension of the formal period into the vocational 
period. Instructors with a formal training only, lacking shop experience 
or the ambition t(j get such experience, often mark time in the ninth 

There is one method of attempt at vitalizing the work that some- 
times defeats its very object. The superintendent wishes to show how 
practical his course is. A suite of furniture is needed in the office. 
Can the boys in the manual training department make it? Certainly. 
And the ship is off on a troubled voyage. The supervisor knows that 
with the boys, machinery, and time at his disposal it will take about 
three years to fill the contract. This will never do, and so he drafts 
all the h(jys in both the formal and vocational periods ; no time is 
spent in recitation; the work in drawing is discontinued; and 
manual training becomes manual labor. A year of toil like this and 
the office is furnished! As compared with other misplaced projects 
there is more to commend in this sort of thing, but it would be well 
for the superintendent to spend some time considering the sacrifice 
before he agrees to a proposition of this kind. 


There are two very important personages about a modern sawmill. 
The one scales the logs as they are drawn up into the mill, the other 
measures the lumber as it is being sorted at the other end of the mill. 
The manager has merely to compare the estimate of the lumber in the 
log with the actual lumber produced to judge of the efficiency' of his 
crew. It would vitalize the manual training work if some method could 
be devised by which the efficiency could be tested. In academic subjects 
we have written and oral tests, besides constant cross reference between 
teachers of different branches which would detect superficial teaching 
almost immediately. There should be some similar check on the work 
of the manual training supervisor and instructor. Sets of questions 
made out by the superintendent to be given to the classes, reports of 
vocational guidance work, reports of shop visits or other work connected 


with the local industries, maj' be suggestive along this line. It is 
imperative that the manual training work be tested in some way during 
the year, and in fairness to the supervisor there should be a carefully 
prepared course of study which outlines the work that it is expected will 
be accomplished. 

This suggests the most important vitalizing element that is within 
the power of the superintendent — a carefully written course of study. 
As to content, it is to be noted that a list of models is no more a manual 
training course than a list of flowers is a course in botany. The state- 
ment of the course should include the aims, processes, materials, etc., as 
well as the projects, and a course should be outlined for the entire school 
period regardless of what portion is being taught. 

The portion proposed will make possible an intelligent extension 
when the proper time comes, and will show the community the complete- 
ness or incompleteness of the present plan. 

Within each period great care should be exercised to secure the 
best possible sequence of processes and tool operations, with some estimate 
as to the time to be spent on each. This will help to guide the teacher 
to strike the approximate speed that will be required to finish the course 
on time. Reviews with sets of examination questions will help the 
teacher to test his own work and decide as to the thoroness with which 
he is supposed to present each topic. There should be suggested cor- 
relations with the English, the arithmetic, algebra, and geometry of the 
academic courses ; suggested studies of industrial materials and processes ; 
suggested investigations that will contribute to intelligent vocational 
guidance; and supplementary courses for above average and below 
average pupils. Each project for the course should be worked out in 
blueprint or wall chart form ready for presentation. These should 
belong to the school, and should form a regular part of the equipment. 
No course is ready to present until these drawings are complete and 
stock is on hand for the entire year. 

One of the- weeds that has grown up in this newly planted vocational 
hotbed is the fallacy that all courses should be alike. Certain educational 
institutions have given their graduates most elaborate courses which 
when transplanted have sometimes withered and died, to the surprise 
of the new teachers and the mortification of the alma maters. The 
plans were no doubt good, but they could not be adapted to all the 
particular local soils in which they might be placed. 




Someone has characterized the present movement to vitalize manual 
training as an attempt to push the school and the shop together. When 
wc contemplate the close relation that exists between learning and earn- 
ing it seems as if this push should be made still more vigorous. Another 
has put it in this way: "Industry and the schools have been strangers, 
and now they would be introduced!" School life and industrial life 
must be cemented together so closely that when the boy leaves school 
to enter the shop he will not be embarrassed by the change. As Thomas 
Nixon Carver says: "The first duty of the school is to fit its students 
for industrial success In some line of production." 


'■ r ( 


'"» lEE |E^ 


W. R. Hull. 

TEACHERS and supervisor? in search of new, practical, and 
unique ideas in the manual arts, would be interested in a visit 
to the Liberty ALanual Arts School for frrade pupils recently 
constructed in Pittsburgh. For those not fortunate enough to visit the 
school, the following description of the features which seem most 
satisfactory and practical has been prepared. 

The building, Fig. 1, which is a plain, substantial structure with 
a frontage of 152 feet and a depth of 73 feet, is of tapestry brick with 
stone trimmings, and has a cement roof and floors of maple laid on 
concrete. It was constructed with special attention to light and with 
the idea that the woodworking room in a manual training school should 
be a real shop, while nothing for the accomplishment of good work has 
been overlooked. 

On the first floor. Fig. 2, is a center hall with rooms on each side 
and a long, narrow shop at each end. There are two work shops, two 



drawing rooms, a lathe room, a heavy machinery room, lumber room, 
and several storerooms and closets. 

The second floor. Fig. 3, is devoted to domestic science and art. 
The kitchen, with its working tables, six in number, each accom- 
modating four pupils, its numerous cupboards and tile finish, is lighted 
by a skylight in addition to the windows. It is entered from the main 
hall at the head of the stairs. 

At the left of the kitchen is a simple but convenient laundry, and to 
the right is a most spacious butler's pantry and scullery, which in turn 
opens into a dining-room, 21'x24'. The finish thruout the entire build- 
ing is of oak. There are two large built-in china closets between which 
is a series of windows. The furnishing is in old English, and draperies 
and carpets are in keeping. The room can also be entered from the 
end of the hall. The front of the building opposite the kitchen is 
made up of two sew ing rooms and store rooms. The sewing rooms can 
accommodate as many as thirty pupils each. 

Altho the building is called a manual arts school, there is also pro- 
vision made in the basement for physical training. Fig. 4. There are 
two large gymnasiums completely equipped, with shower and locker 
rooms in connection. 

Referring again to the arrangement of the first floor : Some shops 
have been square or nearly so, \\-ith benches so arranged that the pupil 
did not generally have space enough to complete all of his work at his 
own bench. Here we have a shop 70 feet by 16 feet, with work benches 
attached to the walls by means of iron brackets placed in the brick 
walls, when the building was constructed. This leaves the center of 
the room entirely free and gives each pupil plenty of working space. 

Above each bench, on the wall, is a tool-rack so arranged as to take 
care of the correct number of tools. The saws hang below the benches 
and every tool is in plain sight. The bottoms of the windows are just 
six feet from the floor, so there is ample space for benches and tool- 
racks below them. 

For the lighting of these shops about one-half of the roof consists 
of skjdights, and these in connection with the windows disperse the light 
equally. Each bench has also an electric drop light over it. 

At the end of each shop is an offset in which there is an elevated 
platform for demonstration purposes. This platform has a seating 
capacity for thirty pupils. Facing it is a well equipped work bench 
used for demonstration. 









In the lathe room may be found both D. C. individual motor lathes 
and the old type driven from a main shaft under the lathes. This 
room is also lighted by skylights. 

The lighting in the drawing rocjms is somewhat unique, the entire 
outside wall being of glass, thus distributing all the light from one 

The approximate cost of this school and equipment is $90,000. 
Two thousand pupils can be accommodated weekly and as far as can 
be seen at present, the new departures here are proving themselves to 
be all that can be wished for. 



James McKinney. 

THIS problem resolves itself into one of methods of teaching, and 
among the many tasks which we as teachers have to face in our 
daily round of duties, the problem of methods — the ways and 
means of accomplishing our aims, of bringing our projects to a successful 
finish — is perhaps one of the hardest tasks we have to face. How often 
do w^e find ourselves facing a failure, whether it be a single class 
recitation, or a model which the boys have made with little spirit or 
interest, or an industrial study which is not going smoothly. How often 
we are conscious of having wasted time, wasted material, lost the good 
will of our class, and perhaps lost faith in ourselves. 

In facing these situations I am afraid we are prone to blame our 
boys, blame their nationality, their heritage, their city environment — 
blame every blamable thing, except ourselves and our bad methods of 

One explanation for this state of things is perhaps our faith in the 
efficacy of one method for all occasions and work. As pedagogs we are 
apt to be easily satisfied with some textbook plan which looks "good" 
and easy, or we are willing to follow in the footsteps of our brothers in 
the craft, imitating the machine methods of mass instruction, with its 
active teacher and its passive class — a "bluff" at questioning and a 
puppet-like discipline — without much thought as to other possibilities 
and opportunities. 

Twenty years ago it would have been thought an educational heresy 
to suggest that the school could get any help in developing its young 
citizens from the noise and clamor of a workshop, and yet today we see 
that the industrial world is having a large share in shaping our new 
educational ideals. 

One of the main points which the writer wishes to make clear is 
that there is no one method, no "Morrison pill" for all our shortcomings. 
In presenting some ideas and methods which have been worked out in 
practice, it is with the perfect understanding that the plan suggested 
might require some modifications to meet local needs. The subject under 
discussion brings to mind various methods which are used in class in- 
struction : 

(1) The autocratic method, in which the teacher has every detail 



under his own thumb, allowing the class no part in the organization of 
the project; (2) the participatory method, in which the class shares 
with the teacher the burden of the organization of the work, as help in 
care of equipment and supplies; (3) the industrial method, in which 
the teacher has forgotten much of his book pedagogy, where his mighty 
arm of all right is no longer wielded because he has brought himself on a 
plane with the worker and become a part of the group, team, or gang. 

The first method has little or no place in our age, or the spirit of 
modern times, and the only reason one can see for its having any 
adherents, is that in some way they must be connected with the "tribe 
and lineage" of "Squeers". 

The second or participatory method has many good qualities but it 
does not go far enough. The boys' help is fine and engenders a personal 
interest in the shop, but is apt to produce "favorites" and all their 
attending evils. 


In the third, the industrial method, the organization of the group is 
a very important part of the scheme. As the boys are working in a 
real workshop and for the time are workmen in the embryo, it seems 
natural to select or copy the methods of the outside workshop for the 
plan of organization. This plan may be discussed in the first lesson, 
bringing out the necessity for leaders or foremen, also the qualities that 
fit the foreman for his various duties of responsibility for work and 
discipline. All this discussion will help a class to get into the right 
attitude which is necessary for successful working of the plan. 

In the selection of the foremen it is best to rely on the ballot of the 
class, as experience has shown that the teacher can be "fooled" as often 
as the class in this selection. The number of foremen required may 
vary with the nature of the work, but in a course of study involving 
group work or large projects, as industrial studies of home building, 
bridge building, foundry, etc., three "men" are sufficient. These are 
a master foreman to pass upon the technique of the work, a foreman 
who takes up with the class any discipline problems that may arise, and 
a foreman who is responsible for the equipment. In this scheme of 
organization one may ask, "Where does the teacher come in?" His 
task is that of the supervisor, demonstrating how things are done, spot- 
ting the weak links in the chain, keeping the "machinery" well lubricated 
with the oil of joy, helping the "lame dogs", working out new plans with 


the foreman, and talking "about work-a-day problems with the men.'' 
The plan of organization is educative and economic because, (1) 
it brings in the spirit of cooperation, and puts the gang spirit on a real 
educative basis; (2) it explains the subdivision of labor and economy of 
time and effort as practiced in the outside world; (3) it makes a place 
for the poor worker; there is always a job he can do well. It also makes 
a place for 3^our best and fastest worker, and an idle clever boy is no 
small problem; (4) it will keep the brains of the "gang" leader busy 
in a real educative way. The leaders will always assert themselves, and 
often in a manner which is not conductive to eflFlciency. Group work is 
one successful method of directing and developing your leader's energy. 
By so looking after in an efficient way the varying capacities of a 
class, we are solving an economic problem in class instruction and 
developing a democratic idea of work which may mean much in the 
training for citizenship. The system of foremen can be applied with as 
much success in a large class which is working on the regular shop 
"model'. A bright "foreman" and an assistant can do much to help the 
slow and poor workers, as much of their inefficiency often comes from 
lack of clearness of the instruction which the teacher has given the class. 
When a case of "deportment" has to be taken up, the individual or the 
class are likely to swallow the "medicine" meeted out with more grace 
and better effect, if the case has been publicly reported by one of their 
number, and not by the secret note of the shop teacher. 

In closing, this word of warning is given in the same candid spirit 
which has criticised much of our present day methods. If you would 
have this method, any method, succeed, — play fair, and don't bluff, for 
the boj-s will surely find you out. If your training or nature Is not 
elastic enough to allow your boys to help in a real way, you had better 
go back to the old "recipe" in your textbook, and by adding as much of 
the spice of your boyhood as you can recall, so sweeten and make palat- 
able your rather dry job. If we end the day's task with a weary and 
heavy laden spirit, thankful that the day is done, and dreading the 
coming of the morning and a VII A gang, something is wrong, and it 
Is a matter of much Importance In the economical handling of a class 
whether we stand the day with a "grouch" or a smile. The great 
problem in this economic handling of a class Is just whether we know 
where the burden of the day's work ought to fall, whether we shall bear 
It all alone, or let a group of willing and eager boys help. 


R. A. Loom IS. 

PRINTING in itself and in what it opens up to the student 
should be the most important course in the manual arts depart- 
ment of the public school, or of any educational institution that 
prepares the boy for a vocation or trade. The printed page is the most 
widely known of all common products, yet the least is known about its 
production. How few there are who know how many trades there are 
exercised in producing a common magazine. The printing course of 
the school, properly taught, throws light on all the technical processes 
brought into use in the production of this article. 

Beginning with the designing of the book — the cover, the pages, and 
layout for them all, the headings, foot endings, advertisements, and all 
the different illustrations and drawings of the book, must be planned and 
made by experts and artists. This conveys to the mind of the printing 
course student the possibilities of a life work of importance and good 
pay as a designer, editor, layout man or advertisement writer. 

The mechanical part of the production of a magazine brings in so 
many industries and businesses of skill and importance of high order that 
the printing student is lead into the presence of many highly paid 
technical pursuits, and to choose and become a master of any one of 
them would mean a successful life. 

To enumerate and explain what is meant by the above, let us take, 
first, the composition of the text of the book. It may be either machine 
or hand work. The machine composition may be either linotype or 
monotype work. Here at once are two highly paid trades. To go 
further back than the operation of the machine, we have the manufacture 
of the machine which represents an investment of millions of dollars in 
factories, and the many modern variations of line-casting and type- 
casting machines open up a field of w^ork of vast proportions. The 
hand set type represents a great industry, whose possibilities are limited 
only by the skill of the man. Let the student learn of these industries, 
and enter and become proficient in any one of them, and his life will 
not have been a failure. 

The numerous engravings in the magazine, both photoengravings and 



line-etchings, represent professions of large proportions. Every day 
some expert adds a new phase to this work. A study of the above pro- 
cesses, including photography, lithography, off-set printing, art photo- 
gravure, cloth printing, wall paper printing, and color printing, is so 
fascinating and so extensive in its reach, that the ordinary man can lose 
himself. Any one of these branches represents years of toil by men who 
have given to the world the most important work of the present day. 
Lead the printing student into the presence of any one of these pro- 
cesses and let him take one for a life work and he will have something 
for which there is a great demand at a salary regulated only by his 
efforts and ability. 

Along with these processes must be mentioned the industries of 
electrotyping, cerotyping, nickelotyping, and stereotyping. Work pro- 
duced from forms made by these processes are seen on every side but 
how many know them by sight. Every one is highly paid and these 
trades need good men. 


The display composition of the magazine, such as advertisements 
and headings, represents study and skill, and the perfection of the 
modern examples of this art is gained only thru practice by competent 
men. The complexity of this work is only realized when the new man 
attempts it. 

It would be impossible to go into the study of paper and ink to 
any great extent. The modern constituents of paper, as well as the 
processes of manufacture, are unknown to the layman. Of course, we 
know that paper is made from wood or rags, but how, and how much 
money is there in it. We know there are wealthy paper manufacturers 
and high salaried chemists and experts who make it. Let the printing 
course open up to the student the possibilities of this great work and 
he will know^ that there must be a chance to go to work at good pay. 

In ink there is no end of interesting, profitable work. The right 
kind of ink, color, consistency, and weight for a certain job to be run 
on a certain stock or by a certain process represents a big problem 
about which only those in it know. 

The making and operation of the great presses of modern newspaper 
and job printing plants represent great money and brain investment. 
Just look at the daily newspaper press in j'our city. The numerous 



smaller presses, cylinders, rotaries, and jobbers; how much is paid for 
them and their operation, and how much profit is made on their pro- 
duction? Think of the government printing department where cur- 
rency and stamps and government printing are done and all open to 
any one who will qualify. Visit the big job printing houses of the cities, 
the engraving plants and notice that these great technical trades are 
occupied principally by foreign born skilled workmen. 

Aside from the purely mechanical processes connected with printing 
we have the educational and historical sides. In printing are exemplified 
all the grammatical constructions known. The student has a chance to 
put in practice the rules his teachers have taught him. He learns to 
punctuate, syllabicate, and capitalize, and as it is to be read by those who 
know, his work must be correct. The historical aspect is very impor- 
tant. He should learn all about the advance of the world in literature 
and art thru the study of printing, past and present. The first printers 
were perhaps the most important men of their times and as widely 
known and influential as many kings. The printer is the recorder of 
history. Men were and are promoted and demoted by the printer. Let 
the printing course of the school show all of these things and the de- 
partment will be of more importance. 




Translated from the German by William T. Bawden. 

THERE can scarcely be any doubt that in the school workshop 
the customary slavish following merely of a so-called normal 
course of study can not be a goal worthy of great endeavor. 
Such a method of procedure will satisfy only the teacher who regards 
as his highest task the bringing of his pupils to a certain technical 
manual facility. But by such a course can scarcely be realized the 
fundamental condition of modern education — the placing of the child, 
not the thing, at the center. 

It is well also for the reason that the teaching body in general is, 
as is to be desired, coldly opposed to mere instruction in manual 
dexterity (let us be calm at the mention of the term!). 

The task in the school workshop is often a purely mechanical one; 
the child with all his activit}' has too little to say about it, for he only 
copies, imitates. 

Since from the pedagogical point of view it is not possible to in- 
struct children in the same manner as grown persons, much less ought 
we to attempt to apply to young people of ten to fourteen years of age 
a course of stud\' which is intended for prospective teachers. 

We may indeed permit our boys to make the same things that the 
adult students make, but the projects must have — not merely technically 
— a suitability to child nature. 

It will be objected that a child has not the capacity to make any 
useful object — since it is a question of useful objects chiefly. But this 
opinion can be maintained seriously only by him who occupies the point 
of view that was held generally, for example, in the teaching of draw- 
ing twenty years ago. For who approves of thoughtless copying in this 
subject? It is precisely so in handwork. Away with the fixed course of 
study! Let us have more freedom! Let us quietly permit the child to 

^ Hildebrand: JFie Konnen ivir die Gestaltiitigskraft Jer Schiiler 
beeinflussen nnJ f'rirdern?: Die Arheitschule, the monthly journal of the Ger- 
man Handwork and Industrial Education Association. (f'erei/i fiir Knaben- 
handarbeit ti/id JCerkimterriihn , published by Quelle and Meyer, Leipzig, Vol. 
XXVI, No. 3, March, 1912, pp. 80-83. 



design his own piece of work. But with a firm hand and with a sure 
tact the teacher holds the reins! He takes care that the rules of good 
taste and the laws of technic are followed. Thus can we bring the 
"mechanical" handwork instruction into harmony with the fundamental 
principles of pedagogy. 


How, then, can ice influence and develop the creative ability of the 

In order to accomplish this it is necessary that the pupil, before the 
beginning of the actual work (we speak of the practical work), always 
form a perfectly clear picture of the object to be made. This appears 
best in a working drawing, to which I shall return later. 

A complete conception of the creative ability of his pupils can be 
gained by the shopwork instructor if he will permit any object to be 
planned quite spontaneously, limiting his attention to the purely technical 
side of the work. 

The finished pieces of work, in most cases, will be useless — useless 
in the sense that we do not wish to let them go out of the workshop. 
But the time thus spent is by no means wasted, for the pupil acquires 
some technical skill, and the teacher sees clearly and unmistakably the 
point of contact for his activitj^ 



O O o o 

o o o o 

I — i / 

o o o o 

o o o o 
I ___ _ — 

o o o o 

o o o o 

\-_ i—J 





As a suggestion I give an example from m}^ own experience, 
I selected eight pupils ranging from ten to fourteen years of age. 
They all knew something about how to work with the plane and the 
saw, altho they had not finished these "subjects", in the meaning of the 
usual handwork instruction, since I had built up my course of study on 
different principles. - 

I gave as a task the making of a bread cutting board, or a small 

Fig. 3. examples of school haxdwork designed after instruction. 

bracket shelf. After a short period of deliberation the pupils decided 
as to their choice of the object to be made, and busily set to work. 

My assistance was limited to the necessary technical instructions; 
concerning the design of the models I gave out not a word, altho it 
made my fingers fairly itch ! For the outcome of this w'ork, as shown in 
Fig. 1, displays all the lack of beauty and lack of taste of a time at 
which unhappily our people do not even seem to be surprised. These 
wooden pieces are a true picture of what the child sees at home, and 
what, worse yet, is often shown in the store windows ! In accordance 

2 See Gross-Hildebrand : Shopwork Exercises for the Development of Good 
Taste {Geschmackbildende IFerkstaitubungen,) Vol. 3 of "Modern Werkunter- 
richf" published by G. Stiehler, Leipzig, 1912. 


with the prevailing forms of any tendency in style, which influence these 
small objects in much the same way as architecture, the foolish forms 
resulting from the "petty home craft" all show that our youth can indeed 
produce good work. We must only influence them in the right way, 
and not seek our goal in mere technical instruction. 

I had naturally expected no better result, and had given the pupils 
only pieces of inferior spruce wood. We placed the pieces together and 
compared them. And the discussion, short as it was (I do not like 
learned explanations in the workshop), brought out a number of good 
points: that the purpose for which an object is to be used is the chief 
thing, and that to this its form must be subordinate ; and that form again 
must be determined in part at least by material. One word also con- 
cerning the decoration! The sixth-form boy who "perpetrated" the 
little pig was very anxious to have the use of a pyrography outfit, which 
"unfortunately" was not available. 


And now for the making of the "second edition!" Every pupil was 
required to sketch his piece on paper before he could begin the con- 
struction. This working drawing I regard as one of the most important 
parts of the whole work. Its careful execution saves an extraordinary 
amount of time and material. By this is not meant a fine execution in 
the sense of geometric drawing. By no means inked lines! Small 
objects, like the ones shown here, are drawn full size with broad soft 
pencil or charcoal on rough brown paper, and the final form is cut 
out for use as a "pattern". Often, however, the simple projection 
drawing must yield to the perspective sketch as, for example, in clay 
modeling and metalwork. But the drawing must always find practical 
realization, for It is here a question not of making "pictures", but of 
representing ideas clearly. Note the examples in Fig. 2. 

To return to the woodwork! As soon as the boys had finished their 
drawings they were permitted to select their pieces of wood — and again 
the planing and sawing began. At this stage technical "accuracy" was 
observed, in order that, for example, the cutting board should not be 15 
mm. short, or the bracket for the shelf thinner than the other pieces. 
The opportunity to select the wood induced one boy to choose, with a 
certain refinement, a beautiful piece of pine for his bracket. 



In order to afford a better comparison, the results of the second 
effort are shown, in the "rough" state, in Fig. 3. 

The artist will find fault with these things in a number of respects, 
for he will be thinking of sketches which have been made by artists. 
But I set great value upon these objects. They show what pupils can 
do by themselves, thru their own initiative. 



Ira S. Griffith. 

TEACHERS of experience in manual training woodwork have 
settled in their own minds and practices the place of the abstract 
exercise. Some of these have assumed a given attitude because 
of a practical experience based upon a knowledge of and a full apprecia- 
tion of the various historic movements in manual training woodwork. 
Others, it is feared have settled the matter in their own minds and 
practices because that is the way they were taught and the mental effort 
required to make a change in attitude and practice is painful. In either 
case the matter is settled so far as they are concerned. 

Occasionally, however, one finds a "youngster" in the profession 
who is not satisfied with the conventional practice and who "wants to 
know". Such a one but recently came to the attention of the writer. 
He makes this appeal: "I am making use of a few abstract exercise 
pieces to introduce certain cabinet projects in my high school woodwork. 
My superintendent takes me to task telling me that my practice is thirty 
or forty years behind the times. Will you kindly secure the opinion of 
several authorities upon the matter?" 

This inquiry happened to come at a time when senior manual train- 
ing students at Bradley Institute w^ere casting about for suitable subjects 
for theses. Ernest Yountz, one of the class, consented to take for his 
topic: The Place of the Exercise in Present Day Courses for Grammar 
Grades and High Schools. 

Without presenting here his very excellent introduction in which the 
exercise is defined and its relation described with reference to the Russian 
sj'stem, Swedish sloyd, French, German, and early American systems, 
we wish to present his summary of present day practice as it relates to 
the topic under consideration. 

Among other things, a card of the accompanying form was sent to 
forty-five cities in twenty-one states. Thirty-one replies were received. 
Cities answering were as follows : Aurora, 111. ; Boston, Mass. ; Buffalo, 
N. Y. ; Butte, Mont. ; Chicago, 111. ; Cincinnati, Ohio ; Cleveland, Ohio ; 
Columbus, Ind.; Columbus, Ohio; Davenport, Iowa; Denver, Colo.; 
Detroit, Mich. ; Fort Wayne, Ind. ; Grand Rapids, Mich. ; Houston, 




Texas; Indianapolis, Ind.; Jersey City, N. J.; Kansas City, Mo.; Min- 
neapolis, Minn. ; Montclair, N. J. ; Newark, N. J. ; Pierre, S. Dak. ; 
Rochester, N. Y. ; St. Louis, Mo.; San Antonio, Texas; San Francisco, 
Calif. ; Seattle, Wash. ; Springfield, Mass. ; Spring Valley, Minn. ; 
Washington, D. C. ; Wilkesbarre, Pa. This is certainly a very repre- 
sentative lot of replies. 

Note — Place 
numbers in col- 
umns 2 and 3, 
and an xin either 
4, 5 or 6. If you 
mark in 6, please 
give below the 
time given to ex- 
ercises, and state 
at what time they 
are introduced 
into the course. 

Name of Teacher 


12 3 4 




^PP^';'^,- Hours All 
s'tudents P" ^^""'^ Exercises 



Part of 












or Superv 



A most interesting study is to be had from a perusal of the data 
received. It is possible, however, to consider here only the summary 
and general conclusions. 

Grade Approximate No. Avg. time All exercises. All Useful. Part of Each 


per week 
hrs. min. 



1 20 



1 40 































From this data it will be seen that no school reports a course 
composed of abstract exercises only. Again, it will be seen that in the 
lower grades a few schools give exercises in connection with useful 
models but that the i-mphasis of the majority is upon the useful model 
or project. 

It is also to be observed that this emphasis upon useful models de- 
creases as the grade number increases imtil the exercise receives greatest 
emphasis in grade nine — the first year high school. After the first year 
high school the course composed of exercises and models holds equal 
place with those composed of useful models only. 

With the wide spread increase in the use of the "Group System" in 
manual training has come a reaction against the exclusive use of the 
abstract exercise or of the course composed wholly of useful models. 
There has been felt a need for exercises at various stages. At the risk 
of repeating what some may already have read the writer wishes to 
quote from his discussion of this matter in Correlated Courses in Wood- 
work and Mechanical Drawing: 

"The advantages of the group system are distinct. It permits class 
instruction and therefore minimizes the amount of demonstrating and 
talking the instructor must do by preventing needless repetition. By 
grouping a number of projects having similar tool operations it permits 
a boy to satisfy his individual needs without interfering with the orderly 
presentation of subject matter. It provides work for the fast worker of 
an interesting and profitable nature until the slow worker completes 
the minimum requirement. It provides for the repeater, who often has 
to repeat, not because of poor work in manual training but because of 
poor work in academic studies, by giving him choice of different models 
on which to work. In general, the group plan has the manifest ad- 
vantages of class instruction at the same time making allowance for the 
individuality of the worker. 

"One of the advantages of the group system is that it permits class 
instruction at stated intervals, thus reducing individual instruction to a 
minimum. For illustration a class beginning Group II would continue 
to work upon the problems of that group until all but the few ac- 
knowledged failures had completed the work required in that group. 
After this the class is to be instructed in the new things of Group III. 
This plan is to work thruout the whole course. 

"The work of the groups will of necessity overlap each other. For, 
as soon as a pupil finishes one problem in a group, he begins another 


problem in the same group, unless he is the slowest in the class. When 
the class is ready to begin a new group we are confronted with the 
question of whether to give the instruction belonging to the new group 
and allow the boys to proceed with the unfinished work of the old group, 
or to start them on problems of the new group. To proceed with the 
old is objectionable in that the worker forgets his new instruction before 
he has had time to apply it. To start the new work before finishing the 
old is bad in that the pupil will have lost interest in the old when asked 
to complete it after finishing the new work. Not to complete the old at 
all would be a practice too vicious to be tolerated for a moment. 

"In the seventh grade this overlapping is not a serious problem, for 
the objects being small and quickly finished allow all to finish the old 
group before the instruction of the new has faded. In the eighth grade 
and high school, however, where the objects are larger, this objection 
is a serious one. 


"As Stated before, the aim of the group arrangement is to permit 
class instruction at the beginning of each group. To make this effective 
the practice and application must follow within a reasonably short time. 
Here the 'exercise' offers aid. 

"If ever an exercise piece has a legitimate use, it has it here. The 
great objection to exercise pieces lies in their inability to create a vital 
interest on the part of the pupil. The writer has made it a practice to 
talk over the applications of each exercise and to state briefly the need 
for the exercise before beginning it. First, that the class because of 
numbers must be instructed all at the same time; second, that the joints, 
unlike the simple one-piece objects previously made cannot he remedied 
or patched up by reducing the size, as in the bread-board, when lack 
of knowledge or skill causes errors; third, that postponing the practice 
any length of time would he unwise. As the time required for making 
the exercises is short, in a properly arranged course, there need never be 
a lack of interest either in the exercise or in the unfinished objects of the 
old group to which some must return after completing the exercises. 

"High school boys begin to take on a different attitude toward ex- 
ercises and technic. Their increased knowledge and skill permit ap- 
plications requiring considerable time for completing. For this reason 
all the exercises may be grouped in the fore part of their year. 



"To the writer it seems unnecessary to apologize for this use of 
exercises. He has felt free to utilize parts of any system which seemed 
to serve his purpose. He does feel, however, that a long continued series 
of exercises in elementary woodworking without application would be 
fatal. American school methods have been criticised by Europeans as 
being superficial and lacking in thoroness. It may be that in our eager- 
ness to develop the individual we have made ourselves subjects for such 
criticism to a certain extent. We need not fear the introduction of this 
small amount of drill and formalism, especially when there is no loss 
of interest and incentive." 

The summary of the data obtained seems to bear out the assertions 
just made and may serve to reassure our anxious inquirer and any others 
in like quandary, that his practice is quite up to date as present practice 
goes. Let him call his practice ecletic and he will have placed manual 
training practice in the same category that educational philosophers have 
placed general educational practice. Confer Monroe's Textbook in the 
History of Education, page 747. 






D. K. HiETT. 

WHILE a project so unusual and difficult as the guitar here 
shown may not appeal to the average boy, still every teacher 
realizes that he occasionally has boj's who have sufficient 
ability for, and who would derive a great amount of satisfaction from 
*the successful completion of such a piece of work. 

To insure success it is necessary that all material be carefully 
selected and the work done in a clean dry room, or at least, all the 
parts should be kept in such a place as much as possible. All the 
materials may be secured at musical instrument repair shops, or the 
wood parts may be selected from aged dry stock at a mill. 

The sides and bottom may be of mahogany, maple, walnut, or oak; 
or birch which may be stained in imitation of mahogany. Walnut and 
mahogany are perhaps the better woods. 

The sounding board should be clear dry white pine. Theoretically 
the grain of the sounding board. Fig. 1, should be fine on the side 
marked A'^ and gradually become coarser and more open approaching 
the side marked Y. If one has the lumber to select from such a 
board may occasionally be found, but a good quarter-sawed board 
will answer well enough. Some makers form the board a little thicker 
under the heavy strings. 

The neck. Fig. 2, is best made of mahogany, and blocks for this 
purpose may be secured roughly cut to shape. The fret board, Fig. 3, 
is best made of ebony or walnut. 

If a little judgment is exercised, quite a variation in size is possible, 
but it is generally conceded that the large instrument gives the better 

A form around which to bend the sides, Fig. 4, and a follow board 
to hold them in place while drying, should first be built. The form 
should be in two pieces held together by cleats as shown, in order that 
it may be removed after the glue blocks, strips, and bottom are in place. 

The follow board should be made in four separate parts, and built 
up of one-inch boards held together by spacers as shown. In cutting 
the shape, allowance should be made for the thickness of the drum sides. 




^ I 



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To JU/T Jrff/A/GJ TJifh- 



-To Jc/ZT -I 

P//VCH Clamp 

Fig. 2. details of guitar. 





D£:fT/-/ or DffUM 
/\r Th/j Fo/a/tj- 

Follow Board 

Fig. 4. form for drum, and follow board, for clamping up while gluikc 


The twi) side members may be drawn in place by the bars and wedges 
as shown. Large screws will serve to draw the end members in place 
after the side ones are secured. 

The side of the drum is in two pieces, and these pieces must be 
plaiH'tl to give a good joint at the center line on the large end, but at 
the other end this is not so important as the joint is there covered by 
the extension on the neck. Ten minutes of dry steam should be 
sufficient for the sides, and about four days should be allowed for 
drying, after which the glue blocks and strips should be glued in place. 
These pieces are made of maple of the shape shown. 

If the bars holding the follow board in place are about 7^" away 
from the edge of the drum sides, the bottom may be slipped in under 
them and glued to the sides, pressure being secured by strips screwed 
to the follow board and pressing on the bottom. After the glue has 
dried, the forms may be removed, and the cleats, which should be of 
pine, glued to the bottom and the sounding board, and the sounding 
board glued in place. 

The neck should now be glued in place and when dry, the fret board 
is put on, taking care to secure this piece well to the sounding board 
as this will stiffen the neck materially. 

The cleats marked A, Fig. 1, are on the sounding board, and those 
marked B are on the bottom. The one marked A beneath the string 
plate is Y' thick. 

A number of wooden pinch-dogs, such as the one shown in Fig. 2, 
are very handy for the light glueing. 

The neck should be cut to shape roughly and allowed to dry as 
long as possible before the final finishing is done in order that it may 
change as little as possible when in place. 

The fret bars may be purchased by the foot at repair shops, and 
cut to the desired lengths. With a bevel set square across the fret 
board, a slight cut with a knife should be made, after which the tongue 
on the bar is forced into place. Three ivory or celluloid disks set into 
the fret board where shown are very much appreciated by some players. 

The string plate. Fig. 3, should be made of wood to match the 
fret board, and has a piece of the fret-bar let into it as shown. 

Before boring the holes in the neck, the screw plates should be 
obtained and the holes located to fit them. 

After staining and filling, a finish of shellac and oil should be ap- 
plied, this being preferable to a heavy varnish. 




Leo.v Loyal Winslow. 

No little contribution toward our national 
prosperity will be that content with manual labor 
which should come from viewing it in school as 
a worthy end of intellectual studv. 

— Ruth Mary Weeks. 

IN genuine industrial education there are always manifest three 
phases, the social, the psychological, and the manipulatory. If 
any of these are missing, the type of education may be regarded 
as incomplete. 

The problem of industrial education is, primarily, a social one. The 
teacher engaged in the work should, first of all, be a student of local 
industrial conditions. He will then discover existing relationships 
between individual and environment and will be able to bring about 
thru this discovery a proper adjustment, an adjustment which can not 
be brought about by reading, nor by reasoning. Personal investigation 
is required. And this means consultation with employer and employe; it 
means a mingling with the industrial as well as the educational world, 
and it requires a considerable amount of the teacher's time. And yet, 
if social efficiency is sought by our schools this time must be given. Too 
often teachers engaged in this work handle a subject with which they 
but think they are familiar. Familiarity with industrial education is 
familiarit}- with industrial life. This is not a matter of book instruc- 
tion, especially since many of the methods employed apply to local 

As teachers, we are dealing continually with individuals, changing, 
developing individuals whose needs today are quite different from those 
of tomorrow. Every industrial teacher has, in his shop, altho he may 
never have thought of it, a psychological laboratory where more vital 
information is available than can be found in all the libraries. The 
shop is the place for the application of psychological principles and 
for the working out of new ones. Here, the learning process can 
best be studied and comparisons made between machine tool and hand 
tool methods : here the significance of machine work in the learning 



process can be determined, that machinery may perform its proper 
function in education ; and here the relationship between explanation 
antl demonstration can be discovered. 

In most localities, even in the elementary school, more actual 
manipulation of materials should be undertaken. \ et there is always 
something to be considered above and beyond the manipulation of 
materials, important as this motor activity may be. Industrial work, 
if it is to be education at all, must prepare for living as well as for 
livelihood. It should most certainly include manipulation, but along 
with it there should be a vast amount of content or subject-matter 
reaching out into various related fields. 

This interpretation of method has been accepted by many of our 
best industrial schools. But, under the present organization of our 
public school system the content value of our manipulatory courses is, 
for the most part, if not entirely, missing. The shop teacher may 
remedy this fault if he will assume a greater responsibility, a task 
which unquestionably has the compensation, however, of being worth 
while, that of teaching a large amount of content as well as manipula- 
tion. If this work is not done in the shop it is evident that it is not 
going to be done at all. If content is put aside the entire course, when 
weighed in the scale of educational \alues, will fall short. 

In a certain city in New York state an eighth grade recently took 
up the study of cement and concrete. Instead of mere manipulation, 
without understanding, the figuring, planning, measuring, and making 
all grew out of a knowledge of and an appreciation for the materials. 

The attention of the class was called to concrete structures located 
in the vicinity of the school, among which were a factory, a railway 
bridge, a fence, and many concrete sidewalks. The reason for the 
popularity of the material was investigated and its advantages over 
other materials for certain kinds of work were learned. The interest 
having thus been aroused, assignments were given out, each member 
of the class being asked to investigate some particular phase of the 
industry. Several books and magazines bearing upon the subject in 
hand were collected by the instructor and by the class. These were 
placed upon the shop book-shelf. 

The following subjects were assigned, there being twent\-t\\o pupils 
in the class: 1. Present day uses of concrete. 2. What concrete is; 
its advantages. 3. The place which cement and concrete have occupied 
in historv. 4. Old method of making cement. 5. How cement rock 


is obtained and prepared. 6. The making of Portland cement from 
river mud. 7. The rotary kiln. 8. The ball mill. 9. Requirements 
of fine and of coarse aggregate and of water. 10. The rich, standard, 
medium, and lean mixtures, and where to use each. 11. The cost of 
Portland cement, sand, and gravel. 12. The mixing of concrete by 
hand. 13. The batch mixer and the continuous mixer compared. 14. 
The rotary batch mixer and the automatic batch mixer. 15. The 
continuous gravit\- mixer and the continuous Drake mixer. 16. The 
concrete form. 17. The placing of concrete including reinforcing. 18. 
Setting and seasoning. 19. The cement gun. 20. Strength of various 
mixtures; compression and tension. 21. Artificial coloring of concrete. 
22. Influence of temperature, electricity, fire, and water upon concrete. 
Each member of the class was assigned that subject which, in the opinion 
of the instructor, was best suited psychologically to his needs. Assign- 
ments 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 required reading almost exclusively; assign- 
ments 9, 10, 18, 20, 21, and 22 required experience and called for the 
performing of an experiment; while assignments 11, 12. and 18 were 
subjects for inquiry and personal investigation. Those to whom assign- 
ments 4, 5, 7, 8. 13, 15, and 19 were given might draw a diagram to 
help in their explanation of the kiln, drier, ball mill, cement gun, and 
concrete mixer. ^Materials were furnished those who performed experi- 

After each boy had reported upon the part which he had undertaken, 
he was asked to write what he had learned. The papers were handed 
to the teacher of English composition who looked them over as com- 
positions, this work being credited in the composition class where time 
was allowed for writing. Later, six of the bo3"s who had written good 
papers and had displayed the most energy were chosen as editors of the 
combined class paper which it was decided should be called, "A Study 
of Cement and Concrete". The duties of these editors included the 
rearrangement of material and the writing of an introduction to the 
paper and of connecting paragraphs and sentences. 

The content work was carried thru several shop periods, a little time 
each day being given to it, while the class was finishing previous problems 
in manipulatory work. This was completed, however, at the time to 
take up the making of the concrete forms. '- 

1 Xo reference is made here to the actual mixino; and manipulation of 
materials as this aspect has been fully treated in "A Study of Concrete Con- 
struction," by A. F. Siepert, Manual Training Magazine, December, 1911, p. 106. 



Forms were made both of wood and of metal. Several boys made 
jardinieres; others, window boxes, garden benches, etc. One boy made 
a monumental cross for his dead sister's grave, an idea which was taken 
up by another member of the class. But the masterpiece from the boy's 
point of view was the dog's house, large enough to involve practical 
problems of mixing and of reinforcing. The house was cast in one 
piece, the owner crawling into it to pull off the boards of the inside form. 

At the close of this work with concrete each member of the class 
had made some finished article. From an industrial standpoint many 
of these were satisfactory ; they were fair in workmanship. But the 
purpose of this paper is not to place emphasis here but rather to point 
out that in this case the finished project was representative of more than 
the acquisition of technique or skill ; it stood for content as well as for 
manipulation. It had, tied up with it, the social, the psychological, 
and the manipulatory phases and was a product of real industrial educa- 





Nama a. Lathe and Esther Szold. 


HP] construction (jf the main frame of teh dresser is similar to 
that of the chiffonier. The variations of the pattern which 
would be necessary in order to make sliding drawers have also 
been shown in the patterns for chiffoniers. * 


Fig. 42 and Fig. 41 A. 

Design : — The design for the arrangement of the drawers should be 
made and the drawer-faces cut out and applied before the frame is 
pasted, as explained in the 
directions for the chiff'onier. 
Note that the dressing cases 
which appear in the design for 
the front of the dresser do not 
extend to the actual front of 
the dresser. See Fig. 41 A. If 
the original design for the front 
of the dresser calls for larger 
or smaller dressing cases than 
these, the size of the mirror will 
be altered, since the supports for 
the mirror are fastened to these 
cases. The width of the mirror 
is determined by measuring the 
distance between the dressing 
cases and subtracting 7^". 

Order of Pasting: — Paste 
the drawer-faces in place upon the frame. 

Make the dressing cases, apph' their drawer-faces and paste them 
in place upon the corners of the top. See Fig. 41A. 

Paste the frame in shape. 

^ Copyright by Nama A. Lathe and Esther Szold. 
* See October, 1913, number, page 35 and following. 

Fig. 41a. 




Fold and fit the top ledjie to the top of the frame. Paste. 
Mirror Supports : — Prick pinholes as indicated on the mirror sup- 
ports. Place the supports so that the pricked strip turns forward and 
adjust at the inner corners of the dressing cases. See Fig. 41A, Paste 
them in place carefully so that the folded midrib of each support is 
exactly vertical. 

Back: — The back of the frame comes just to the top of the dressing 
cases. Paste in place. 

Tlu Mirror: — The back of the mirror is a shallow tray which, in 
the finished dresser, is placed upright with its rim turning back. Before 
this tray is pasted cut silver paper \" shorter and narrower than the 
trav and mount it carefully on the center of the tray on the unmarked 
side of the paper. 

Cut out and stain the mirror 
frame ; mount it to cover the edges 
of the silver paper. 

Paste the rim of the tray. 
Hang the mirror by thrusting 
the shanks of a paper fastener thru 
each support where pricked and thru 
the holes pricked in the rims of the 
mirror back. Spread the shanks 
slightly to hold them in place. 

Legs : — -Strengthen the legs by 
pasting folded strips of paper in the 

Brace : — The brace spans the 
center of the frame at the base to 

prevent bulging. The laps turn 
Fig. 43 a. , , " , , ^ 

down and are pasted to the front 

and back of the frame. 


See Fig. 43 and Fig. 43A. 

The construction as given is simple and variations in design or 
proportions may be undertaken readily. 

If it is desired to make the cabinet with doors that may be opened, 
draw the face with the doors in place. Rule lines \" inside the door 









spaces, except on the hinge sides where rj" hinges should be left. Cut 
door-faces and attach as described in the construction of the Buffet.^ 
Construct a second shelf like the one shown in the pattern and paste it 
with the laps turning down just at the base of the cabinet section. 

Order of Pasting: — Paste the 
doors on the face. 

Paste the frame into shape. 
Spread glue on the inner sur- 
face of the shelf-rail. Hold the 
shelf with the laps turning down 
and push it up into place inside 
the shelf-rail. 


See Fig. 44. Fig. 44A and Fig. 

Plan and apply the drawer- 

The Top : — Paste the laps at 
the top and sides of the section 
above line "^^ to form a standing 
rim on three sides of the enclosed 

Protection Rail: — Fold for- 
ward and paste in place the -j^g" 
strips above Y, extending across 
the back and side sections of the 
Oblique Laps: — Fold the laps along the sloping edges of the side 
sections. If they overlap the doubled edge at the top, cut off enough 
from the end of the lap to make it fit neatly. Paste in place. 

Pasting: — Paste the sides of the frame in place. Leave the back 
loose until after the pigeon holes are in place. 
Pigeon Holes: — See Fig. 44B. 

Paste the pigeon hole patterns to form deep boxes open at the front. 
The broad laps fold back making the upright portions of the boxes of 
double thickness. 

Fig. 44a. 

1 See February, 1913, number, page 237. 




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Fold the large equal oblongs of the upper shelf upon each other, 
paste together. 

Paste the pigeon holes against the under side of the shelf where 

Slip this structure into the frame from the hack, note its position 
and remove. 

Spread glue on the side laps of the shelf and on the bottom of the 
pigeon holes, slip carefully into place. Press in place until the glue 

Back : — Close the back and paste it in place. 

Top Shelf: — Note that the top shelf falls just below the laps on the 
side section. Push up the top, spread glue below the lap on each side 
section and push the top shelf down into place. 

Lid: — Double the laps on the lid and paste. The section above X 
on the lid is slipped back into the desk until it touches the pigeon holes. 
See Fig. 44B. Paste in place. 

Push the shanks of a paperfastener thru the middle of the lid and 
just inside the doubled edge to serve as a knob. The opened shanks of 
the fastener may be turned to hold the lid shut as in Fig. 44A, 

Shelf: — Paste the lower shelf in place against the back rail and 
the lower rail of the sides. See Fig. 44A, and Fig. 44B. 

{To be continued.) 

Fig. 44b. 


IT must be clear to every observer that there are at the present 
time two rather strong tendencies in the preparation of teachers 
of the manual arts. One of these is toward a four-year college 
course and the other toward the selection of men from the industries. 
At first sight these may seem to be tendencies in opposite directions, 
but a closer study of the demands and of the ideals of the men who 
are making them would seem to indicate that a truer interpretation 
of these tendencies is that they are essentially one — a demand that the 
teachers of manual arts in the future be men who know the technique 
of their subject thoroly and at the same time posesss a general education 
which is represented by the bachelor's degree. To us this seems like a 
healthy sign of the times. If the manual arts are to take their place 
alongside of science and mathematics and language in the high schools, 
as they are certainly doing in some places, the men who represent these 
arts must be able to take their places in general school activities on 
exactly the same social and intellectual plane as the representatives of 
the older subjects. It is to be taken for granted that the manual arts 
teacher need not know as much science or as much mathematics or as 
much language as the respective teachers of these subjects, but he must 
have the intellectual power and the breadth of vision and culture that are 
supposed to be common to all of these teachers. And while there is no 
royal road to such a general education, and we know that it may be 
obtained entirely outside of college walls, yet the common standard 
of estimate for such education is the bachelor's degree. 

. _ While the bachelor's degree is quite generally accepted 

Course for among educators as a standard of culture it does not 
Teachers of ^tand for any specific section of knowledge. And right 
Training at this point is the opportunity for the college course in 

the preparation of teachers of the manual arts. Just as there are 
college courses in general science, and engineering, and pedagog}' and 
agriculture and domestic science and many more, so there may appro- 
priately be college courses in the manual arts and the pedagogy- per- 
taining to these arts. Again, just as the special subjects of engineering 
or agriculture or domestic science are often allotted from one-half to 
three-fourths of the entire time of the course, so it is appropriate that 


224 .VJA't./L TR.^IMXG MAGAZ1\E 

the special maiuial arts subjects be allotted a similar amount of time 
provided such subjects are well organized and thoroly taught. 

In this connection it is significant that a group of men from ten 
institutions in the Mississippi Valley engaged in training teachers of 
the manual arts should recently discuss and look with favor upon a 
four-year college course which would devote one-half of its time to 
subjects in direct preparation for teaching the manual arts. The 
adoption of such four-year courses by normal colleges and by universities 
would not do away with the present two-year courses which are found 
in several institutions of learning, but it would provide a course which 
more nearly expresses the ideal preparation for teachers of the manual 
arts, and a preparation which, so far as its cultural elements are 
concerned, is being demanded by the certificating laws in several states. 

While such a four-year course is an important step forward it might 
not be so regarded from the manual arts standpoint if it were not 
accompanied by an effort to make the manual arts courses richer on their 
practical side. If this demand for college-trained men to teach the 
manual arts were to mean getting farther away from the industries we 
would be quick to help raise a danger signal, but just as the best 
college courses in agriculture have kept close to science on the one hand 
and to the farm and the farmer on the other, and thereby improved 
both education and farming so it is believed the present tendencies in 
manual arts instruction will benefit both education and the industries. 
The college is going to learn from the industries and ultimately the 
industries will reap new benefits from the instruction in the colleges. 
At the present time no one can do more than prophesy as to just how 
the colleges and the industries are going to come closer together in 
this work — whether it will be by establishing industries within the 
colleges or by sending college students into the industries, or by taking 
groups of industrial workers into the colleges as students, or by 
employing expert industrial workers as college teachers, or by all or 
several of these. Whichever is the one to be most commonly accepted 
or whether none or all of these will appear in the final solution of the 
problem, the fact seems clear to us that the tendency toward a four- 
year course and that toward inducing more men who have learned trades 
to become teachers may be appropriately regarded as phases of the same 
problem — namely, to strengthen the work in the manual arts all thru 
the schools by sending out as teachers men who are better trained in- 
tellectually, pedagogically, and practically. — Charles A. Bexxett. 


^, Ten educational institutions, which include in their 


Demand for organization departments for the training of teachers of 
Teachers the manual and industrial arts, were represented early in 

December in an informal three-day conference called to discuss questions 
which the present insistent demand for such teachers is bringing 
prominenth' to the front. The character and geographical distribution 
of these institutions are significant : 

Bradley Polytechnic Institute Peoria. Illinois 

Iowa State Teachers College Cedar Falls. Iowa 

State Normal School Terre Haute. Indiana 

Illinois State Normal University Normal. Illinois 

Kent State Normal School Kent. Ohio 

George Peabody College for Teachers. .Nashville, Tenn. 

Ohio State College Oxford, Ohio 

University of Chicago Chicago, Illinois 

University of Missouri Columbia, Missouri 

University of Wisconsin Madison, AVisconsin 

At the close of the last session, the conference unanimously agreed 
that the problem of securing a much larger number of professionally 
trained teachers of the manual and industrial arts in the near future is 
one which has a genuine social significance and that every legitimate 
means should be taken to bring to public attention both the need of 
training such teachers and the excellent opportunities open to the 
individual who will prepare himself for this service. 

With this social need and this opportunity for individual advance- 
ment clearly in mind, the following statement of facts was made: 

( 1 ) There is a well-defined and insistent demand for trained 
teachers of the manual and industrial arts which, at the present time, 
greatly exceeds the total supply of such teachers from all sources. It 
is the common experience of all institutions training these teachers that 
they are unable to supply, or even to recommend candidates for many 
of the positions which they are called upon to fill. A considerable 
number of such positions go unfilled for a time or are given to men 
inadequately trained or even wholly without special preparation for 
such work. 

(2) A careful examination of all available statistics will show that 
the salaries paid to manual arts teachers are higher than those 
paid for other school work demanding an equal amount of preparation. 
In fact the records of one institution show that teachers graduating from 


the t\\o-}ear course in tlie manual arts receive a higher average begin- 
ning salary than that received by the graduates of four-year courses 
in other departments of school work. While, from one point of view, 
this is a fact to be regretted, since thoro preparation for any teaching 
position is greatly to be desired, yet there is much promise in the present 
situation which makes it possible for energetic and ambitious young 
men to enter the teaching profession early and to work their way up 
while continuing their training, for the new work demands constant 
study and progress. 

(3) Not only is the initial salary higher for manual arts positions 
but the opportunities for advancement are exceedingly good. With the 
rapid extension of vocational education, under the stimulus of state 
aid, a great variety of positions is being created in which initiative, 
originality and hard work are demanded, but which are properly re- 
warded by rapid promotion. 

(4) While any high school graduate possessing the necessary 
personal aptitudes and characteristics will find the opportunity, as above 
stated, unusually good, the student from a good technical high school 
who has taken a liberal amoimt of mathematics and science will find 
himself especiall\- well equipped to take up this work and to secure a 
good position as teacher of the manual and industrial arts in a high 

(5) The need which is felt by most industrial schools for the 
services of teachers with considerable practical shop experience offers 
unusual advantages to young men who, after a fairly good school train- 
ing, entered some skilled industry three or four years ago. In most of 
the institutions now training teachers of the manual arts, such practical 
shop men will find an opportunity for securing a good preparation for 
positions in tlie new industrial schools, and can be entirely confident 
that there will be a demand for their services after a relatively brief 
period of professional training. — F. M. Leavitt. 

In the spring of 1899 Dr. Alwin Pabst was chosen to 
p^^gj succeed the lamented Dr. Woldemar Gotze as director 

of the School for the Training of Teachers of Handwork, 
Leipzig. In addition to years of successful experience as a teacher of 
handicraft and science, especially physics, and of various forms of in- 
dustrial work into which his interest in physics carried him, he brought 
to the new position marked ability as a public speaker, great energ}-, 
and personal qualities that immediately commanded recognition. 


He has been a prolific writer, and thru his writings he has exerted 
a great influence on the development of education in Europe. He has 
contributed numerous essays to educational and scientific journals, and 
has written books on the teaching of physics, clay modeling, and other 
handwork subjects. 

He is best known in America as the author of "Handwork In- 
struction for Bo3's" {Die Knabenhandarbeit in der heutigen Erziehung, 
1907), which has been translated into English, and as editor of "Papers 
on Handwork for Boys" {Blatter fiir Knabenhandai-beit) . Dr. Pabst 
visited the United States in 1904 and was received with marked respect 
and enthusiasm. He has also traveled extensively in Switzerland, 
France, England, and Holland, and he has in his articles endeavored 
to make his experiences and observations available to his coUeags and 
students. This is the motive for a long list of essays in the best German 
periodicals which have resulted in bringing his name and his ideas 
before a vast circle of readers. He has been in demand as a speaker at 
innumerable conferences and teachers conventions, and has thus been 
able to exert a wide personal influence. Because of his keen sympathy 
in the work of the arts and crafts he was chosen president of the Leipzig 
Union of Artistic Craftsmen. 

A biographical sketch in "The Manual Training Teacher", published 
in London, concludes with the following paragraph : 

"To sum up, we must accord to Dr. Pabst the recognition that he 
has not only successfully labored to train capable and intelligent teachers 
of handicraft, but that he has largely contributed to the work of securing 
for the idea of practical technical education the recognition of its 
deeply rooted mental and moral foundation and its far-reaching national 
importance. He has, moreover, placed it in much closer touch with all 
other pedagogic movements. And this is no small service." 

The following statement is translated from a recent German sketch : 

In the years 1908 to 1912 Dr. Pabst published the following works: 

Practical Education {Praktische Erziehung; Leipzig, Quelle & 

Modern Educational Questions, A Collection of Lectures and Essays 
{Moderne Erziehungsfragerij eine Sammlung von Vortrdgen und 
Aufsdtzen, Osterwieck, A. W. Zickfeldt). 

Practice in Schools of Handwork. {Aus der Praxis der Arbeits- 
schule, Osterwieck, A. W. Zickfeldt). 

The magazine "Papers on Handwork for Boys" {Blatter fur 
Knabenhandarbeit), edited by Dr. Pabst since 1899, appears since 


January, 1912, in enlarged form under the title "The School of Hand- 
work" {Die Arbcitsschule, puhlished by Quelle <Sc Meyer in Leipzig), 
and is developing more and more into the leading organ for all efforts 
toward reform which, proceeding from the principle of handwork, is 
now maintaining its hold on the interest of the pedagogical world in 

The energetic and untiring activity of Dr. Pabst has been recognized 
in many ways by the authorities, and in the person of its promoter 
the cause itself has at the same time been distinguished and honored. 
The Duke of Anhalt, in the service of whose school Dr. Pabst had 
spent some years earlier, bestowed upon him the golden "Order of 
Merit for Art and Science" {Verdienstorden fur Kunst iind Wissen- 
schaft) ; the King of Saxony gave him the title "Professor"', and the 
German Emperor distinguished him thru the "Red Eagle Order'' 
(Roten Adlerorden). Thus here also it is shown that unselfish work, 
which must struggle for years for recognition, finally succeeds and finds 
its reward. — William T. Bawdex, 

A few days ago we received a letter from the supervisor of manual 
arts in a western city which seemed to us to be a fine response to the 
"Competition" announced in our December number. In this letter the 
supervisor spoke of drawings he was planning to send us, and then 
added that his decision to enter the contest was not due to the prizes 
so much as to the desire to contribute to the manual training field some 
of the "well-proportioned and pleasing problems" which he had used with 
success in his city. This supervisor's idea of the competition is 
precisely the same as our own. The chief satisfaction to the winners 
will not be in the money prizes nor even in the professional advantage 
that may come from winning in such a contest, though both of these 
may count for something, but their real satisfaction will be in having 
been successful in contributing something of recognized value for the 
good of the cause. We hope many more such men will be heard from 
before the twentieth of February when the competition closes. 

The year 1914 is just the right time to make plans to go to San 
Francisco in 1915 and to Paris in 1916, or to one of them if not to both. 
If Director James E. Barr of the Department of Education of the 
Panama-Pacific Exposition gets the support he deserves, he will present 
to American educators the most valuable display of school work ever 
seen on American soil, and in that display the manual arts will be a 


very large factor. And there is every reason to believe that the great 
arts and crafts exposition being planned by the French government to 
be held in Paris in 1916 at the same time as the International Art 
Congress will attract more teachers from America than have ever at- 
tended any previous session of the Congress. This double attraction is 
sure to appeal to many manual training teachers who have not attended 
the Congress in years past. 


While the page forms of this issue were being made up we learned 
of the sudden death of Dr. Calvin M. Woodward of St. Louis, the great 
champion of manual training. On that account we had time to prepare 
only a very brief notice for this number. Later we shall speak of Dr. 
Woodward's influential life and his great contribution to education. 

Early in January Dr. Woodward went on a lecture tour thru 
Southern Missouri, some of the time giving as many as three lectures 
a day. On Saturday afternoon, January 10th, he was stricken with 
paralysis, and on Monday afternoon, January 12th he died at his home in 
St. Louis. The physicians in attendance stated that his death was 
indirectly caused by overexertion on the lecture tour. The funeral 
services were held at the Church of Unity of which he has long been 
a vitally active member, and was attended by officials, alumni and 
students of Washington University, the Manual Training School and 
Smith Academy, as well as many other friends and public school officials. 
Altho sevent_v-six years old at the time of his death. Dr. Woodward 
was active in his work up to the Saturday he was stricken. He had 
plans for a lecture tour in Texas an dan appointment to speak at Brad- 
ley Polytechnic Institute. He has been a vigorous, untiring worker 
and leaves a noble record of achievement behind him. His rugged 
physique he attributed to outdoor exercise. In his college days at Har- 
vard he was a member of the crew, and habits formed then were not 
dropped. At the time of his death he was professor emeritus of Wash- 
ington University. 



The members of the Boston Manual Training Club enjoyed a very profitable 
experience in a visit, on November 29th, 1913, to the Derby Desk Company, 
Soraerville, Massachusetts, and inspection of this large woodworking plant. 
The desks and office furniture manufactured by this Company go to all parts 
of the world. 

The regular meeting of the Club was held on Saturday evening, December 
6th, at the Franklin LTnion, Boston. The entire time was taken up with a dis- 
cussion of the preliminary report of the Educational Committee, on "The Place 
of Manual Training in the Educational System." 

The main topics under discussion were: 

1. The present status of manual training. 

2. The function of manual training in a system of education. 

3. The teacher. 

4. The teacher's salary. 

5. Equipment. 

6. Size of classes. 

7. The amount of time given to manual training. 

A number of special meetings are to be held for the discussion of this report 
before the subject matter is made public. 


The Club held its annual "Get-Together" Dinner at the Boston Cit\' Club 
on Saturday evening, December 20th. A large number of men were present, 
including many school superintendents of Greater Boston. 

The speakers were Henry Turner Bailey, editor of "The School Arts 
Magazine;" Meyer Bloomfield, director of the Vocation Bureau, Boston; and 
Robert O. Small, deputj' commissioner of education for Massachusetts. All three 
of the speakers are members of the Club. 

Mr. Bailey spoke on "The Curves in their Relation to the Manual Arts." 
The address was a strong one in which a plea was made for a study of design 
in the manual arts, based on lines from nature, and a study of past masters of 
the crafts, as an inspiration to the pupil. Emphasis was given to the tragedy of 
separating our system of education from real life. 

Mr. Bloomfield spoke on "The Function of Vocational Guidance," and 
called for the cooperation and assistance of the manual training men. He con- 
sidered that the manual training teacher would make an ideal person for work 
along the lines of vocational guidance. 

Mr. Small spoke on "Vocational Education," and emphasized the fact that 
the movement needs the heart}' and intelligent cooperation of all manual training 
teachers and supervisors. He pointed to the fact that there is at present much 



misunderstanding and confusion of terms; that we must first understand the 
aim and know the content of our problem before we try to solve it. 

Harry L. Jones, 

Somerville, Mass., 
Chairman of Press Committee. 


The preliminary announcement of the program of the meeting of the De- 
partment of Superintendence at Richmond. Va., February 23rd to 28th, 1914, 
shows that considerable attention is to be given to the problems that interest 
the readers of this Magazine. 

On Tuesday evening Dr. Edward T. Devine is to discuss "Sociological ques- 
tions in school cooperation." On Wednesday morning Dr. David Snedden, Com- 
missioner of Education for Massachusetts, and Professor W. C. Baglev, Uni- 
versity of Illinois, are to discuss "Distinctions between vocational and cultural 
education." The Wednesday afternoon session is to be devoted to part-time, 
continuation, shop, and trade schools, and the speakers are Superintendent R. J. 
Condon, Cincinnati, O. ; Superintendent H. P. Hughes McComb, Miss.; F. W. 
Thomas, Supervisor of Apprentices, A. T. and S. F. Ry., Topeka, Kan. ; Super- 
intendent Lewis Gustafson, Rankin School of Trades, St. Louis. 

On Wednesday evening the United States Bureau of Education is to present 
a program on the "Condition of Rural Schools." Papers will be presented by 
Mabel Carney, Illinois State Normal University; Josephine C. Preston, State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia, Wash.; Susie V. Powell, Jackson, 
Miss.; and Cora Wilson Stewart, Moorehead, Ky. 

The official headquarters will be at the Hotel Jefferson, while the commercial 
exhibits will be displayed at the Murphy and Richmond Hotels. The chairman 
of the local committee in charge of arrangements is Joseph Saunders. Most of 
the meetings will be held in the city auditorium, the high school building, or 
the Hotel Jefferson. 

There are many places of historical interest in the neighborhood of Rich- 
mond and plans are being developed which will bring as many as possible of 
these within the reach of visitors to the convention. A program bulletin is to be 
Issued which will contain full details. 

The Southeastern Passenger Association in whose territory Richmond is situ- 
ated has granted a round trip rate of practically IV2 cents per mile. This 
Association has made a proposition to the adjacent passenger associations, and it 
is hoped that a satisfactory adjustment of the question of the railroad rates will 
be effected. 


The second meeting of the year was a round table discussion held at Peck's 
restaurant, 140 Fulton St., New York City, on Friday evening, December 12, 

The subjects and leaders of discussion for the tables were as follows: (1) 
Supervision, E. G. Traua; (2) Elementar>' Shopwork, James McKinney. 



An important conference on vocational education was attended by super- 
intendents and principals of Indiana at the Claypool Hotel, Indianapolis, No- 
vember 6th to 8th, 1913. The Thursday evening program consisted of an 
address by Charles A. Bennett, Bradley Polytechnic Institute, on "The Meaning 
of Vocational Education from the Viewpoint of: (1) The State; (2) The In- 
dustries; (3) The Worker; (4) The School Men." 

On Friday morning Superintendent T. F. Fitzgibbon, Columbus, discussed 
"The aim and scope of prevocational work in the regular schools." Dr. W. F. 
Book, state supervisor of vocational education, presented an outline of the 
difficulties encountered in the organization and prosecution of the prevocational 
work in the regular schools and indicated the best methods of meeting these 
difficulties. Superintendent H. L. Smith, Bloomington, gave an address on "The 
vocational survey as a first step in the organization of a special vocational de- 
partment or school." 

The Friday afternoon session was devoted to a consideration of what shall 
constitute a state aided vocational school or department, with the following 
speakers: Equipment, Superintendent L. J. Montgomery, South Bend; Course of 
Study, Z. M. Smith, state supervisor of agricultural education. The standardiza- 
tion of high school work was discussed by A. O'Neal, state high school inspector, 
and some practical problems of vocational training by Professor Bennett. 

The Saturday morning session was taken up with a discussion of the Indiana 
law, the kinds of schools that may be established under its provisions, the organi- 
zation and administration of such schools or departments, and other related 
topics. The leaders of the discussion were: John A. Lapp, former secretary of 
the Commission, and Superintendent J. H. Tomlin, Evansville. 

The conference was largely attended and the superintendents who were 
present were unanimous in their opinion that it was decidedly worth while. 

At this conference the State Department of Public Instruction distributed a 
circular entitled "Present Status of Industrial and Vocational Work in Indiana." 
This circular contains a brief summary of the provisions of the Indiana law, 
together with a statement of such rules and regulations governing the develop- 
ment of prevocational work in the regular schools as have been determined upon 
bv the Board. A statement is also given of questions that are still held in 
abevance. In a similar way a preliminary statement is made of rules and 
regulations governing the vocational work for which state aid is provided 
beginning in September, 1914. 

The circular concludes with the following statement of principles which 
have been adopted by the State Board of Education to assist In the attempt to 
work out the problem of vocational education for Indiana: 


1. For all professions, vocations, or callings, there is needed a general 
educational basis to which the first six years of school work should be devoted 
almost exclusively. 


^ 2. Some professional work, including a study of the special branches 
which underly a profession or vocation, is needed if the learner expects ever to 
become highly skilled in the work or expects to make a wise and intelligent 
choice of an occupation. 

3. This more general study and prevocational work must be followed by 
a period of special study and participation in the profession or craft itself if 
real efficiency or skill in that vocation is to be acquired; to become a skilled 
carpenter, the boy must first of all study carpentry and not something else. 

4. All vocational work must be done in and thru the instrumentaliry- of the 
public schools by such an enlargement and extension of its departments and 
work as shall be necessary to provide real vocational education for all. 

5. The prevocational work carried on in the regular schools and the 
special vocational work to be provided for in special departments and schools 
should not supplant but supplement and extend the present work carried on by 
our public schools. 

6. The prevocational work to be done in the regular schools (Section 5) 
should be taken up in the more fundamental and basic industries which never 
go out of date and be so conducted as to vitalize the regular school work and 
give a proper basis for the real vocational work to be done in special vocational 
departments and schools 

7. A helpful preparation for any specific training in a vocation would 
be such a study of the industries and life of our people as will make the work- 
man comprehend his work in its scientific relations and in its historical, economic, 
and social bearings; a study which would tend to give the workman a right 
view of his trade or work and of his powers and duty as a citizen and member 
of society. 

8. In general, special vocational training should not begin much before 
16, because the child is not well enough developed before that age for work in 
any skilled industry. 

9. The problem of vocational education should be approached from the 
standpoint of the welfare of the individual to be trained for useful citizenship, 
rather than from the standpoint of the vocations and industries to be benefited 
by the skilled workers to be produced. 

10. The whole problem of vocational education as it pertains to conditions 
and needs in Indiana must be thoroly investigated to the end that a school or- 
ganization or plan be devised that will solve, in an economical and efficient way, 
the problem of general and vocational education in Indiana. 


At the Montana State Educational Association meeting, which was held at 
Helena, November 24th to 26th, 1913, the manual training teachers present 
organized the Montana Industrial Education Association. All the members who 
were present were ver\' enthusiastic over the new organization, and a successful 
year is anticipated. The officers elected are: president, E. M. McGrath, Helena; 
vice-president, H. A. Sikes, Helena ; secretary, A. S. Peterson, Bozeman ; treasurer, 
Walter Berr\', Great Falls. 


The domestic science teachers also formed an organization, with the 
following officers: president, Miss Sater, Helena; secretary, Miss Baldwin, Mon- 
tana State College, Bozeman. It is the plan of the officers of the two newly 
formed organizations to hold at least one joint session and several separate round 
table discussions in connection with the next meeting of the State Educational 
Association ; each section has its own executive committee, and the two com- 
mittees are to meet at a later date for the purpose of planning an industrial 
program for the state meeting. 

A. S. Peterson, Secretary, 

Bozeman, Mont. 


At the meeting of the State Teachers' Association in Topeka, steps were taken 
to pro\'ide a closer organization of the teachers of manual training in Kansas 
by an appointment of an executive committee for the purpose of developing a 
plan for such an organization for a spring meeting for further discussions. The 
committee consists of the newly elected officers of the manual training round 
table: H. H. Braucher, Emporia; T. M. Wood, Hays; Joseph F. Parks, Wichita; 
and in addition G. E. Bray, Manhattan; Karl H. Miller, Salina; L. H. Emmctt, 
Lawrence; and A. H. Winter, Topeka. The first work undertaken by the com- 
mittee is the preparation of a complete list of the names and addresses of manual 
training teachers in the state. As soon as this directory is completed, it is expected 
that plans for further organization may be perfected and the details promptly com- 
municated to all those who are interested. 


The second meeting of the New Hampshire Manual Training Club was 
held in Manchester on November 22, 1913. The forenoon was spent in visiting 
the extensive plant of the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company. At noon the 
members met together for lunch and in the afternoon a business meeting was 
held in the directors' room of the local Y. M. C. A. At this time a report of 
the executive committee was presented and a constitution and by-laws as recom- 
mended were adopted with slight amendments. Details for the next meeting 
were left in the hands of the executive committee. 

A. W. French, Secretary, 

Concord, N. H. 


A group of teachers met at Phoenix, Ariz., November 6th, and organized 
for the purpose of mutual benefit and improvement. In order that the Associa- 
tion may not be limited in its scope and influence, but that it may include all 
departments of vocational training, it was decided that the Association be known 
as the Arizona Industrial and Art Association. 


The following officers were elected: president, Howard Bcebc Ross, director 
of industrial education, Douglas; vice-president, Miss Worthy Johnson, instructor 
in domestic science and art, Phoenix; secretary-treasurer. Miss Zella Roberts, 
manager commercial department, Winslow high school. 

A committee of five members was appointed by the president to make the 
necessary arrangements for the next meeting of the Association which will be 
held in April at Tucson. 

Zella Roberts, Secretary, 

Winslow, Ariz. 


At the time of the convention of the District Teachers' Association, held 
in Clinton, Oklahoma, the first week in December, 1913, the manual training, 
domestic science, and agricultural education teachers of Oklahoma organized 
themselves into an Industrial Arts Association. Frank H. McCrea, director 
of manual training, Western State Normal School, Weatherford, was elected 

The Association has been divided into three Sections, or Committees, and an 
effort is to be made to standardize the work in these three departments in this 
section of the state. An effort is to be made also to induce every school in which 
these subjects are taught to establish an industrial arts library for reference work 
along these lines. 


The National Education Association has issued a Bulletin containing the 
text in full of the "Declaration of Principles," consisting of the report of the 
committee adopted at the Salt Lake convention in July, 1913. The section of the 
report entitled "Vocational Education," written by Dr. E. G. Cooley and Com- 
missioner David Snedden, is of special interest to this Department. 


I. The complete aim of education may be variously expressed as prepara- 
tion for citizenship, self-realization, etc. 

II. The complete aim of education may be subdivided into four principal 
concrete aims, each having a definite place in contemporary education: (a) 
physical education, which prepares persons for prolonged physical health and 
bodily usefulness; (b) vocational education, which prepares the individual for 
the useful and effective performance of the duties related to self-support; (c) 
civic and moral (or social) education, which trains the individual for effective 
participation in group life as citizen, patriot, parent, etc.; and (d) cultural 
education, which fits the individual for effective participation in the esthetic, 
intellectual, and other cultural activities of civilized life. 

III. It is desirable that opportunities for vocational education in schools 
shall not be restricted only to those entering the professions, but shall be made 
available for all. Vocational education heretofore has been carried on by other 


agencies than schools. These agencies are no longer adequate for the needs of 
modern societj-. The school system must, therefore, supplement the other agencies 
and should include: 

1. A system of elementary schools, including kindergartens, which cover the 
period from infancy and cliildhood up to the age of fourteen or fifteen. The 
purpose of the work of the elementary school should be all-round development, 
including training of the eye and hand, as well as covering tlie ordinary 
academic ground in the field of literature, geography, history, and the three 

2. A system of secondary schools, both academic and technical, for youth who 
can devote more time (a) to their education before entering business or 
industrial life, or (b) to the preparation for the colleges and universities; 

3. A system of higher institutions, including those which prepare for the profes- 
sions, such as law, medicine, engineering, etc. ; and 

4. A system of vocational continuation schools, part-time and full-time trade or 
technical schools for youth who wish, or are compelled, to enter vocational 
life without the broader foundation provided bv the secondary- schools, the 
colleges and universities. 

It is desirable that the vocational schools suggested under subdivision 4 
be added to our present school system, both as a means of preparing the individual 
for self-support and with a view to supplying that minimum of instruction and 
training which is indispensable as a preparation for citizenship. No school 
system can safely permit its pupils to leave at fourteen. At this time character 
building really begins; the boy or girl is usually subjected to new temptations 
and new responsibilities. If the instruction and guidance of the school is not 
continued, much of the result of the previous instruction in the elementary school 
will be lost. As Frederich Paulsen says : 

It will be the mightiest problem of the twentieth century to build upon the 
elementary school as a general and fundamental form of school a new finishing 
educational institution, or to give to the elementary school instruction its necessary 
conclusion in a kind of vocational high school ; a school whose problem will be 
the carrying forward and making fruitful of the general education for vocational 

I\'. Vocational education is a problem of adolescence and can rarely be 
carried on with young people under fourteen years of age. The most effective 
vocational education, therefore, will be that provided in schools for young persons 
from fourteen years of age and upwards. 

V. Vocational education will require for its complete development a great 
variety of institutions and agencies, according to the occupations for which pre- 
paration is being made. Some of these will be all-day schools, some evening 
schools, some part-time schools, and some seasonal schools; but no school for 
boys and girls between fourteen and eighteen should be held in the evening or 
after the completion of a day's work in a vocation. 

VI. All vocational education requires that during its progress somewhere 
and somehow the individual intimately concern himself for a considerable 
portion of his time with concrete productive work. If possible this should be 
carried on in commercial establishments on a part-time or other basis. 



VII. Vocational education should be made compulsory- for young people 
from fourteen to eighteen years of age who are not in other forms of school. 
This can be done on the so-called part-time basis, the state requiring that young 
persons of these ages shall attend a vocational school for at least four hours per 

VIII. Vocational education in schools for the rank and file of workers can 
be carried on with public support and under public control. 

IX. The support of vocational education should not be provided only by 
the local community-. Owing to the mobility of labor, the benefits of vocational 
education tend to diffuse themselves; hence it is only equitable that the state 
as well as the local community should assist in meeting the cost of vocational 

X. While it is especially important that this new t>pe of school which 
takes boys or girls on leaving the elementary school and provides a practical 
vocational education should also consider the needs of the man and the citizen, 
on the other hand it must be recognized that the vocation should stand as the 
central point of this system of instruction as the occupations of man stand at the 
central point of every well-regulated life and exercise a reaction upon all the 
remaining activities. A good citizen will necessarily be a man or woman who 
is both able and willing to earn a decent living. 

XI. Such vocational schools will keep in mind that the boys and girls in 
them are endowed with the usual interest in amusements and social activities 
of various kinds. In the organization of such schools, therefore, play and 
excursions, entertainments and festivals, libraries and reading-halls, tools, books, 
and other apparatus must be supplied them. The problem is here as elsewhere 
with the whole boy and includes his recreation. 

XII. "No boy or girl ought to be treated," as Churchill put it, "merely as 
cheap labor." Up to eighteen years of age every boy and girl who is not in 
school should be learning a trade or vocation, as well as earning a living. No 
person should be permitted to employ boys or girls during the formative years 
without assuming some responsibility- for their learning a vocation. 



Geo. a. Seaton, Editor. 


Mr. E. F. Krancjuist, of Oklalioma, contributes a photograph of an attractive 
lantern to be made up of sheet copper and mounted upon a wooden back. The 
problem is one requiring but a modest equipment of metalworking tools, yet is as 
pleasing as some made with a much larger outfit. 



This is a project which will call for more than the usual amount of skill in 
its construction, yet will prove worth all the extra effort spent upon it. The 
base and cap of the central part of the leg are separate pieces glued and doweled 
into place, with a large dowel running thru the foot. A liberal corner block 
should be used in the music tray which occupies the space beneath the top. D. K. 
Hiett, of East Orange, New Jersey, wlio submits the drawing, feels that there 














may be some criticism in regard to the maicing of the legs from so many pieces, 
but knows of a bench which has been in use for three years and still remains in 
excellent condition. The piece looks well in mahogany or in some wood ebonized. 


Under the leadership of A. D. Bailey, the boys of Bemidji. Minnesota, seem 
to be producing some very practical problems along agricultural lines. This 




month there are drawings and photographs of a hen house constructed upon the 
school farm. The money for the material was appropriated by the school board 
and the boys of the eighth grade and the high school undertook the work. The 
foundations are of cement laid by the boys in the agricultural classes. The 
studding and rafters were cut in the shop, where also were made the window 
frames, the nests, and the frames for the cloth screens. The sills and plates are 
double 2x4's, and the sheathing No. 2 drop siding. On the north side are the 
'nests and roosts. This side of the building has a layer of tar paper on each side 
of the studding which is sheathed on the inside with matched flooring. Tar paper 
and flooring were also used to sheath the ends for a distance of four feet, and 
also the ceiling. This provides a closet 4 by 30 feet for the roosting accommoda- 
tions. A curtain in front of the roosts completes the four walls of this closet. 


The roosts are made easily removable and the dropping board is of dressed 
and matched fir flooring. The nests are single with a sliding door in front of 
each nest. A partition in the middle makes possible the separation of the hens and 

The roof is of rough boards covered with certaineed roofing. Cross ties at 
regular intervals are used to strengthen the roof and on these rough boards are 
laid about 1 inch apart. On top of these boards were placed two loads of straw to 
help keep the house dry. This straw was put in place thru the small windows at 
the ends. 


An unusually large library table is shown by photograph and working draw- 
ing, which come from W. E. Hackett, of the Boys High School, Reading, Pennsyl- 
vania. Aside from its size no unusual difficulties should be encountered in its 



Tlie accompanying illustration needs no long explanation to convince any 
person acquainted with boy nature that the construction of such problems is full 
of interest, or to show to the manual training instructor the principles involved, 
or the educational value of such work. A few words, however, showing how the 
problem was approached may give a setting to the picture. 

The subject of "Industrial Problems" versus "The Useful Model" has 
been given a full measure of attention during the past few years, and it is not 
the intention here to add to this discussion. To employ an expression recently 
used by Mr. Pickwick, "we are still doing some old-fashioned manual training" 
in Trenton, while at the same time we are trying to keep our minds alert to grasp 
the rich opportunities that an industrial communit}' affords us in leading our 
bojs to grasp the significance of the activities that surround their daily life. 

A class of boys in the sixth grade of the Joseph Wood School was discussing 
with their instructor, Frances E. Mack, the various forms of building con- 
struction then in progress in the city that had come to their attention. An 
addition to the State House was being built with cut stone as the principal 
material. The problem of raising these stones and putting them in place was the 
particular feature of the discussion that brought out the use and value of the 
derrick. Other places where the derrick or crane were in use were quickly re- 
called and the particular objects hoisted were noted ; such as in the canal basin, 
where sand, brick, coal or stones were unloaded from boats; at the freight yard, 
where heavy iron beams or pipe were taken from car to wagon, etc. 

The suggestion that models of derricks be made in the shop soon followed. 
The class was dismissed with instruction to study a derrick only, and to return 
to the shop the next week with as much information about derricks as they could 
get, including sketches and names of the various parts. Additional suggestions 
followed later which led to a study of the relative length of mast and boom, 
location of pulleys, reeving of tackle, position of guy ropes, etc. 

Every manual training instructor knows what followed — enthusiasm ran to 
fever pitch. But altho the discussion to this point had been general and, with 
the entire class, it is interesting to note that not all the boys decided to undertake 
the project. Those who did were put upon their own resources to supply such 
material as was not available in the shop at that time. Wire for guys, strips of 
leather from an old fly netting for reeving, pulley wheels from old pulleys and 
spools for drums poured in from various sources. Wire nails b^nt to form 
crank and axle, spools mounted in frames for drums, and the wheels s^t in 
pulle}' blocks of their own construction attest the ingenuity and inventive genius 
of every worker. No two derricks were alike. 

Altho some of the pupils were engaged in the routine work of the class or 
at work on other projects of their own selection, every member of the class 
caught the spirit of the project anil reaped a certain share of benefit. The 
corner at the aimual exhibit where the derricks were displayed was never 




248 M.L\L.!L TR.llMXG M.^GAZISE 

Proof of the success of this project and of many similar ones is not needed 
beyond the mere statement. However, this is not because they form a part of 
the "course" or because the}' are "inspired" by the supervisor, but solely because 
of the ingenuity, enthusiasm, ambition and good judgment of the instructor who 
takes advantage of the right time and the rich opportunities that are ever present 
to lead his pupils into a broader and deeper observation and investigation of the 
life of the community in wliich tliey live and of which they form a part. 

W. R. Ward, Supervisor. 


The meeting of tlie Jersey City Board of Education issued invitations to 
the public to attend a dedicatory session of the William L. Dickinson High 
School on Friday, December 5th, 1913. No special plans were made for exhibit 
work other than to print a circular of information for distribution. The regular 
day school program was changed from the regular hours and run from 4:30 p. 
m. to 10 p. m. At least 16,000 people visited the school between these hours, 
and there were many expressions of satisfaction in the opportunity to see the 
school at work. It is the opinion of the Board of Education that the session made 
a decided impression upon the visitors who came. 

The school is named after William L. Dickinson, who was city superintend- 
ent of schools in Jersey City from 1870 to 1883. Originally the high school was 
onlv half the size of the present building. The total number of pupils enrolled 
on the opening day was: boys, 279; girls, 655; total, 934. The faculty on the 
opening day consisted of 7 men and 19 women teachers. In 1910 work was 
begun on the northern half of the building and in November, 1911, it was open 
to classes. 

The school, as it is equipped today, provides for instruction for both boys 
and girls in three distinct departments: Academic, Commercial and Industrial. 

In the basement south, are found the g>-mnasium, lunch rooms, and locker 
rooms; in the basement north, the foundry, forge-shop, elementary and advanced 
machine-shops, woodworking room, mill-room, and photographic dark room. A 
mezzanine floor contains lockers for shop and night school pupils. On the first 
floor south are found the vocational commercial classes; and on the first floor 
north, the print shop, pattern-making shop, cabinet-making shop, and electrical 
construction rooms. 

The second floor north and south contains rooms devoted to languages, mathe- 
matics, and mechanical drawing. On this floor is located the auditorium, with 
a capacit>' of 2,000 seats, the library, reading room, and reference room. 

The third floor north and south, except for a few classes in German, is 
devoted to science work and science laboratories. The fourth floor south contains 
t«"o drawing rooms. 

The fourth floor north is devoted to domestic science and domestic art, and 
contains the applied design, dressmaking, cooking, sewing, and millinery rooms. 

The power-house which supplies the building with heat, light, and power, is 
located in the hollov.- square in the center of the building. 



The enrolment of the school for this term is 1,118 boys and 1,436 girls, a 
total of 2,554 pupils. The faculty at the present time consists of 49 men and 54 
women, a total of 103 teachers. The building, grounds, and equipment, represent 
an outlay of about $1,400,000. 


Short courses for farmers' boys are becoming a very important feature among 
the schools of Minnesota. The high school at Hinckley has had a short course 
for four years, with an increasing attendance. Not only the boys but the farmers 
themselves, in many cases, are planning to attend this year. The course of studv 
includes agriculture, manual training, business practice, and English. 

The course in manual training is arranged to meet needs expressed bv 
the farmers, and consists of woodwork, ironwork, and cement work. The follow- 
ing outlines of the work in these courses by weeks will prove, we believe, a 
definite help to those of our readers who are undertaking the short course work 
for the first time: 


JVoo^ IFork. 

1st week. Name and care of tools, 
squaring of block and making of 

2nd. Sharpening of tools. Filing and 
setting of saws. 

3rd Bread cutting board ) 

Milk stool. I 

Nail box. f 

Bushel crate. J 

one or more 

4th Mitre box 
Sleeve board. 
Fork rack. 
Saw buck. 

5th Ironing board. 
Chicken coop. 
Corn rack. 
Step ladder. 

6th Barn frame. 

7th Seed corn tester. 
Farm gate. 


one or more 

one or more 

one or more 

8th Study of forge. Making of fire 
and use of tools. 

9th Draining and Bending. 

Open eye hook. 
Gate hook. 

Iron JTork. 

10th II' elding 

Solid eye hook. 
Single tree hook. 
Log chain hook. 

11th ir elding 
Bolt head. 

Chain link and chain. 

12th Tool Making and Tempering. 
Cold chisel. 
Cape chisel. 
Screw driver. 

13th, 14th and 15th. These three 
weeks will be given to work where 
there is a connection between iron 
and woodwork, articles such as single 
trees, wagon boxes, harrow frame, to 
be made. 

16th General review. 



1st Work on joints. Stli U'rlJiui;. 

Flat weld. 
2ikI Step ladtter. ) -i- i i i . 

' 1 wekt, corner \velo. 

Ironing board. ^ one or more 

Foot stool. j 9th Wek'inu; and bending tongs. 

3rd W'ajon jack. ) l')tli and lltli Iron and wood work 

(crn inarker. ; combined. 

(^irn rack. f 

Book rack. J 

me or more 

IJtl) .S7.v</r of C.fineni. 

Ki'ids, manufacture and reinforce- 
4th Cow stanchion. ) nient. 

Hog rafk. )- one or mor 

Wheel barrow. ) 

I:ih Making of forms. 
Making of fence posts. 

5tli Tool cliest. ) 

^, , , i-rt!i Making of cement blocks. 

Clothes chest. one or more 

„T 1 L 1 Making of liog trough. 

Work bench. ] j- .- e. 

,,,,,• 1 5th Makina; of water troughs. 

6th nam fraine. . " . 

Making of machine base. 

7th R'^pe tieing and splicing. 

16th Cieneral re\iew. 

R. W. La Du, the director of manual training reports that many of the boys 
who have taken this short course, have either installed a forge at home, them- 
selves, or have persuaded their fathers to do so, and are now doing the repairing 
and making of useful articles which before were taken to the blacksmith in the 
nearest town. This is a great saving in both time and money. 

As will be seen b\- the outline the course covers two years of sixteen weeks 
each, at the close of which a diploma is given. Last year all but two of the 
first year boys returned to take up the second year's work. 

Saturday morning classes in benclnvork, wood-turning, book-binding, metal- 
work, and jewelry are offered during the winter at the Sloyd Training School, 
Boston, of which Cnistaf Larsson is principal. The purpose of the Saturday 
classes is, (1) to give graduates of the school opportunity for special work and 
such work as may be deinanded in their respective schools; (2) to offer to 
teachers who contemplate specializing in manual training an opportunity to 
ascertain their fitness for the work; and (3) to give to supervisors and teachers 
engaged in regular school work an opportunity to gain an insight into the 
merits of Sloyd methods and to compare these with the so-called industrial 
methods. Short talks will be given on the respective merits of industrial and 
educational methods of manual training. 

We present on pages 251 and 252 two illustrations showing work done in 
the Sloyd Training School. 









A new department, known as the mechanics course, was opened at the 
Trenton School of Industrial Arts in September. It is a day department with a 
three-year course, for boys who have finished the eighth grade and who wish to 
prepare directly for the industries or for higher technical schools. 

The course of study includes, the first year, mechanical drawing and mathe- 
mathics, each ten hours a week, and industrial history, drawing, and modeling, 
each five hours a week; the second year, mechanical drawing and woodworking, 
each ten hours a week, mathematics five hours, English three hours, and physics 
two hours a week; the third year, physics, metalworking, and applied mathematics, 
each ten hours a week. 

It will be noted that no shop work is given the first year. The director of 
the school, Frank Forrest Frederick, believes that better results in shop work 
will be secured if the first year is spent in obtaining a good foundational know- 
ledge of the mechanical drawing and mathematics which underlie the work of 
the shop. 

Individual instruction is the method of teaching employed in the new de- 
partment. As far as possible the boys are treated as apprentices in a commercial 
establishment. It is hoped that this will result in more rapid advancement and 
greater efficiency on the part of graduate students either in advanced schools 
or shops. 


In Evanston, Illinois, the manual arts department was reorganized, this year, 
and was given headquarters in the Haven school which is devoted entirely to 
manual arts work for sixth, seventh and eighth grade pupils. In this school 
there are the three grades with required and elective courses, and an ungraded 
room, where still more individual instruction is possible. 

The required work for the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades, consists of 
manual training and drawing for boys, and domestic science and art for girls. 
The elective courses are prevocational in character, designed to give the pupils 
a glimpse of various industries as a means of helping them to determine what 
vocation to select. That the opportunity to secure this instruction in handwork 
is appreciated is shown by the enrolment which is for the sixth grade, girls, 133 ; 
boys, 131; for the seventh grade, girls, 110; boys, 119; for the eighth grade, 
girls, 120; boys, 90. 

In the ungraded room, which enrols 34 bo\'s and 15 girls, one-half the time 
is devoted to industrial work and the other half to academic work. None of 
these pupils expect to enter the high school, but it is hoped that the intensive 
study of the prevocational work will be of sufficient interest to hold them thru a 
completion of a course equivalent to the eighth grade. One of the newer trade 
classes this year is printing. Four boys are devoting every afternoon to this 
subject, with the exception of one and one-half hours for drawing. An employ- 
ment bureau is maintained in connection with the ungraded room. 

254 .l/./.V( .//. TR.IIMXC M.IG.IZIXE 

Athletics and other features of the usual eleineiitar\- school are found at the 
Haven school, the difference between this and the other schools being in the 
nature of emphasis and time allowance for handwork. Friday afternoon talks 
have been arranged for pupils of the ungraded room, which will assist in the 
work of broadening the general intelligence of these pupils. 

The privileges of the school have recently been extended to pupils of the 
fifth grades in the city system. 

T. L. Adams is director of the manual arts department in Evanston, and is 
assisted at the Ha\en school by one man and fi\e women teachers. 

A new high school of the cosmopolitan t> pe is being erected in West Duluth, 
Minnesota. Departments of manual training, domestic economy, and commerce 
will be given a generous allowance of space in the new school. 

The rooms for manual training are located on the main floor and in the 
basement. On the first floor are the pattern-making room, 25x62 feet; the lathe 
room, 37x25 feet; the wood stock-room, 25x46 feet; bench room, 25x61 feet; 
and store, supply, and finishing rooms. In the basement are found the machine 
shop, 25x98 feet; the foundry, 2+x42 feet; the forge room, 3 5x42 feet; and the 
engine room, stock and tool rooms. The mechanical drawing rooms, two in num- 
ber, are on the third floor, where a blue-printing room is in connection. 

A main floor auditorium, a library, a gymnasium, extensive laboratories, 
program clocks, and an inter-telephone system are other features of this modern 
school. The school is named in honor of the superintendent of the Duluth schools, 
Robert F. Denfield. 

Carlisle, Pennsylvania, will have ready by September, 1914, a large new high 
school of the cosmopolitan type. A large number of the rooms in the new 
building will be devoted to the uses of the departments of manual arts and 
domestic economy. These rooms will include a mechanical drawing room, a 
freehand drawing room, a carpenter shop, mill room, concrete and erecting 
room, forge shop, machine shop, sheet metal shop, laundry, kitchen, sewing room, 
and model dining-room. The commercial branches will also have specially 
equipped rooms. 

The new high school comes as the fulfillment of a plan made by Charles L. 
Lamberton before his death. Mr. Lamberton was a New York lawyer and 
capitalist who remembered his birthplace and boyhood home in the bequest of 
an educational fund, to be invested for a period of ten years, and then to be 
used in establishing and maintaining a school for the education of boys and girls 
of the Carlisle public schools in the "industrial, mechanic, technical and scientific 

The new high school will be constructed at a cost of a little less than $90,000. 
It will present an unusual opportunity to the young people of a city of less than 
twenty thousand people. 

The manual training department of the South Omaha schools is being ex- 
panded and improved to a considerable extent this year. In the high school a 
lathe shop has been equipped with twelve underdriven wood lathes and all 



tools necessary for pattern-making. In the woodworking shop a 24-inch surfacer, 
a combination saw table, a 36-inch band saw, and a universal grinder have 
been added. A room has also been equipped for mechanical drawing. 

Ninety minutes each day are now given to the work of this department in the 
high school, the course including joinery, cabinet-making, carpentry, wood-turn- 
ing, and pattern-making. 

The work in the grades has been improved by the addition of three ward 
centers for woodworking, making eight in all, and by the addition of 
an instructor in charge of the grade woodworking. Two periods a week are 
given to this work. Basketry, clay modeling, and wood carving, are given in 
the fifth and sixth grades under the instruction of tvvo women teachers especially 
trained in this work. 

Another new feature in the South Omaha schools is the equipment of rooms 
for domestic science, domestic art and household management. One instructor 
has charge of the high school classes in these subjects and two direct the work 
in the grades. 

R. O. Bagby is supervisor of the manual arts department in South Omaha. 

The pupils in the manual training department of the Rahway, New Jersey, 
schools repaired over four hundred old toys in December, and put them in condi- 
tion to be distributed at Christmas by the Union Aid Society. The shop work 
in Rahway begins in the sixth grade and continues thru the high schools. The 
eighth grade boys are progressing rapidly because of the larger time allowance 
given them this year. They now have four hours a week. The high school 
boys are constructing furniture of various sizes and uses, the work being con- 
ducted as far as possible from the commercial point of view, with time sheets, 
record cards, etc. The macliiiie shop in the high school is equipped with three 
lathes, a table saw, band saw, a tool grinder and jointer, all operated by electric 
motors. Four years of mechanical drawing are now provided in the high school, 
leading to work in architectural drawing. Arthur L. Perry is supervisor in 



H. Williams Smith. 

The Scout Movement bids fair to create a corner in laurels. From quarters, 
even the most unlikely, approbation comes. We read that there are 200,000 
scouts in this country, but twice as many in the States. Spain gives an annual 
Government grant of £5,000 to the boy scout movement in that country. In 
almost every school in Russia there is a boy scout corps. Bishops bless it and 
patriots caress it. The Bishop of Winchester said, a bishop who was not in- 
terested in the Scout movement must be something either of a knave or a 
fool. He found Sir Robert Baden Powell's manual on scouting full of interest, 
and that it taught many things he as a bishop was trying to teach in another 
wav. More than once when speaking to lads at confirmation he had used bits 
of the manual to help him say what he felt he ought to say. In brief, the 
manual anchored the bishop to earth, and kept him from soaring too high cloud- 
wards. When you bear in mind that the most insistent note in the scout man- 
ual is that of manual training, you will understand just why I give space in 
my notes to the scout movement. Further, I do not depreciate it for its military 
touches. There are good things to copy in army discipline. The Salvation army 
fcjnd out that long ago. I do not despise the drums and fifes, and the other 
noises that exuberant scouts make. Skeptics and doubters should accompany me 
on mv Saturday afternoon walk on Hampstead Heath, and then, even if they 
"came to scoff," they would remain to approve. 

T/ie Daily Mirror says "If Lieutenant-General Sir. R. Baden Powell were 
Minister of Education a boy's life at school would be a perpetual paradise, and 
holidays would simply bore him." There is the usual touch of journalistic ex- 
aggeration about this, but there is truth in it. Sir Robert says: — "It is not our 
object to force boys to learn anything. The scout movement gives them the 
ambition to learn. Employers of labor nowadays give preference to boys with 
scout badges. No amount of forcing or cramming knowledge into boys' heads 
will give them any self-reliance or character for after-life." 

T/ie London Teaclier says: The future alone can decide as to the perman- 
ency of this great international organization. Teachers would be woefully lack- 
ing in common sense, however, if they failed to recognize the enormous vitality 
of a movement which has grown up completely outside the schools." Those last 
few words are remarkable, coming from a teachers' paper. Teachers are, as 
a body, none too generous in recognizing educational efforts which they have 
not originated. 

The Boy Scout does not merely play at soldiers or at backwoods craft a la 
Fenimore Cooper, but he learns to become a handy man, able to cope with the 
emergencies of life, and he is essentially an open-air boy. One troop made a 
manual fire-engine, which would throw water over a two-story cottage. At a 
recent exhibition dynamos, aeroplanes, bridges, derricks and so forth, all made 
by scouts, were on view. In one section of the exhibition signallers gave a 



display with Morse flags and lamps and wireless apparatus, while in another 
young poultry farmers showed how deftly they could pluck and truss fowls for 
market. The boy scout is expected to do a bewildering variety of things. Talk 
about our Jack Tars as handy men ! The scout is rapidly becoming a kind of 
super-handy lad. And the manual training idea at its best provides the whole 
scout curriculum. 

Scouting, as an instrument of learning, has been applied in the most 
serious wa}- by the head master of Harrow County school. This school must 
not be confused with the famous public school. It serves a district of Middlers, 
while Harrow School is one of the great English public schools. It would be 
all to the good \i the big school went on similar lines to the smaller one. This 
Middlesex head master has transformed a secondary school into something 
undreamed of and almost inconceivable ten years ago. Lessons are adjusted to 
lead up to the winning of scout badges, and learning has thus taken on a new 
interest. The boy who once cordially detested French verbs is keen as mustard 
to get his interpreter's badge. What is more, scouting has put into each boy a 
spirit of enquiry, and now "he wants to know, you know." The experiment 
has killed loafing and idleness. The last bit of communal work was a pavilion 
for the school playing field. Morally, too, the experiment has been a success, 
and the bojs have had awakened in them a desire for social service — "civics," 
it is called — which should be of great service to the community and themselves 
in after life. A most significant tribute to the success at Harrow lies in the 
fact that Mr. J. L. Paton, high master of Manchester Grammar School, heard 
of Mr. Young's doings, paid a visit to Harrow, and returned to do likewise. 
And when Mr. Paton says that anything is so, it's so. 

Miss Margaret McMillan writes with enthusiasm in The Daily Neix:s on the 
marvelous dexterity of the Staffordshire potter. She says, "In an age that is 
beginning to be interested in touch-training how should one fail to note this 
triumph of triumphs?" She believes in pottery as a branch of manual training, 
as follows: "No school, we know, can teach what these hands have learned. 
* * * * still I wish that opportunities for such touch-training could be given 
in all schools. * * * * it would be an Invaluable factor in the whole 
process of learning not one, but almost any subject." You will observe that a 
new term is given to our work by Miss McMillan — "touch-training." By the 
way school handwork exponents strive to give the subject new names, you would 
think that a "Nobel prize," at least, depended on it. 

The French Government has Inaugurated a system of education In Its 
tropical dependencies which includes the teaching of simple domestic science to 
the little colored people. 

Notwithstanding considerable opposition, cobbling as a school craft is mak- 
ing headwav In London schools. Formal experiments are in progress. The boys 
selected are chosen because of abilit>' shown in the woodwork centre, and no boy 
is to have more than six months' instruction. An official report thus: — "Cobbling 


is a form of handwork. There is but little scope for initiative and originality of 
treatment is a demerit rather than a virtue. The cobbling class plays a part 
in the corporate life of a school containing a large number of poor children. It 
might also be urged that this work may not unreasonably be compared with the 
work done in cookery and needlework by the girls." 

After some very deliberate and cautious experiment the London County 
Council has decided to allow the introduction of handwork into a further limited 
number of their school departments during the ensuing educational year, 1914- 
15. This work is at present being taken in some 400 departments, and it is 
designed to link up the handwork of the infants' schools to the manual training 
of the senior classes. Head teachers who have not yet been authorized to take 
the subjects, and who are desirous of doing so, have to make application to the 
Education Officer before a certain fixed date; and are required to give a brief 
note as to the syllabus of work which would be followed, and the names of 
any members of the staff who are especially qualified to give instruction in hand- 
work. It is perfectly characteristic of English procedure that, for the present, 
at any rate, only those teachers "who are desirous of doing so" need take up 
handwork for their pupils; but there are indications that an era of compulsion is 
not many years away. It is certainly best, while matters are in a tentative stage, 
and while many experiments are not yet justified of themselves, that only those 
teachers who have thought out the theory and acquainted themselves with the 
practice of school handwork should have to do with it. 

Twenty courses in handwork for tlie lower standards were authorized by 
the London Count\' Council for the 1913-14 session. This was an increase of 
five courses as compared with last year. About 1,200 teachers have been ad- 
mitted to the courses, but 400 have had to be refused owing to the lack of 
accommodation. Teachers who unsuccessfully applied for courses this session 
will probably receive priority of consideration next year. 

In certain Derbyshire elementary schools, lessons are being given to boys on 
"Helpfulness in the Home," and they are learning, to their astonishment, that 
it is possible for a boy to sew on a button. When they have recovered from the 
shock of this discovery (says The Doily Xc^vs) they are shown that it is not 
out of the question for a boy to darn a hole in a stocking. For this revolution 
Miss Wilena Hitching, organizer of home management for Derbyshire, is respon- 
sible. The Derby lads are now going to cultivate the amenities of home life 
by practicing all kinds of chores in school. You remember, no doubt, that 
Squeers led the way in this sort of thing. "W-i-n, win, d-e-r, der, winder. 
When the boy knows this out of book, he goes and cleans it." Dickens missed his 
aim for once, here. He was such a great educator himself, that he could not 
help making Squeers a better pedagogue than he intended him to be. 


Agricultural Drafting. By Charles B. Howe. John Wiley & Sons, New 
York, 1913, 8x10% in. oblong; 46 pages of text, 45 figures, 32 plates; price $1.25 
net; 40 problem sheets 2 cents each, extra. 

None of the recent textbooks intended for students in agriculture has been 
so interesting to us as this hook in drafting. It is the first book of its type in the 
field. It is intended for tlie use of students in agricultural high schools or town 
high schools or agricultural colleges — in fact, for any school or for any person 
who wants to know practical drafting as it relates to farm life. Tho the book 
opens up a new field and is therefore a pioneer, it does not possess the usual 
defects of a pioneer book. It is comprehensive in scope and correct in pedagogic 

After a well illustrated chapter on the use of instruments and tools, which 
also includes two excellent plates on conventional lines, dimensions, letters and 
figures, and a chapter on general instructions about the lay-out of the sheet of 
drawing and how to proceed in certain fundamentals, it gives attention to the 
different kinds of drawings, with special emphasis on working drawings. Then 
follow the last two chapters which have special reference to farm life and 
therefore give distinctive character to the book. The first of these chapters is 
on building construction. It treats of the farm house, barn framing and details 
of construction. Considerable attention is given work in concrete. For example, 
it shows the framework for making a trough, steps, cellar wall, cesspool, a cistern 
filter and several types of silos. Proper arrangements of plumbing are also 
shown. The last chapter is devoted to farm maps from the survey of an ordinary 
plot of ground to a topographical map employing in its make-up many of the 
standard conventional methods of representation. 

But from the teaching standpoint the finest part of the author's work is not 
in the text or the plates, but in the sheets of problems which accompany the book. 
These are given unsolved, or ratiier, the sheets give all the data for the problems 
and the book gives further information concerning the drawing process. Among 
the elementary problems are a portable hen's nest, bin, bee-hive, step ladder, saw 
horse, gate, water-trough, chicken coop, work-bench, table and hopper. To such 
as these are added problems in machine parts, and then such construction prob- 
lems as a hot-bed, concrete cistern, root cellar, septic tank, smoke house, concrete 
milk vat, dairy house, horse stalile, cow barn, complete farm barn, silo and farm 
house. The plates are clear and tlie draftsmanship good. — C. A. B. 

LeJirgang fiir die Hohelhankarbeit. The woodworking course at the school 
for the training of teachers of boy's handwork in Leipsic of which Dr. Alwin 
Pabst is the director. Published by Frankenstein and Wagner, Leipsic, 7%-x.\QV2 
in.; 76 pages, 17 plates of working drawings. 

Teachers who were familiar with the Leipsic course of ten years or more 
ago may be surprised to see how many changes have taken place since that time 
— how much it has been a(?ected by the modern art movement in Germany and 



the effort to unite art aiui construction in the manual training shop. Yet in 
bringing about tliese clianges nothing of the old-time thoroness seems to have been 
lost. Good construction is still the first consideration in designing the models, 
but tliat is not the end. Sound construction plus tlie most pleasing beauty elements 
is the goal. The volume itself is a fine piece of bookmaking, and an illustration 
of German thoroness. — C A. B. 

Radford's Mechanical Draiiing. 6x9, 272 pages, 165 illustrations and a 
supplement showing perspective views and floor plans of 41 brick, cement, and 
frame residences. 

Radford's Architectural DravSmg. 6x9, 304 pages, 147 illustrations and a 
supplement similar to Radford's Mechanical Drawing. These two are compan- 
ion books. Price $3.00 for the two. 

Radford's Practical Barn Plans. 8x11, 160 pages. Price postpaid $1.00. 

Radford's Details of Building Construction. 9x12, 200 pages, price $1.50. 

Model Set of Architect's Plans. A complete set of Architect's plans, 13x22, 
of a modern 9 room house printed on durable tracing paper, so that the\' can be 
blue printed. 

All five of the above books are published by The Radford Architectural Co., 
Chicago. The first begins with the drawing tools, describes their use, illustrates 
and explains the principles of mechanical drawing, gives a few exercises and 
practical problems, all in much the same way as has been done by previous text- 
books. The second book, "Architectural Drawing," is a continuation of the first. 
The two books describe very fully the work of an architectural draftsman, are 
bountifully illustrated, and clearly and concisely written. 

The contents of the third book fully justifies its title. It would be difficult 
to conceive of a greater variety of farm building plans and descriptions being 
printed in the same space. 

The fourth is full of complete details of everything pertaining to building 
construction, also many details of easily constructed furniture and household 
conveniences. These are thoroly modern. 

The worst feature of these books is their first impressions made by the colors 
of their covers and the feel of the rough book paper on which they are printed. 
On the other hand they are full of practical details and show that they were 
written bv men of broad experience in construction work. They should be of 
value to everyone who has to do with building construction. 

None of these books are well arranged to be followed as text books. Yet, 
there is abundant reference material here for any course in architectural drafting. 
The books are so low in price for the subject matter contained that they could be 
used as a substitute for well-planned text-books and adapted to nearly any 
condition by a careful organization of reference. — F. H. Evans. 

The Ilia^vatha Painting Book. Published by The Prang Company, New- 
York, 7x10 in., 32 pages. 

This unique book consists of eight sheets of drawing paper folded and bound 
into book form. On one side of most of the pages is an outline drawing repre- 
senting some scene in the life of Hiawatha, below which is an appropriate verse 


from the poem. Children are expected to color the pictures appropriatelv, also the 
borders surrounding them. The pages are perforated so that they may easily be 
torn off as soon as completed. 

This little book will stimulate and give point to color study in many an 
elementary school. 

Ideals and Democracy. By Arthur H. Chamberlain, Editor of Sierra Edu- 
cational News. Rand McNally & Co., Chicago, 1913. 4%x7% in.; 173 pages. 

This interesting volume by the author of ''Standards in Education," brings 
into one mosiac picture the various shades of modern progressive thought on edu- 
cation. Here one finds discussed personality, duties of the home, industrialism, 
libraries, education as an investment, greater efficiency, vocational adjustment 
and attainable ideals. All these and several other topics are presented in the 
light of modern educational theory and practice and in full appreciation of the 
insistent demand that education be more practical. 

The author sees no such dangers in this demand for vocational education as 
are sometimes voiced by writers on modern tendencies in education. He says, in 
his chapter on "Vocational Adjustment," "We have come to know that what is 
vocational in the proper meaning of the term is truh" cultured, and that there is 
no divorce between culture and accomplishment." The danger that he would 
recognize, if there were occasion to do so, would be in making vocational training 
a dominant factor in the work of the elementary school. In this connection he 
introduces a distinction between education and adjustment which helps ones 
thinking: "In considering the dominant interests of the child let the distinction 
be drawn as between vocational education and vocational adjustment. Vocational 
education is specific education, and this should not be emphasized at too early an 
age. Vocational adjustment implies a study of tendencies and capacities, a seek- 
ing after dominant interests and the developing of these possibilties and interests. 
In a modern school, working under a national course of study, all pupils may be 
given a thoro grounding in fundamentals. * * * And these fundamentals 
afford one of the channels thru which the work of vocational adjustment is to 
be carried on." 

The book is written in a graceful style and is lightened up by many bits of 
personal observation and experience. In fact it is a readable book on modern 
tendencies and ideals in education. — C. A. B. 


Proceedings of the ff'isconsin Scliool Arts and Home Economics Association 
1912-1913. Frank M. Karnes, Secretary, Kenosha, Wis. This contains lists of 
(officers and members, a history of the Association, reports of committees and 
several papers presented at the meeting held last April. 

T/ie Curriculum of the Horace Mann Elementary School. The May number 
of the Teachers College Record, Teachers College, Columbia University, New 
York City. Price 30 cents. Outlines of work in the industrial, household and 
fine arts, as well as English, nature-study and physical education. Illustrated 
with half-tones of work done by pupils. 


Drafting Data. For students and draftsmen, compiled by Anson W. Smith, 
Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. For sale by the author at $2.50 a dozen. A 
little book, 3x5^:; in. oblong contains 64 pages. It consist of tables of data con- 
cerning standard sizes of a great variety of machine parts; for example, hand- 
wheels, kevAvays, keys, nuts, tluunb nuts, wrenches, screws, drills, pipe fittings, etc. 

Los Angeles State Normal School. Souvenir program of laying of corner 
stone of their new buildings. Contains architect's plans and elevations of the 

The Elementary Industrial School of Cleveland, Ohio. By W. N. Hailman. 
Bulletin No. 39, 1913, of the U. S. Bureau of Education. 

The Reorganization of Secondary Education. Preliminary statements by 
Chairmen of committees of tlie commission of the National Education Association. 
Bulletin No. 41, 1913, issued by the U. S. Bureau of Education. The manual arts 
report is by Professor Leavitt of the University of Chicago. 

An Experimental Rural Sclinnl at Winthrop College, Rock Hill, S. C. By 
Mrs. Hetty S. Browne. Bulletin No. 42, 1913, of the U. S. Bureau of Educa- 
tion. A 36-page account of this interesting school illustrated with several half- 
tones from photographs. 

The School Print Shop. An attractive little paper published by John A. 
Webster of Cleveland, Ohio. Price 10 cents a copy. 

Bulletin of the American Home Economics Association. Issued (|uarterly. 
Roland Park Branch, Baltimore, Md. 

Handbook of Federal Statistics of Children. Bulletin No. 5 of the Children's 
Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor, Washington, D. C. Gives the number of 
children in the United States with their sex, age, race, nativity, parentage and 
geographic distribution. 

Nature and Industry Readers. Three books by Elizabeth V. Brown. Pub- 
lished by World Book Co., 1913, Yonkers-on-Hudson, N. Y. One of these books, 
"When the World was Young," puts into story form for young children a 
great deal of information concerning the life and iiulustries of primitive peoples. 
First is the "quest for food," then primitive dwellings, "<jueer clothes," work- 
baskets, etc. 


Manual training Magazine 

APRIL, 1914 


Edwin L. Taylor. 

IN considering the adaptation of manual training courses to com- 
munity needs it is well at the outset to remember that we are not 
opening up any new idea. American education has always included 
manual training in its curriculum and whenever this manual training 
has been successful it has invariably been very closely related to that 
local unit of organized human society known as the community. 

Our first courses of manual training were not recognized by the 
schools. They consisted of the rough but courageous toil of those brave 
men and women who, back in the strenuous days of our colonial history, 
penetrated the dense primeval forest and blazed the trails that are now 
the teeming highways of our commonwealth. Even in much more recent 
times the quite scanty curriculum of the little "red school house" com- 
bined with the imperative tasks of an isolated farm furnished the edu- 
cational basis upon which many successful and some eminently great 
men have laid the foundations of their careers. To be sure the manual 
training comprehended by this limited educative process had not then 
been reduced to a "series of logically related tool exercises" embodied 
in either an "abstract" or a "concrete" course of "models," but it was 
unquestionably very closely adapted to the needs of the young man's 
community and it must have been an efficient complement to the "three 
R's" for the point is that together they did the business. We say that 
such men as we have referred to were self-made men. This is not quite 
the truth. They were at least rough hewn into the likeness of useful 
members of society by this most wholesome school of experience. The 
point in this connection that is pertinent to our theme is that the manual 



element, the "manual training" if >ou please, that was included in this 
elementary course of study was perfectly articulated, rather it was 
identical with the homely and imperative needs of the community life. 

The community of the early days of our national life was much 
more easily segregated for analytical purposes than is the complex com- 
munity of our day. A much smaller number of people then composed 
a community unit, for specialization and transportation as economic fac- 
tors were undeveloped. Each country homestead could easily exist 
by itself, if need be, for a whole long dreary winter with never a demand 
upon the outside world for the necessities of life. Manifold were the 
tasks of this miniature community and it is not difficult to understand 
how they provided a wonderful course in manual and domestic arts 
for the young people, a course that was in every sense of the word 
adapted to the needs of the communitj^ 

But with the development of easy communication and transporta- 
tion the boundaries of the community rapidly widened. Transportation 
made competition possible; competition produced specialization, and 
specialization in turn produced the complexity of present time economic 
existence, until now there is no such thing as an industrial community 
complete unto itself. The members of the present day community are 
all specialists. The only approximately general industrialists that I can 
think of are the housekeeper, the farmer, and the school janitor, and 
these three are so far affected that any of them would promptly resent 
being called a jack-of-all-trades. 

If adaptation to community needs is interpreted as the furnishing 
of a preparation for the manifold vocations that arise in this specializa- 
tion, then adaptation will never be attained. Such a program would 
mean the duplication of our myriad specialized industries in the training 
afforded by the school, and their very multiplicity precludes this as a 
practical impossibility. Of course there are some large towns with 
predominating industries where the problem is comparatively easy to 
solve, and then there are always a few definite trades or vocations 
represented in every community that provide an apparently logical basis 
for vocational courses. But I will venture a guess that, could the facts 
be ascertained, we should find that the majority of pupils benefiting 
by such courses ultimately engage in some other calling than the one 
foreordained for them by virtue of their school training. 

America means equal opportunity. That is the meaning of our 
democracy — at least that was the original intention. Industrially, how- 


ever. America as she is today falls pitifully short of this ideal ; but 
youth is ever optimistic and by far the majority of our schools are, 
fortunately for the future, made up of pupils who insist upon being 
just "general purpose" youngsters — those youngsters who have not yet 
been pigeon-holed by fate, by adversity, or by the vocational guidance 
expert — who insist that they be allowed that greatest of all educational 
experiences, the privilege of finding their own bearings, unhampered by 
school, or State, or social conditions. It makes no difference hcnv early 
or how late the course of school experience may end, from a democratic 
point of view, that course is a failure if, after having endowed its 
graduate with certain fundamental ambitions and resources, it does not 
leave him a future to make for himself. 

Beside the spirit of true democracy that must underly all of our 
education there is another generally accepted theory that argues against 
too abrupt a diversion of adolescent training into specialized channels. 
This theory holds that the growth of the individual epitomizes the 
growth of the race. Specialization is the last word in our civilization, 
the attribute of a mature humanity. The very soul of youth protests 
against it. Curiosity, adventure, the desire to try the unknown, the 
chafing at present restrictions, are primal human instincts and primal 
instincts are forces implanted by nature to lead expanding life along 
the pathway of development. To throttle, then, this experimental 
instinct of youth means the arresting of development. This call of the 
untried coming to us out of the rosy mirage of the future years is God's 
device to spur us on to larger life. These things explain the constant, 
restless striving of humanity' — our oft-repeated, toilsome readjustment 
with environment by which humanity keeps up a sort of rotation of 
crops that prevents the otherwise "small potatoes and few in a hill." 


Now when we interpret the needs of the community in terms of 
the needs of modern, specialized industry and attempt to fit our manual 
training courses accordingly, the foregoing are some of the conditions 
that rise up to render our efforts abortive. It is clear that the healthy 
correlation that we so much desire between school activity and com- 
munity life must be based upon some other conception of community 
needs. And here follows the solution of the problem. Communities 
analyze much more easilv into homes than into industries. All true 


homes have constant!}- arising needs that must be as constantly met by 
the members of the family. Just as these homes in the composite make 
up the community so these needs in the composite are the needs of the 
community. Now the providing for these needs by the members of the 
family sets up that activity that is one of the first essentials of true 
home life, and the wisely trained boy or girl has his or her part in this 
activity. The community of our theme is their community. It is not 
the political, geographic, industrial, or social institution that we have 
fancied it to be, but it is rather that composite environment that reacts 
upon the separate lives of our individual pupils. And for each separate 
life there is a different reaction, consequently the needs of the com- 
munity will receive as many diiierent interpretations as we liave pupils. 
This analysis easily places something tangible before us to work upon 
should we as teachers desire to make our manual training something 
vital to the lives of our pupils, something worth while in the community. 
Having thus defined the true source and character of community 
needs, let us next inquire what may be the true nature of manual train- 
ing? Going back into history we find that its first beginnings in 
American schools were from two foreign born ideas, the Sloyd and the 
Russian systems. Our American version of the one was a set course 
of models ; of the other a logical course of tool exercises. They were 
seized upon because they were manual exercises logically arranged and 
ready to serve. The logical sequence of the traditional subjects camped 
upon the trail of the new idea, and like them it promptly became 
academic and stereotyped. We lost sight completely of the most im- 
portant truth, the fact that Sloyd was a system of handicraft perfectly 
adapted to Swedish rural home life, and that the Russian system was 
perfectly adapted to the Russian shop schools. The virtue of either 
course lay not so much in its content as in its perfect adaptation to cer- 
tain definite conditions. Thus we missed the trail at the very out-set 
thirty years ago, and some have been pretty much in the woods ever 


It is not the content of manual training that contains the essence 
of its educational value but rather that it embodies the possibility of a 
perfectly natural correlation of school activity with contemporary needs 
arising in the environment that surrounds the life of each individual 
pupil. In other words the key to the educational value of manual 


training is the motive behind the work, not the means by which it is 
done. Motive is the inception of a more or less complex phvchological, 
industrial, social, and ethical process culminating in an ultimate result. 
It is the desirability of the result combined with the fascination of pur- 
suit that sustains the interest. It has been said that the greatness of 
human character is measured by the sum of its concious needs. May 
we not conclude therefrom that the greatness of manual training as an 
educational medium lies largely in its abilit}- to awaken adolescence to a 
consciousness of the material needs of community life. Seek ye, there- 
fore, the motive with its associated result and all the rest shall be added 
unto you. 

The usableness of the finished project must be our prime considera- 
tion. The so-called subject matter, the technical features of manual 
training are incidentals of importance to be mastered because they are 
essential to successful results and consequent community good, not be- 
cause they are the elements of some trade or vocation into which the 
pupil is later to be thrust. 

Manual training serves a purpose different from that of technical, 
industrial, or vocational training. Their motive is the acquisition of 
technical ability for some definite purpose at some later time. Conse- 
quently they should employ carefully and logically arranged courses of 
technical subject matter leading to some definite place in the specializa- 
tion that prevails in the industrial world. ^Manual training, on the 
other hand, it might be said, has no need for courses of work in precisely 
the same sense. Its order and sequence are automatically established by 
that simple law that associates the new with the related old and by the 
law of the natural growth interests of the pupil. Instead of sequential 
courses and doddering, pottering accuracy it should provide the facili- 
ties and the inspiration that will get something useful done, get it done 
because it is needed, and get it done well and quickly. Let us say then 
that manual training is a practical purpose subject, calculated to serve 
as a clearing house for adolescent activity and home, school, and com- 
munity needs, intended to train young people not only to be good but 
to be good for something, thereby fostering in youth a spirit which re- 
joices in the honor, dignity, and opportunity of any honest labor. 


Now manual training has been from its inception mistakenly or 
ignorantly advertised as a panacea for nearly all the ills of popular educa- 


tion. Of course, thouiihtful persons have ne\er made such claims nor 
expected such results but it must be admitted that the subject as taught 
has not always produced the most flattering; satisfaction. Personally I 
ha\e heard much of the manual training of our own state (New "^'ork) 
subjected to decidedly adverse criticism, not b\- the lay public but by 
educators who were in a position to judge intelligently, who are entirely 
in sympathy with practical education, and whose opinions are held in 
state-wide respect. Judging from the mirror held up by such critics 
and by current popular and pedagogical literature, much of our manual 
training from the standpoint of the "man behind the taxes' is a "game 
that is not worth the candle." 

Mr. General Public, who foots the bills for popular education, has 
been assured that manual training is a practical subject. Consequently 
he looks for practical results, and when he discovers that his son, John, 
who finishes high school in June, cannot mend a bicycle tire, pack a faucet, 
wire a door-bell, repair a broken chair, or sharpen a kitchen knife, he 
naturally becomes skeptical. To be sure John has brought home a num- 
ber of affairs that he calls models, many of which were relegated at 
once to the attic. Some of the models that escaped the attic, and made 
an attempt at actual usefulness, promptly broke down under the strain. 
But when John desired to frame some pictures for his den, to build 
a Morris chair for his father's Christmas or to mend his mother's iron- 
ing board, he was too frequently told that the regular course could not 
be interrupted by such work, and besides he was not enough of a 
mechanic for things of that kind — as if a fellow could "learn to swim 
and not go near the water." Too often the boy has been made subser- 
vient to the sequence of the course, and the natural articulation of the 
subject Avith the h(jme interests has been deliberately set aside. Much 
manual training not only takes no account of home, school, or community 
needs, but considers their projection into its activities as exceedingly detri- 
mental. Thus the real, live, human heart of the scheme is set at nought 
and that part of the curriculum that by nature could be made to glow 
and sparkle with genuine hinnan interest is made in very truth a course 
in "wooden work." 

On the other hand, let us look on the bright side. There has surely 
been a gratifying measure of success. The reason is easilv evident. 
Where this success has been attained manual training has been to the 
pupil a living, joyous, usable thing, brought closely akin to the needs 
of the community as he has seen them thru the morning light of vouth- 


ful vision. ^lanual training has been articulated with the needs of 
the community as those needs have been understood by the pupil. 
Plainly this consummation is not only highly desirable but practically 
imperative. Such being the case suppose we review some of the con- 
ditions that must accompany such articulation. 


As it is now we are allowed in most systems where manual 
training is included, perhaps a maximum of three forty-five minute 
periods per week, 108 periods per year of 36 weeks if none go by default. 
This means a total of slightly over 10 eight-hour days per year. Re- 
member in this connection too that these periods are disconnected, and 
that consequently a considerable amount of time is lost in the ceremony 
of opening, closing, and passing of classes, to say nothing of that con- 
sumed in getting ready to work and in putting things away and clean- 
ing up. A conservative estimate must place this waste at at least 25 
per cent, and this leaves us with seven and one-half days per year, or 
less than two months all told in the 6 years comprised in the seventh 
and eighth grades and high school. A total of less than two months of 
all the periods of adolescence devoted to so-called practical training! 
Absurd? ]\Iost assuredly. And yet manual training has been severely 
criticised by the public because, with this pitiful allowance of time, it 
has failed to produce capable mechanics. 

Now it goes without saying that this time allowance is insufficient 
when it comes to getting anything needed done. The day of its use- 
fulness would be far spent before the work was well begun. It is 
plainly evident that to secure results at all satisfactory the time 
devoted to manual training must be greatly increased. L nless we 
can unload some of the other work from the curriculum there is no 
solution to this dilemma except to teach the manual training after 
school, on Saturdays, and during the vacations. Personally I have 
deliberately made this a practice, and I am convinced that the work 
thus accomplished has been superior to that done in the regular class 
periods, both in the educational value to the pupils and in the practical 
value of the product. 

Perhaps this practice is not entirely commendable but this much is 
certain. If the manual training has any vital articulation with the 
needs of the communitv it will outgrow three forty-five minute periods 


a week, anJ pupils and teacher will often be found in the shop out of 
hours. The shop, moreover, will lose its traditional primness and take 
on a measure of the orderly disorder that indicates use, and there will 
be a deal of chips and shavings and sawdust, and some work under 
construction far too large to pack neatly away in the instructor's cup- 


If there is an increase in the time devoted to the work there will 
be a corresponding increase in the materials used and it will soon be 
necessary to make the manual training department self-supporting to a 
large extent. Gary, Indiana, boasts of this achievement, and the State 
Normal School at Plattsburg, New York, has a department that meets 
all running expenses except those for instruction, and the idea, I am 
sure, is not unheard of in many other places. 

When, as Mr. Anthony of Fitchburg, puts it, "Real life is brought 
to school," pupils will no longer potter for a whole term on some trifling 
model of an ugly book-rack, painstakingly following a painfully pre- 
pared and meaningless drawing, by an equally painful and joyless series 
of steps according to some pedagogical, psychological, logical, and scien- 
tific order of analysis laid down by the worship of sequence. Such work 
is inexpensive both in the material involved and in the teaching energy 
required to present it, and it is worth just about as much as it costs — 
next to nothing. The j'oungster should rather be given the chance to 
work out some man-sized conception of his own that is to fill some man- 
sized need in his community. The mechanical analysis involved will be 
the result of the pupil's own thinking — thinking that is brought out by 
the same methods that are used in developing any other well-taught 

Such teaching requires individual instead of class instruction. To 
be successful the teacher must be in entire sympathy with the interests of 
each pupil. He must become responsive to each separate home environ- 
ment. Then when, together, pupil and teacher have planned and under- 
taken the job the teacher must lead to success. To do this means the 
patience that will share with the pupil his failures, and with him profit 
bv them ; the !^ood sense that abandons the hand-made fetich for the 
labor-saving machinery and the processes of real life ; the perseverance 
that helps patch up the blunders of inexperience that beget discourage- 
ment ; the comradeship that rejoices with youthful delight in ultimate 


accomplishment; and the self-ejfacement that does the teacher's part in 
such a way that the pupil will respect the finished job as the product of 
his own plans and labor. This is true teaching — the task that we would 
set for him who would seek to adapt manual training to community 


Now as to the expense of the materials involved, permit me to 
affirm that manual training that cannot easily be made to pay its way 
is absolutely indefensible. What is worth having is worth paying for. 
Of course, w^e will strike the argument that the schools are of a public 
character supported by popular taxation, and that somewhere in this 
argument lies a reason why it is wrong to ask pupils to pay for the 
materials they use. What the taxes are for is to provide instruction, not 
to provide charity that is not needed. When young people produce 
things involving commercially valuable material, and because of their 
usefulness claim those productions as their own personal property, then 
it is certainly due to their self-respect as well as to sound pedagogy that 
they pay for the materials used. The moment this arrangement takes 
effect certain standards are set up that otherwise do not prevail. 

To begin with the product must be of value when estimated by 
grown-up notions, else the home will refuse to pay for it. In endeavor- 
ing to attain this standard the pupil necessarily makes the most rapid 
growth possible toward maturity of thought and action — a growth that 
we must concede to comprise in a large measure the aim of all educa- 
tional activit}^ 

The product, furthermore, must be valuable in the light of the 
needs of each separate home involved. This introduces a variety other- 
wise impossible, thus enriching the content of the work and correspond- 
ingly the experience of the pupil. 

Then again, the work that is worth paying for must be well done, 
thus the self-supporting basis automatically establishes a high standard of 
workmanship. It is a clear case of economic waste, if, in training a 
youngster to work out his adjustment to the needs of the community 
he is not taught to apply the up-to-date labor-saving methods of the 
practical workman. Now the methods of the workman in real life are 
vitally related to the money value of his craftsmanship. Apply this same 
criterion to the products of school activities and only sensible projects 
and thoro workmanship will be the natural output. 


Now with the time devoted to manual training increased so that 
really practical projects can be undertaken; with the motive for the 
activities springing strong and vital from the pupil's community relation- 
ship ; with the residts of the pupil's work tested by the standard of use- 
fulness, and his expense account so taken care of that he is neither a 
beggar, a public charge, nor a juvenile grafter — and presently there 
develops in our youngster the unmistakable air of a man of business. He 
has found himself, has discovered a tangible relationship between him- 
self, the things he is able to do, and the community in which he lives 
with its many and varied material needs. Such a boy is more than likely 
to show up some fine day with an "order" that he wishes to fill and 
for which he is to receive compensation. Then refll life has come to 
school in earnest. 

"Order work" undertaken in the school shop is proof positive that 
manual training has in reality been adapted to the needs of the com- 
munity. It is conclusi\e evidence that pupils are acquiring skill and 
habits of industry and thrift; that the work produced is of excellent 
quality, if not superior to similar work to be found ready made in the 
open market ; that the school has actually come into such close touch 
with the community needs as to compel the community's attention, earn 
its respect, and enlist its cooperation. To many the idea of filling 
orders in the school shop may appear like "unsound doctrine." Never- 
theless, the idea is entirely defensible. Not only does it indicate a 
healthy state of affairs, but it enriches the content of the subject, develops 
the pupil's business sense, and may be to him a legitimate source of 
revenue that will prolong materially his school life. 

But if order work is imdertaken by our well-ordered and enter- 
prising manual training department, it is understood that none of the 
needs of the school that fall within the capacity of the equipment should 
go elsewhere to be cared for. The school itself is certainly that part of 
the community whose needs demand the first consideration. Yet there 
is many a manual training teacher, even at this late day, whose sense of 
the fitness of things is so blunt that he declares emphatically that his 
department is "no repair shop" ; that "it does not in any sense exist 
for the convenience of the school"; and who bids the long suffering 
janitor with his perennial tinkering to keep on his own side of the fence. 
Permit me to affirm that there is something radically wrong with a 
high school manual training department that does not take care of the 
bulk of the school's repairs. Not only should the manual training de- 


partment look after the repairs, but it can easily produce much of the 
new equipment. Its own equipment should be intellig-ently planned with 
these things in mind. 


But there is an element of danger in this scheme of adapting the 
manual training to the needs of the school — the danger that some one 
will forget that the school exists for the pupil, and not the pupil for 
the school. Of course, it is needless to say that the prevailing spirit of 
the time is that which asks "What will I get out of it," a spirit that 
aims to do that which is required but no more. Youth should be taught 
that the pathway to success is not trodden by men of this stamp, but 
rather by those whose evident spirit of usefulness renders them indispen- 
sable. But there is very little difficulty in securing in pupils that spirit 
of loyalty, of helpfulness, of school pride, that will lead them to do 
willingly the work that is needed by the institution whose only excuse 
for existence is to render service to them. But, pupils who are capable 
of doing work for the school are generally a special few whose diligence 
and application both in season and out of season have developed in them 
a degree of skill and judgment above the average. Such pupils are not 
as a rule the ones who live in the lap of luxury, and the spirit of fair play 
should allow them a fair remuneration for work involving skill and any 
considerable amount of time. 

The last and most important requirement in the adapting of manual 
training courses to community needs is the teacher, and that teacher 
must be a democrat ; that is, he must be a man who believes in democracy 
in education, who believes that for the majority of American youth 
that educative process is best that is so general in its character that, 
when it is built upon according to the judgment of maturer years, it 
will support whatever life structure that natural aptitude and the op- 
portunities of a democratic social order may afford. He must under- 
stand that industrial efficiency without industrial democracy is weak ; 
that coupled with productive ability must be the ability to share intel- 
ligently "in the responsibilities and benefits of organized society." 

He must be in love with his work. I once heard a so-called teacher 
of woodworking say, when some bit of school repairing presented itself, 
that he "wished they would keep that kind of work out of the shop." 
for he "always had hated carpenter work. What he was there for was 


to teach manual training." This sort of a teacher will not find pleasure 
nor be of use in our scheme of adaptation. 

Our teacher must be able to bring the practical methods of real 
life into the school shop, for we propose that the product of that shop 
shall be practical things for practical purposes, and practical things come 
only of practical methods. The teacher therefore must be a practical 
man, but he must likewise be a visionary man. for he must be capable 
of remaining perennially young that he may always see the visions of 
youth, for he must understand that he is teaching boys and not carpentry 
and joinery or any other such thing. Many other things must he be, 
but chiefly among them he must be a minister. I do not mean a clerg}'- 
man, but a minister in the sense that the Great Teacher had in mind 
when He said "If any would be great among you let him become your 
minister." His must be the ministry of service, for he must not only 
comprehend and minister to the educational needs of his pupils, but it is 
necessary that he seek out and understand the needs of the community 
that he must use as the basis of his pedagogical practice. 

Now" we have segregated the community and analyzed it into 
tangible elements ; we have discussed the nature of manual training and 
pointed out the interrelation of one to the other. We have noted some 
of the conditions and advantages that arise when this natural relation- 
ship is consistently considered, and we have hinted at the qualities that 
must be found in the teacher who is able to adapt a course of manual 
training to the needs of a community. Theories generally precede 
practice. This theory is the outgrowth of practice. Its essentials have 
been tried out and we know that they will work. 


Robert I. Miner. 

THOSE of us who have to do with the teaching of mechanical 
drawing in high schools, trade schools and even in the intermediate 
grades, have, I believe, come to realize that it is not so much a 
matter of how much technical ability or commercial knowledge we have 
at our finger tips, as it is the manner in which we train ourselves to 
take the viewpoint of the young student, and present the phases of the 
work in progressive and logical order as they would be presented to him 
in practice. The demand that the schools make industrial subjects 
practical is a just one, and altho we are but laying a foundation, this 
foundation must be laid in practical form if the results attained are to 
be measured by the ability to represent to the workman what he needs 
to know about some project. 

The problem has been approached on the part of officials in two 
ways : either a school drilled man has taken up the work, and sometimes 
failed to arouse and hold the interest of the classes because he lacked in 
commercial knowledge and ability; or a journeyman has been called in 
to supply that desired practical atmosphere, and many times failed be- 
cause, altho possessed of superior technic, he lacked pedagogical training. 
These conditions are being steadily overcome by the careful selection 
of men from both of these classes and especially training them for 
teaching practical subjects. The school man is given practical experience, 
and considers in presenting a project to a class whether it would be done 
that way in practice ; the practical man is trained in pedagogy, and 
understands something more vitally important — that of order in 

If mechanical drawing is, as it has been appropriately styled, the 
language of industry, then truly there is a demand that it shall not fail 
in presentation and understanding from either the orderly or the practical 
standpoint. The conditions under which each of us works must deter- 
mine our methods, and we have need to be big enough to compass them 
if our work is to bear the stamp of commercial approval. I propose to 
state certain conditions in this paper, and tell how they were met, in the 
hope that I may evoke helpful comment and perhaps offer helpful 



I came to my present position to orjranize a department of mechan- 
ical drawinji in a school where the subject had been taught as a part 
of the work in the art department. Thanks to m}- supervisors, 
I was given a free rein and told that, once established, the classes would 
come under the scheme of examination by the State Regent's Depart- 
ment. This meant that a definite suggested outline was to be followed ; 
that is to say, that certain ground must be covered in a certain time, 
and the students examined at the end of that time upon that ground 
by disinterested and competent parties from outside. The State De- 
partment outlines a comprehensive course with full possibilities for 
thoro grounding in applied forms of drafting, if the possibilities in the 
suggestions are realized. 


I have since been thankful that I had some practical experience 
coupled with a college course in engineering and teaching. To me it 
IS the ideal preparation for this work, and I make this statement in view 
of the fact that I found I was able to appreciate the difficulties en- 
countered by the mechanic in daily work, and by the technical man 
lacking practical experience. The first step was to bring an atmosphere 
of practicality into the room. I visited local establishments, and as is 
generally the case, found them glad to contribute pieces of machines, 
models of patterns, and blueprints, many of which were large enough 
to frame and place on the walls. From outside the city others were 
secured, thus establishing a wide outlook with local interest predominant, 
and the boys were interested at once. 

The next move was to lay out the course in accordance with the 
outline. The question immediately came to mind "How shall I give 
the problems to the students, bearing in mind that there are sure to be 
varying abilities?" That meant a collective presentation of the phases 
of the course, and an individual presentation of each specific problem. I 
had a library of textbooks on drawing, and many problems that I had 
worked out myself ; but this did not tell me how to go about presenting 
the work I wished to have done, merely supplying the material for the 
start, as it were. I knew that one of the first things a young draftsman 
would be called upon to do in a drafting room would be to make a 
neat tracing, and to letter neatly and quickly. I wanted blueprints. 
So, seeking the school repair shop, I made a blueprint frame large 
enough to print four of the finished plates. I traced a plate of simple 




letterinji. and S'^'i"? ^^ch student a sheet of tracing paper, taught them 
the forms of the letters by having them trace them in ink, following this 
work \\ith one or two simple drawings to set a standard of the way I 
wanted the finished work to appear. This was enough of copy work. 

My next recourse was to the blackboard. That worked very well 
until I found that the different classes and the relative ability of the 
students made necessary more space than I possessed, since much work 
had to be retained for a time, and more was needed. I had the 
students sketch my work in note-books. This was practical, I felt, but 
I found that they were not yet ready for it, needing to work still longer 
from another's sketch, to see how those sketches grow more from the 
prtjspective object. I did not wish to give them more full size drawings 
to copy, and finally hit upon the scheme which is to be the main subject 
of my paper. The plan allows the students more time to actually work 
on the problems, and gives me the time necessan' for individual instruc- 
tion, which I feel is most helpful to the student. 

At first I made my sketches about half the size of the required 
plate when finished. I laid out a sheet with four of such spaces, in 
reality providing for four miniature plates. Fig. 1. Tracing freehand 
four times and adding a Vandyke print of this sheet made it possible to 
produce eight prints at one exposure. These prints were cut up into 
small plates, and given to a student one at a time as fast as he was ready 
for them. I was able in this manner to leave much work as problemati- 
cal, only suggesting the solutions, and leaving the solution to the 
student. Observation of the work in progress led me to believe I had 
taken a step in advance again : I felt that the students needed the 
stimulus of properly executed example for a longer time. Accord- 
ingly, I reduced the drawings to scale, and executed the small tracings 
with instruments. Fig. 2, using the sketched prints when the work was 
further advanced. Many will say this is a laborious method, but there 
was need to produce my problems quickly. With time ahead to plan, it 
has been simplified by making four different tracings on one of these 
sheets, and having the printing done outside. I propose at the beginning 
of the next term to place in each student's hands a complete set of in- 
structions made in this manner, and bound so that additions may be 
made as they may develop. 







A iew words about the ground covered may not be amiss here. 
One cannot proceed very far in drafting before a knowledge of geometry 
as applied to drafting is recognized to be essential. The students are 
given sketches of the abstract problems considered necessary, working 
them in pencil on ordinary practice paper from the explanations lettered 
on the sketch. When this work is finished, the students are taken 
into another room, given a straight edge and chalk and string, and 
required to work from memory until each has demonstrated his under- 
standing of the principles. In the drawing room, they are then given 
problems at first suggesting the application of the geometric principle, 
finally working from problems requiring a knowledge of the principle 
or principles involved. 

The Regents have recently allowed us to discontinue these prob- 
lems as specific plates, and I feel that this is a wise move, as the value 
of these problems depends upon the ability to apply them. It is insisted 
by many that the finishing of these problems in ink, and with convention- 
al lines, is an unfailing developer of execution. It seems to me, how- 
ever, that it belongs to a course in geometry, and that where an in- 
structor is on hand to see that each individual is held to execution of 
high order the time is better spent in learning to apply the principles. 

The Regent's outline calls for definite projects in woodwork and 
machine parts in the first year's work, with privilege of selection or 
design left to the instructor. Many are designed by the students them- 
selves, the description of \\hat is wanted, the purpose for which it used, 
material, and steps in making, being furnished to them in typewritten 
form. A freehand sketch of the object is furnished and often the work- 
ing drawing is accepted freehand, as in the case where a rapid sketch 
is required in the shop. As the work progresses, problems are approached 
from all sides ; the student is given a perspective sketch and the working 
drawing required, or vice versa. The students are taught to separate 
parts of assembly drawing into details, or to arrange details into an 
assembly, and to figure bills of materials. They are shown some of the 
methods of workings from the drafting room to the shop, and while it 
is impossible to give instruction in shop practice in a school lacking shop 
equipment, visits to the engine rooms have shown many of the parts we 
draw in use, and it has been possible to demonstrate to the pupil that 
there is a definite connection between the drawing room and the shops, 
and that material, time, and labor have a money value. 



Till' work of the second year deals lareel} with the theor\ of 
orthojzraphic projection, and most of the work, is ^iven in data form, 
with explanations. The isometric drawing has been most helpful in 
establishing the relation of the planes to the object. Fig. 3. Develop- 
ments, intersections, and their application to sheet metal have been 
studied with the aid of prints for suggestion, and t\ pew ritten sheets for 
data. Patterns have been cut from bristol board, and advanced work 
of this year is traced and blueprinted in accordance w ith commercial 
practice, and the student instructed in drafting room practice of caring 
for, and indexing drawings. In the latter part of this year we lay the 
foundation for more advanced machine drawing, and catalogs of com- 
mercial articles are secured of such things as bolts, nuts, and screws. 
Much data is found in handbooks, and the work is given a commercial 
aspect in figuring which parts are best bought, and which made in the 

The third year deals with elementary machine design. Screw 
threads, gears, and cams are studied theoretically, and from their uses 
in various mechanisms. A cam demonstratcjr has been made, in which 
different cams may be adjusted to a shaft turned by a crank, demon- 
strating the mechanical changes of motion. Gear trains are cut from 
bristol board, and elementary mechanics of motion are studied as far as 
time allows. 

The third year will give instruction in either of two electives — 
advanced machine drawing, or architectural drawing. The plans for 
a technical high school are now in the hands of the architect; in that 
school we shall be able to make up for the lack of practical demonstra- 
tion of the connection between the drawing room and the mechanical 
process, and doubtless we shall ha\'e a course in topographical drawing 
in addition. 


Albert F. Siepert. 

BELIE\'ING that poor methods of teaching: are responsible for 
man\" of the current criticisms ot the manual arts, it seems 
appropriate to study the problem of improvement. In the first 
place, teaching the manual arts must take into account the principles 
of teaching that apply to any other subject. So we iind that there 
must always be an aim for the work and like\\i~e a method of pro- 
cedure. Many courses are being taught for which the ultimate aim 
has not been clearly and definitely formulated by thtjse teaching them. 
Ask yourself — or the next man you meet — "what is the good of this 
thing? Why are you teaching it an\how?" to see if an answer is 
forthcoming which shows previous thought of sufficient intensity to 
give clearness of view. Suppose woodwork be taken as an illustra- 
tion, how many teachers have a definite aim? A beginning is made 
somewhere in the fifth, sixth or seventh grade. Classes come for one, 
two or three years to the "carpenter shop" and then leave to enter 
the field of wage earners, with the exception of those going on to 
high school. What should these boys have in their possession as a 
result of their shop experience? Man}' answers could doubtless be 
given, but this is not the place to discuss them ; the point at issue 
is, we must have an aim for the course if it is to be worth while. 
It is quite usual to hear theories about aims and also to be told what 
should be the aim of each year of work. If we stop here we have only 
touched the problem ; it is equally important to plan definitely for each 
lesson so that it becomes a unit in the larger scheme. 

The absence of such aims, regardless of their exact nature, implies 
a hit-or-miss method of teaching. The aim places the work on a high 
road to success. No aim leaves vis to drift on a trackless sea at the call 
of every passing breeze but never making port. The aim having been 
formulated, we at once meet the question of what methods to employ 
to attain it. Since the end can only be gained step by step, lesson by 
lesson, a decision must be made as to how far we shall advance each 
lesson and by what method that advance shall be made. This implies 
that the teacher know (1) how far his class has gone, what they have 
learned and done, (2) hoiv far they ean go today and hoic miieh they 
need in the way of new information to take the desired step. 




The IcsstHi ma\' he divided into several parts, hut it should include 
at least three elements: ti's/i/i<[. teaching, and practice or putting into 
effect the teaching. Testing must be done by the teacher if he is to do 
his work intelligently. It should be done by the pupils if they are to 
learn to depend upon themselves. Testing need not mean, seldom should 
mean, written examination. Some of it can be done by questions of 
the right kind, much of it by observation of work being done, and by 
checking of results. 

Teaching may deal with the acquisition of new ideas, facts or pro- 
cesses. In each case the method adopted must be suited to the particular 
thing to be taught. If, for illustration, it be information as to materials, 
or an application to industrial conditions the teacher may select the 
"telling" method, but far more effective means may be found. One 
method is to have reports given by members of the class. Here the 
teacher must exercise care lest the assignment or reference be too general 
or too indefinite. I am reminded of an instance where a text in wood- 
working was used. The instructor had assigned "the next chapter" for 
the following lesson but found that he could not pump up any responses 
from the class. The boys had not even read the chapter, much less 
mastered essentials. The difficulty lay in the amount and manner of 
assignment. We have gone a long way from the old blunderbus to the 
modern rifle, yet there are teachers whose assignments are so far behind 
the times that they are content to shoot at a whole flock of birds in the 
hope of hitting one. Grammar grade and even high school students 
need much help before they can do anything with the university method 
of research work. Every assignment must be as definite as it can pos- 
sibly be, with the provision that we seek to train the student to select 
essentials in his reading, thinking or doing. Finally, the spoken word, 
or even the printed word appeals to but one set of nerve centers, it 
arouses but one type of images. Hence the teachers who bring in il- 
lustrative material, pictures, slides, etc., who encourage their students 
to contribute such material as they can secure, not only make their work 
clearer, richer and more vital, but they also make their work easier thru 
the interest and life aroused. 

The teaching of a process usually requires a different method. It 
is not sufficient to explain or to study a process to be able to perform the 
act. It is perfectly good psychology as well as a sound principle of 


teaching that one can best learn the doing of an act by seeing it done, 
by imitation. No matter how much study or verbal explanation precedes 
an act, the chances for the best results are always improved by seeing 
the act performed in the right way. Granting that blind imitation 
without an appropriate background of principles is bad, it seems safe to 
say that teachers err more by an entire neglect of imitation than by its 
over-emphasis minus the needed principles. Too often rooms are fitted 
with an equipment for "work" but not for such a thing as class instruc- 
tion. The usual result is that we teach not the class or a group but the 
individual, which requires the repetition of both general and specific 
instruction to each pupil. When a class numbers twenty or more it is 
not unusual to see the teacher under such conditions surrounded by a 
crowd of boys, his hands filled with work brought for his inspection, 
trying to explain to several students at the same time. No one can 
teach adequately such a class by these methods in the time allowed. He 
may have the class organized so as to take the routine matters such as 
material, care of tools, etc., off his hands, but there is still too much 
rep>etition to do the most effective work. Class or group instruction 
on all matters pertaining to the work as a whole supplemented by the 
additional individual help made possible by thoro class instruction comes 
nearer meeting the need. This makes the "demonstration" a vital 
factor — and right here more bad teaching exists than many teachers are 
willing to admit. If demonstration means "to show" it does not neces- 
sarily imply that a "lecture" need be given on every possible related 
topic. Personally, it seems best to have the pupils prepare for the 
demonstration by a definite assignment of reading or investigation cover- 
ing the point. This will make the demonstration what it should be — 
a clearing up of ideas, a gaining of vivid impressions, the driving home 
and clinching of facts necessary to the problem in hand. Recently I 
saw a demonstration of the process of boring holes ^'' deep. The board 
was placed vertically in the vise, all the work thus being done on the 
side opposite the class, so that no one could see the placing, position or 
action of the bit. The teacher took especial pains to explain and show 
each step in the process of thru boring. After this he told them how 
to measure for holes ^'' deep, but did not show the process. Here the 
all-too-common blunder was made of showing a process entirely irrele- 
vant to the problem being constructed; in fact the class was taught the 
very thing they should not do. Again^ the whole matter fell flat be- 
cause the class could not see what was going on behind that board, 


and soon two-thirds were not payinji attention. It would be a matter 
of interest to find out how many boys bored thru on their problem and 
how much time the teacher had to spend to counteract his first in- 
struction. Another instance, to show that limits must be set to a demon- 
stration : The teacher took most of the period for a demonstration ; 
his material was not all at hand, he made no blackboard sketches to 
clear up obscure details; much of his instruction was negative, "don't." 
The class did not cover the ground attempted in that demonstration in 
the six lessons following. Worst of all, most of the instruction had to 
be repeated several times because students had "forgotten"; and then 
the finished resvdts showed the poor technique resulting from a lack 
of understanding. Such cases lead one to feel that the demonstration 
should be so brief, so well organized that the class can do that amount 
of work in that or the immediately following lesson. This does not mean 
that a process must never be carried to the point of completion ; in 
fact, there is a decided value in actually completing a process during 
the demonstration. This feature is often omitted "to save time," when 
often the case is that the teacher is unwilling to meet such a test of his 
ability. For example, suppose it is a case of showing a boy how to use 
a crosscut saw. Have you ever seen or done this: cutting part way 
across the board, telling how to start, control and run the saw, and 
then expecting the boy to saw correctly? ^'et you very likely check 
up his effort by testing with a square. Why not saw all the way across 
the board and subject your own work to the same test? (^r, if the 
class is about to make a new type of joint, exercise or applied, why not 
actually make an occasional joint before the class, doing the whole thing 
in record time, measuring up to tests at least as severe as those by 
which you will measure the students? It is quite likely that such a 
proceeding would have as wholesome an effect upon the teacher as upon 
the class. Too many of us have the reputation among our students 
of "talking too much." I once had a friend who used to invite me to 
accompany him to clinics of the medical school at which he was a 
student. There were given some real "demonstrations," everything in 
perfect readiness, nothing missing, no tool to sharpen before it was fit 
to use, a man interested and confident in his attitude, a master of 
technique, every act, every motion definitely directed to the end in 
view. Never did I see a "job" dismissed half finished with a "keep 
right on this way until you get it." Briefly, the demonstration must 
be planned for, everything ready, the work itself done in the very best 



possible manner, clean cut and direct. When thru with the demonstra- 
tion lose no time in idle talk but give ever}' fellow a chance to try out 
the new ideas cleared up or gained. The teacher by his attitude and 
technique makes or mars the day, and by his demonstration reveals his 
power or weakness along one important line of teaching. 

The third element of drill or practice is necessary to insure that 
each student permanently fix ideas or processes firmly in mind. It is his 
opportunity to test his own knowledge, his own ability to do. How 
much of drill there need be, and \\ hat its exact nature shall be, depends 
upon both the immediate problem and the general aim. There is no 
excuse for teaching facts irrelevant to the work in hand, and there is 
but little of lasting value in such teaching as may be done unless each 
pupil has the opportunity to put forth some thought, some effort, some 
response to the instruction he has been given. 


In conclusion, granting that more time is needed for the manual 
arts, we can most effectively gain that point by such an improvement 
of our teaching methods that we prove both the worthwhileness of what 
is being done and the possibility of greater things if time permitted. 
This we can accomplish by having a definite aim in view, by such a 
careful arrangement of work that each year is worth while for its own 
sake as well as to serve as a basis for what may follow, but above all 
remembering to set a stake for each day's accomplishment and then 
making every effort, every act count so definitely toward that end that 
the student may know and feel the joy of constant growth and achieve- 
ment, while we at the close of the day "lock up shop" with the con- 
sciousness of another day's work honestly and efficiently performed. 



C. W. Knox. 

THE radical changes necessary to effect the transformation of the 
old type of school into the new were not made without mistakes, 
and many educators laid themselves liable to criticism and 
ridicule in the attempts they made to carry out the new idea. However, 
thru all the stress of introducing industrial departments into our 
schools, the greater number of pioneers moved wisely and well, meeting 
the problems that arose with commendable foresight and wisdom, so 
that now the question is not whether industrial subjects should be taught 
in school, but how and to what extent. With the firm establishing of 
the idea that this is a legitimate field for the school to enter, comes the 
question of courses of study for various communities. 

The subject of agriculture probably requires the most elastic course 
of study, for that depends almost entirely upon local conditions such as 
soil, markets, etc., and not infrequently schools but a few miles apart 
are ofifering very different courses. Manual training is for the same 
reasons a subject that must be adapted to local conditions. The course 
of study that would be most feasible in a manufacturing center would 
obviously be out of place in a rural community, and courses vary with 
the activities of the people even there. 

What is true in general of manual training is true as well in the 
shops of the agricultural school. The equipment should fit the work 
to be carried on. It should be ample and no more, and all tools and 
apparatus should be of the best quality consistent with true economy. 
Nothing is ever saved by buying inferior articles because the initial cost 
is less. Pupils should be made to realize that as a part of their in- 
struction. Teach the pupils to respect a good tool and, as early as 
possible in the course, have them individually care for and sharpen them. 
Have them bring dull tools from home in order that they may have 
ample material to work on when filing saws or sharpening other tools. 
The average father is only too glad to have his tools in good shape. 

Everything taught in the course must be in accord with the best 
practices of artisans who earn their living at those trades and above all 
things no careless and slipshod workmanship should be tolerated. If 
the course is to be of maximum benefit to the pupil, he must realize 
that only his best is worthy of leaving his hand, and it ought not to be 



necessary for the instructor to have to condemn pieces that are going 
into a finished product. When the boy has reached the stage where he 
will voluntarily sacrifice a piece rather than attempt to put it in and 
trust to putty, paint, and good luck, a great step has been taken. 


A survey of the rural community usually shows that three materials 
are most important to work with there, namely: wood, iron, and cement. 
To make an exhaustive study of the possibilities of copper, brass, clay, 
etc., would be manifestly a waste of time. All materials should be 
studied in their places, either before working with them or while work- 
ing at them. It is important to know how trees are made into lumber, 
how the lumber is dressed, piled, and cured; to know that different 
woods have different characteristics, and that what may be best adapted 
to one purpose may be almost worthless in some other place. The 
subject of mining and smelting iron is both interesting and valuable 
to the pupil, and the Bessemer process offers a fine field for a lecture 
period. A study of the origin and manufacture of Portland cement 
is a great aid to interest pupils in cement work. I am tempted to en- 
large on this part of the subject, to tell of the interest to be aroused in 
a class thru discussing the history and making of tools, but the cultural 
side of the subject may be left to others. In passing tho, let me say that 
wood, iron, and cement take on new meaning to the boy who knows 
their history, and the square and hammer mean something to him if he 
knows a few of the possibilities of the square and the history of David 
May dole. 

Without doubt the state high school inspector took good ground 
when he said that the products of some of the Minnesota high school 
manual training shops savored too much of the domestic character, and 
that there was not enough of the rugged outside world in it. Especially 
should the work of the agricultural school shops be largely of the outdoor 
tj'pe. Instead of a list containing only furniture and household articles, 
as good a list of projects, to get all of the common tool processes in 
their natural order, can be evolved from the following list : Farm 
gates, poultry crates, ladders, hay racks, sawbucks, eveners, whiffle- 
trees, tables and benches for use in the laboratory work of the classes in 
agriculture, cabinets for the schoolrooms, corn trees, germination boxes, 
models of silos, correct house and barn construction, cement blocks, 


fence-posts, and tanks. All of these are splendid projects for the aizri- 
cultiiral school shop. 1 liaxe no objection io the making of furniture 
later in the ct)urse, antl 1 helie\e that the finer joints and wood linishin>r 
may well ha\e a place in the course. 

The use of linseed oil and white lead should come early in the 
course, and the boys should actually paint and putty surfaces so that 
they ma\ know well how to mix the in^jrcdients and how to apply the 
product. They should know the value of painting the exterior of their 
buildiiiiis, and that the time spent in paintiniz them would return lart2;e 
di\idends, in the conservation of these buildintjs. 


If all the pupils of school as^e could attend reiiularly, the problem 
of tiettinir the proper instruction to them would be Lrreatly simplified, 
as a reiiular course may be offered thru the 7th. 8th. and hi^h school 
grades that will fit the needs of the pupils. Such a course would have 
woodwork and rope work in the grades; carpentry, cement work, rope 
work, mechanical drawing, forging, and if time permitted furniture, 
in the high school. The first and second year of the high school course 
should include carpentr\ . mechanical drawing, emphasizing the arch- 
itectural side of the subject, the care and sharpening of tools, and pro- 
jects of the house and farm that would lead to a knowledge of good pro- 
cesses ; cement work and forging in the jimior \ear. with machine draw- 
ing to supplement the work in farm mechanics given in the agricultural 
department. Furniture antl wood finishing may be offered in the senior 


Unfortunately we cannot have all, or even a majority, of the boys 
for nine months each year and many of them we meet only in the short 
course if at all. The short course of fourteen to sixteen weeks, should 
be made as practical and comprehensive as possible and the work so 
planned that the work of the following year will supplement and add 
to the skill and knowledge attained at a previous session. The work 
can be chosen from the following: rope work, woodworking exercises 
that will permit of teaching correct tool processes, cement, simple forg- 
ing and welding, tempering, use of taps and dies, care and sharpening 
of tools, use of tin shears and blow torch, soldering, painting, etc., — 


in short those things of practical value to the man who will use them in 
his everyday work around the home and on the farm. 


In closing, I submit here a partial list of things that boys, who have 
finished the agricultural high school ought to know : 

That wood filler is not intended to fill bad joints and ruts on the 

That washed gravel is best for use in mixing cement, etc. 

That old fence wire and rods from worn out farm machinery are 
valuable for reinforcing concrete. 

That it is poor econom}- to shirk doing a thoro job of mixing when 
using concrete. 

That too much water is as bad as not enough. 

That too low temperature and concrete work ^\■ill not mix well. 

That a dirty fire and burnt iron usually go together. 

That a weld may look good on the surface but not be perfectly 

That the time to "jump onto" a weld is while the welding heat is 

That pounding the anvil does not help to shape the iron or steel. 

That in shaping steel it will not do to hammer all sides of the piece. 

That if desired to temper in oil, it is not necessary to put the steel 
in "red hot". 

That paint scientifically weighed and ready mixed may be as good 
as the bo3"s themselves can put together. 

How to detect adulterations of linseed oil. 

That benzine or gasoline may make paint spread easily, and go a 
long way, but that it does not help its wearing qualities. 

That the best primer is not made from cottonseed oil and yellow 

That the stiffness and contrariness may be taken out of a sisal rope. 

That tarring or otherwise treating a rope detracts from its strength. 

That a soldering iron must be kept clean. 

That muriatic acid and blow torches are not to be left around for 
children to play with. 

That the regular blacksmith, carpenter, painter, and architect can 
do better work and more of it than boys can, but that it is a comfort to 
realize that the latter need not be entirely at the mercv of the former. 



Robert A. Chesnut. 

THE time has come when it is not a problem to convince a board of 
education that the manual arts hold a very important place in any 
well planned scheme of education, but quite often it is difficult for 
the direct(jr to make clear the fact that the new department needs a good 
equipment and that that equipment should be as well housed as any 
other department of the school. The manner in which these problems 
were worked out in the little city of Needles, California, may be of 
interest to some. 

In the fall of l*^!! woodwork was introduced. Ten benches were 
placed in a small room 14'x20'. There was not room for lockers or 
lumber racks, but the lumber was stacked along the walls, and the 
partially finished and finished pieces were placed in the hallways or 
adjacent classrooms. Two exhibits were given during the >ear. Each 
one was of the nature of a reception to the parents and friends. Invita- 
tions were sent out and refreshments were served. A classroom was 
cleared and was then furnished with the completed pieces. Fig. 1 
shows a part of one of the exhibits. 

These exhibits created great interest among both pupils and parents. 
All-day sessions were held in the woodworking department every Satur- 
day during the school year, and usually the little shop accomodated as 
manv as twent\ enthusiastic workers. 



The boys had been very successful in repairing outbuildings, build- 
ing fences, and doing general repair work about the school buildings. 
The board of trustees said the district would furnish the material if the 
students would put up the building the next fall. The boys very willing- 
ly agreed to this proposition, and the plans for a seven-room building 


were drawn. The first floor consists of four rooms; a woodworking 
room 30'x37'; a lumber and locker room, 8'x30' ; a finishing room, 
8'xl5'; and a kitchen 15'x30'; the second floor contains a sewing room, 
15'x45'; a fitting room, 15'xl5'; and a stockroom, 10'x45'. 

It will not be necessary to describe every step in the erection of this 
building, for it is a typical frame structure, but it may be interesting 
to know how it was possible to keep busy as many as twenty boys at a 
time and how interest was held until all operations were completed. 

As there was quicksand to deal with, the foundation was put in by 
contract. The floor joists and bridging went in slowly as only a few 
of the largest boys could attempt such work, and it demanded close 
supervision, but the sub-floor was laid in four hours. This was accom- 
plished by group work. The class was divided into two groups, starting 
from opposite corners and working toward the middle. The teacher 
could easily supervise both groups. The work was divided among each 


group as follows: four hoys did the measuring and marking, four sawed, 
and two naileil. 

The studs, ceiling joists, and rafters took several days, and were 
raised entirely hy eighth grade and high school boys. The shingles were 
laid hy the hoys from the fifth grade and the high school inclusive. 
Here group work was used more extensively. In every class it was 
possible to find three or more boys who were unusually apt, and these 
boys were put in charge of small groups. The first course was laid 
to a line and after that a straight edge was used. The board was just 
the width the shingles were to be laid to the weather, and could easily 
be raised and tacked in place. This plan of working the boys in groups 
w as used in putting on the sheathing, siding, floors, ceilings, paint, etc. 

A large percentage of the boys never lost interest in any particular 
operation, but a few did, and it was necessary to resort to various 
means of arousing and retaining their interest. For instance, a record 
was kept of the number of boards laid by a certain class and posted in 
a conspicuous place so that the following class could plainly see what 
had been done. Invariably that class would work themselves to a point 
of exhaustion in making an effort to do more than the preceding class. 

All the grounds were graded by the boys. One boy begged to 
wheel earth for three days after the grading was considered finished, 
just because one of his rivals in another class had succeeded in hauling 
more loads in a certain length of time than he had. 

The inside finishing became rather tiresome as only a few were 
capable of doing such work, but when completed it was very satisfactory. 

There were some hard problems to solve, and some discouraging 
results obtained, but as a whole it may well be considered as a great 
success. The equipment was installed during the fifth week of school, 
and even today the boys proudly tell the visitor that "we put this build- 
ing up in five weeks." 


Robert C. Craig. 

AMONG all the accessories to human living since the earliest 
civilization, furniture has probably been the most closeh' inter- 
woven with the daily life of all classes of people. 

Craftsmen have developed types suitable to the peculiar demands 
of the people and surroundings in nearly every countrj^ except our own. 
Here our designers and makers have spent their time either in turning 
out the greatest quantity at the lowest price regardless of artistic merit, 
or in copying "period" furniture. Space precludes comment on the 
former. Of the latter it may be said that, while a great many of the 
old types are admittedly beyond adverse criticism, the designs inevitably 
lose spontaneity and individuality by more or less incorrect and continued 

One can scarcely conceive of a more inspiring subject for the 
artistic and mechanical skill of the craftsman that the fashioning of 
beautifully grained and responsive woods into articles which make for 
comfort in the home and at the same time are truly decorative. A 
sound course in the basic principles of design (going further if possible) 
taught in our high schools would tend very greatly to raise the standard 
of our furniture by helping to eliminate the market for the travesties 
put forth by a great many of our factories. An article, to be cheap, need 
not be ugly. 

We have had with us now for several years the so-called "Mission" 
furniture. As a reactionary type, it has served an admirable purpose 
by bringing into disrepute the exceedingly bad products of a decade or 
so ago. However this has been done thru "style" rather than education. 
The purpose of this new designing was, of course, to get back to good 
lines and good proportion and to the use of good construction. Since 
the lines are seldom other than straight, they could not well be ver^^ bad, 
and since the material used is so heavy and the joining simple, the con- 
struction presents no very diflficult problem. The main faults in this 
type are its excessive weight and lack of refinement in detail. 

By keeping before us at all times the need for good proportion and 
construction, its seems altogether possible that we should be able to 
lighten and refine this rather crude furniture into a type truly useful 
and beautiful. Our high school courses in furniture work offer an 



excellent opportunity tor the starting of a movement toward this desired 
end. For this reason every art or shop course should include furniture 
design and construction. The home is the center of interest for each of 
us. and we enter the trades or the professions in order to keep the home 
up to the best possible standard of comfort and appearance. Sooner or 
later, those who are now our students will be called upon to furnish 
homes of their own, and one of the chief things which we should teach 
them now is how to furnish those homes wisely and in good taste. 
Then they will know the reason for good furniture and will not accept 
poor work merely because it is "something new." 

The heavy, straight-line pieces are being greatly overdone in our 
inanual training work at present. Some high schools claim to be giving 
a course in furniture design, but it is a strange coincidence that produces, 
year after year, practically the same pieces from entirely different classes. 
Everywhere we see the same heavy table with the four square legs, a top, 
and a shelf underneath; the rigid, straight backed chair, and the board- 
legged taboret. 

This monotony is no doubt due in some few cases to lack of time, 
but in many others one is led to the conclusion that it is indeed fortunate 
for the instructor that manual training and "mission' furniture appeared 
contemporaneously. In the first instance, a full year, ten periods per 
week, is the shortest possible time for a thoro course. In the second, 
whether or not the shop instructor teaches the design, a thoro training 
in this direction is just as necessary on his part, as is his knowledge of the 
constructive principles involved. 

The ideal condition is that in which the instructor teaches the design 
as well as the construction of the pieces made in his shop; but if the 
designing must be done by a different teacher, he should have had ex- 
perience in actual furniture making and should be able to visualize the 
finished piece from the drawing. I have known art teachers who were 
teaching furniture design to admit that they could not tell how a piece 
of work was going to look until they saw it completed in the shop — and 
the finished product often more than verified their statements. 


There are several decorative elements which, if introduced into our 
high school furniture courses, would add greatly to the value and at- 
tractiveness of the pieces made. Simple carving, recessing, a bit of 


turning, or modeling would help inestimably in adding individuality 
to, as well as in giving the student a greater interest in, his piece. 

Steam bending is a simple process (requiring very little equipment 
which cannot be made in the shop) which can be used to great advantage 
at times. For instance, in a chair back it adds largely in making the 
chair more comfortable and less crude looking. 

Art metalwork in connection with furniture making is another 
possibility which has so far been greatly neglected. Pieces of furniture 
are often all but spoiled by the hardware used upon them. This hard- 
ware, which the student gets at the store can, of course, have no connec- 
tion whatever, either in form or coloring, with the design of the piece 
which he has executed. If the boy were taught to make his own fittings, 
hinges, drawer-pulls, etc., how much more attractive the finished piece 
would be, and, at the same time, how much more pride he would take in 
it, for then it would be entirely the work of his own brain and hand. 
This work does not require an expensive equipment, is not difficult for 
the student, and is easily learned by the teacher in case he is unfamiliar 
with it. If I may illustrate from my own experience, I introduced art 
metalwork into a high school furniture shop, where the classes averaged 
about fifteen boys each, at a total cost of $25 for equipment. This 
proved to be ample, and the result justified the amount expended many 
times over. It served an excellent purpose not only in keeping the 
classes together, by providing work for the fast boy, but also in more 
than doubling the attractiveness of the furniture made. 

Of course, all of these mediums for adding to the beauty of school- 
made furniture may be greatly overdone; but this again is a strong 
argument for good training in design, for they are often over-done and 
also poorly done in the factory-made product. 

At present it is customary to approach all shop courses from the 
vocational standpoint. Obviously, factory methods are impossible in a 
high school furniture course, for the reason that the pieces are all dif- 
ferent, and one student does all the work on each piece. However, 
there is no better medium than a thoro course in furniture making for 
teaching a boy the proper use of hand tools, or machine tools, if they 
are part of the equipment. Therefore the work would be in harmony 
with the vocational motive, which is, after all, probably the most im- 
portant one in our high school shop courses. 

The avocational aspect of this question is seldom mentioned, and 
3-et it is not altogether negligible. If a boy has a strong desire to do 



constructive work hut at the same time feels tliat he must enter a pro- 
fession, there is nothing which will afford him jjreater pleasure in his 
after life than to fit up a small shop of his own and indulge his inclina- 
tion for creating things for his home. He will be thankful many times 
that his school training has made this possible. His work will be good 
from both an artistic and a mechanical standpoint, and the doing of it 
will add wonderfully to his iov of livino;. 




Navia a. Lathe and Esther Szold. 


Models built on the plan of those shown in Figs. 45A, 46A, and 
47A can be successfully attempted only after practice on simpler models 
with coarser detail has developed some skill of hand and eye, or with 
well-trained adult students. 

The designs in these figures show some of the finer possibilities of 
the problem. The curved forms are limited by the possibilities of good 
construction in wood, and by the necessity in paper construction for 
the angle-strength. Such dimensions as are shown on the patterns, see 
Fig. 45, Fig. 46, Fig. 47, indicate only the interrelation of parts. If 
one dimension is changed the related sections must be changed. The 
greatest values in this construction will come thru individual design, 
and the design here, as in real furniture, should be limited by the use, 
the material, and the construction of the piece to be designed. In the 
plates most of the dimensions which are chiefly or wholly governed by 
individual taste are omitted. 

Modifications of these patterns may be used for many pieces of 
furniture. The bookcase, varied in proportion, would make a china 
cabinet. If the ends are to be of "glass" as the doors are, narrow 
horizontal rails to which the shelves may be pasted must form part of 
the pattern. A music cabinet is built on the same plan but with dif- 
ferent proportions and a solid door. 

To make a rocking chair from either of these chair patterns, cut 
rockers and add rocker-rails to the side sections of the frame by the 
method explained in the directions for the rocking chair.* Note, that to 
change this arm chair with arms turning outward into a rocking chair, 
that the rocker-rail must be cut half an inch or more back of the front 
leg allowing the rocker to be pasted on the outside of the back leg and 

^ Copyright b\ Xsma A. Lathe and Esther Szold. 
*(See June 1912, number, p. 441 and Fig. 22.) 






the back portion of the rocker-rail, and on the inside of the front leg and 
the front portion of the rocker-rail. 

A davenport with the arms turning outward may be made by vary- 
ing the proportions of this arm-chair pattern as the other arm-chair was 
modified to make the other davenport pattern.* A davenport of this 
form might well have a rectangular seat. 


See Fig. 45 and Fig. 45A. 

Seat: — Begin drawing the pat- 
tern by planning the shape and dimen- 
sions of the seat. 

Main Vertical Sections: — Erect 
the verticals B and C in their proper 
relation to the seat. The width of 
the sections between A and B and 
between B and C corresponds to the 
length of the sides of the seat. The 
width of the back of the seat deter- 
mines the width between D and E. 

Construction : — When these ver- 
ticals are placed the order of construc- 
tion and pasting are the same as in 
the simple straight chair.* 

FIG. 45a. 


See Fig. 46 and Fig. 46A. 

Seat: — Plan the shape and dimensions of the seat. 

Front Seat-rail: — Add the horizontal strip beneath the seat-shape. 

Front Leg-facing: — On both sides of the seat erect vertical strips 
of the shape and width desired for the front legs and extending above 
the seat line as high as the arms. See Fig. 46. If a second rung across 
the front is desired add it between these leg-facings and omit that much 
of the inner leg-facing which turns back against the inner side of the 
front legs. 

*(Se€ June, 1912, number, pp. 438-441.) 
*(See Feb., 1912, number, p. 214.) 





Frame : — Space the vertical sections of the frame to fit the back 
and sides of the seat. 

Variable Details : — Complete the remaining details of the frame. 
The width of the arms rhay be equal to or greater than the width of 
the legs. 

If, in the design of the frame, 
no waste for seat laps occurs along 
the seat-line, pasting-laps for the seat 
maj' be added along the sides of the 
seat pattern as far as the vertical leg- 
facings will permit. 

Order of Pasting: — Stand up the 
chair frame and place the seat with 
the leg-facings in place noting how 
the parts fit. Paste the seat into place 
against the frame first. 

Leg Facings: — Spread glue on 
the back of one leg-facing, press and 
dry in place around the outward turn- 
ing leg. Repeat with the other leg. 

Arms: — Paste the small laps at 
the top of the facing strips to the 
under surface of the outward-turning 

arms. Double the laps along the outer edge of the arms, against the 
under surface of the arms and paste in place. 

FIG. 46a. 


See Fig. 47 and Fig. 47A. 

Design : — After the height and width of the book case have been 
decided upon, draw an oblong, outlining its front elevation. On this, 
sketch the pattern of the front of the book case showing the design of 
the doors and the placing of the shelves. The shelves should be 
indicated because it is necessary to consider their position in designing 
the doors. 






Varjnng widths of spaces between the shelves suggest places for 
books of different sizes. Since the natural location for large and heavy 
books is near the base of the book case, these spaces are wider. 

Calculation for Door Openings: — On the final drawing of the 
frame pattern the openings for the doors are made enough smaller than 
the doors to permit the latter to lap 
^''' over the surrounding frame- 

On the hinge side the hinges 
can lap under the door to the 
width of the door-strip which 
pastes against them. 

Doors: — Paste the doors on 
the hinges. See that an}' hori- 
zontal rails of the design fall in 
the proper relation to the shelves 
and door openings. 

Shelves : — Paste the long nar- 
row front laps of the shelves to the 
inner face of the front section of 
the frame along the strips provided 
for that purpose. An exact method for pasting has been described in 
the open book case.* 

Projecting Top : — Fold the pattern for the back as indicated by the 
folding lines. Double under and paste the laps on the outer edges of 
the large top oblong. 

Protection Rail: — Paste the strip just below this oblong against its 
neighboring section above line A'. 

Pasting Back and Top : — Fit the back to the frame with the pro- 
jecting top resting on the top of the frame. Remove, spread glue on the 
laps at the backs of all the shelves. Paste the back in place. 

Spread glue on the top of the frame. Paste the projecting top in 

Final Details : — Shape the protection rail as described in the direc- 
tions for the chiffonier.* 

Use small brass paper fasteners for the door knobs. 

*(See Feb., 1912, number, p. 222.) 
*(See Oct., 1913, number, p. 36.) 

FIG. 47a. 




Modifications of patterns such as suggested here may be made from 
most of the patterns shown thruout this series. It is partly because such 
variations may be readily made that we feel these patterns are of value. 
They give a rapid means of converting the idea into concrete form, of 
putting two-dimensioned design into its three-dimensioned form and 

Thought of the home, its needs and its comforts is the motive ; the 
model room with its beauty of proportions, colors, and forms, and its 
pleasing arrangement is the result ; but that which remains long after- 
ward is the understanding of form in the mind of the one who has 
constructed the form, and the vision of beauty in the heart of each one 
who has helped to create beauty. 

{The End.) 



E\'ERY few weeks the term "Manual Training" is given a thrust 
by some one who seems to believe that "manual training is dead 
and ought to be buried."' We recognize some of the incon- 
veniences in the use of the term "manual training" ourselves, but we 
like to see it given fair treatment. The noun training modified by the 
adjective manual in literal meaning does not convey the idea of manual 
training as understood by most people. These two words taken 
together and applied to handwork in education have always meant more 
then merely "establishing nervous connections between the sense organs 
and muscles'"; tho we recognize that such connections are no insignificant 
part of it, and might even justify it. To imply that the common 
meaning of manual training disregards "content" is to ignore the 
practice of most manual training teachers during the past thirty 
years and to follow the wish of the theorist; it is to ignore also 
the fact that in spite of all the theoretical discussion manual training 
instruction has been voted into school systems year after year chiefly 
because the layman has recognized in it an industrial value. He 
voted for the thing he saw, not for the theory, and he would un- 
doubtedly have voted the same way if it had been called by any 
other name. But at that time it was called manual training, and 
so the term "manual training" has been used, has spread, has become 
popular, has become richer in meaning just as many other terms in the 
English language have become popular and richer in meaning. Such 
growth is a matter concerning which theories of what ought to be have 
little to do. Even legislation has an up-hill road in changing the use of 
such a term, just as executive authority has in reforming a spelling 
which is generally sanctioned by "good use". 

In these thrusts at manual training it is common to assert or 
imply that the psychology of the manual training teacher is out-of- 
date. While there is undoubtedly some ground for making such 
implications, it seems to us that by force of circumstances such 
teachers have been fully as progressive as teachers of other subjects, 
and that manual training teachers have not stood still while all the 
discussion of the past five years has been going on. On the contrary, 
they have been among the leaders in organizing vocational courses 
and in stimulating development in the practical arts. Our observation 



indicates that representative work being done today under the name "in- 
dustrial arts", or "practical arts", is almost identical in content and 
method witli equally representative work under the name of manual 
traininir, and likewise identical with work done in other places under 
the name "manual arts." Any differences are chiefly in the minds 
of the promoters of the work, not in the work itself. In making 
this statement we are not forgetful of the fact that it is easy to 
find work labeled manual training that is (ner-systematized, or- 
ganized to the point approaching the automatic of the factory, so 
that it stimulates too little thinking. It is also possible to find work 
labeled industrial arts that is still chaotic so far as pedagog}" is concerned. 
It has not been organized at all either as handwork or machine work. 
To us it would seem reasonable that in years or generations to come 
one of the three terms in question may supercede the two others in 
educational terminology', tho that does not worry us now so much 
as does the character of the thing they stand for. We are not over- 
anxious to retain the term "manual training," and could be content 
with the term "industrial arts." At the present time our pref- 
erence is for the term "manual arts." We believe (a) that it is more 
convenient to use, (b) that it provides a reasonable caption under which 
to classify school handwork, (c) that it arouses little opposition; (d) it 
has never been in disrepute, and (e) it provides the distinguishing word 
"manual" which seems to be needed. 

Origin of In this connection it may be of interest to many of our 

Term readers to note a few facts concerning the origin of the 

"Manual ,, . 

Arts" term "manual arts" as an educational term. On June 

6, 1881, John S. Clark of Boston, delivered an address before the 
Philadelphia Board of Trade and the Franklin Institute on the subject 
"Industrial Education from a Business Standpoint." In speaking of 
the essential elements in Industrial Education he grouped them under 
three heads, (1) science, (2) art, (3) the manual arts. Under art, 
Mr. Clark placed "graphic and aesthetic art" which he considered 
threefold in its nature, relating to construction, representation, and 
decoration. Under the manual arts he placed the "knowledge of the 
fundamental manipulative processes in dealing with raw materials," 
such as bending, welding, punching, planing, splitting, sawing, turn- 
ing, joining, and the like. This may not have been the first use of 
the term in that sense, but it is the first we have seen recorded. 


Later Mr. Clark used the term in a similar way on different occasions, 
and in the minds of some who listened to him there was question whether 
he might not have included the graphic arts under the heading manual 
arts. In 1893 the trustees of the New York College for the Training of 
Teachers, now Teachers College, received the gift of $200,000 from 
Mrs. Josiah Macy, with which to construct a building for the depart- 
ments of "form study and drawing' and "mechanic arts." When the 
question came up of selecting a name for the building that would ap- 
propriately comprehend the two departments the name "Macy Manual 
Arts Building" which the structure now bears, was decided upon. This 
decision brought the term "manual arts" into some prominence. In 
1896 Dr. James P. Haney became supervisor of manual training in the 
public schools of New York City, and a little later when the drawing 
was also put under his supervision and practical working union of the 
two lines of work was established, he caused the new department to be 
named "manual arts ' because, as he said not long ago, it "appeared as 
a more comprehensive term and one that permitted the including of all 
desirable subjects that psychologists dub 'motor.' " 

In 1897 Bradley Polytechnic Institute opened with a department 
of Manual Arts which included drawing and design as well as work in 
wood and metals. In May 1901, the Council of Supervisors of Manual 
Arts was formed in New York City for the "advancement of the arts 
of drawing design and constructive work in public education." In 
February 1904, the Illinois Manual Arts Association was organized 
at a meeting held in Peoria, Illinois. Since 1905 the term "Manual 
Arts" has grown rapidly in popularity, and is still growing. 

As stated before, the character of the thing, and not its name, 
ought to concern us most, but in our estimation the term "manual train- 
ing" has an honorable record and the term "manual arts" has met a 
real and a growing need in educational terminology'. 

— C. A. Bennett. 

In our October number we made a plea for a reasonable 
Impossible ... ... 

Conditions amount ot time for manual training work, especially for 

woodworking in the 7th and 8th grades, and told of one 
city in which 390 different pupils were sent to one teacher of wood- 
working each week for instruction. This statement called forth several 
letters which revealed even worse conditions. In the December number 
we quoted from a letter in which the teacher told of having 525 pupils 

310 .i/.v.vr.//. TR.iiMxc; magazine 

registered in his classes at one time. We thought that this statement 
must be the h'mit of absurdity in failing to recognize necessary condi- 
tions for effective work in teaching manual training, but we were mis- 
taken. We have since received from a teacher in one of the largest 
cities of the East a letter in which he saj^s in part, "Just think! I, alone, 
teach (!!!???) eighteen classes from Monday morning until Friday 
afternoon, every class above 30 and some of them near forty, with 29 
benches to use. * * * J know my boys by bench numbers only, like 

And some educators in that same city find fault because the manual 
training is not sufficiently vocational in character ! From one point of 
view such conditions are "a joke, a parody and a drama." But they 
reveal low ideals, or lack of administrative ability, or a willingness to 
play at politics, or possibly they may be the result of plain ignorance. 
W^hatever the cause the result is the same. It is so bad that we do not 
need to hunt for an excuse for it. There is none. That such condi- 
tions exist without there seeming to be any effort to remedy them is 
doing positive harm to the cause of handwork instruction in the schools. 
Two hundred pupils are enough for any teacher of shopwork and 2^/2 
hours a week is the shortest time that should be given to shopwork if 
adequate returns are to come from the expenditure of public money. 

From the opposite end of the continent comes an encouraging note. 
Pasadena, California is considering the dropping of shopwork from the 
5th and 6th grades in order to give double time in the 7th and 8th 
grades. We say this is encouraging because we have long since reached 
the conclusion that it is far better educationally to have 3 hours of 
shopwork a week in the 7th and 8th grades than 1^/2 hours a week in the 
5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grades. There is every reason why greater thoro- 
ness should be encouraged and in the case of shopwork such thoroness 
necessarily means more time to devote to the work. We would not 
wish to omit handwork from the 5th and 6th grades, but if the alterna- 
tive were as above stated, 3 hours in the 7th and 8th grades or X^A 
hours in grades 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th, we would take the former and 
be glad of the opportunity. 

There is another reason for this decision. It is still an open question 
whether for most students woodworking is better for bo^'s in the 5th 
and 6th grades than a well-organized course in cardboard work and book 
binding, which may be done at much less expense in the regular school 
room by the grade teachers under good supervision. Moreover, there 


are other t\pes of manual arts instruction which may be given in the 
5th and 6th grades in the regvdar school room with marked success. We 
hope the developing need for pre-vocational instruction will stir up 
school authorities to make a readjustment of time, which will enable 
shopwork to become properly effective as a school subject. For general 
school purposes such instruction should occupy from 2^2 to 3 hours a 
week; for distinctly pre-vocational classes it must occupy from two to 
four times as much time. In these days when so many questions are 
decided on a financial basis, it is not difficult to get the ear of the 
authorities when it can be proven that a good change will reduce cost of 
teaching force and equipment. This is the kind of a discovery that 
seems to have been made in Pasadena. — C. A. B. 

When we published in our last Issue the portrait and brief biographi- 
cal sketch of Dr. Pabst of Leipsic we were hoping for his full recovery 
to health and many more years of active service, tho we knew he 
had been obliged to retire temporarily to a sanitarium. A letter from 
Frau Pabst dated February 22nd, states that in consequence of con- 
tinued illness Dr. Pabst has been obliged to give up his office as director 
of the manual training college at Leipsic and that by the end of March 
he will move to Weimar. This removes from active service another 
of the few great leaders in manual training. He will be greatly missed 
because he has always been active and always progressive. The latter 
was made clear beyond all question when his magazine Blatter fer 
Knabenhandarbeit became Die Arbeitsschule, embracing all efforts to 
apply the principles of handwork instruction in education, whether for 
general or vocational ends, and thereby gaining the support of a large 
body of the educational leaders of Germany. We know we express the 
feeling of hundreds of Americans when we extend to Dr. Pabst our 
sympathy, and wish him many years of well-earned quiet and happy life. 

Announcement of the prize winners in the "Competition" an- 
nounced in the December and February numbers will be made in the 
June number. The judges have not yet completed their work. 



The annual dinner of the Club was held on Saturday evening, December 20, 
1913, at the Boston Cit\' Club, and was a most enjoyable occasion. The Com- 
mittee is glad to be able to present abstracts of the addresses which were 
delivered at that time. Harry L. Jones, 

Somerville, Mass., 
Chairman of Press Committee. 


Henry Turner Bailey, editor of "The School Arts Magazine" said, in dis- 
cussing this topic: 

My friends, it is a great pleasure to be here tonight. A man who has been 
invited to dinner and has partaken of the dinner, has no excuse when he is 
called upon to speak afterwards. The dinner has been a good one; I have 
noticed that everybody has enjoyed it quite as much as I have. Before I speak 
to you about my topic, I do want to congratulate this Club upon its membership. 
I remember the first manual training school in this state, and the first teacher of 
manual training — the only one at the time. Here tonight is this company of one 
hundred and fifty men. The cause for which you stand has been from the first 
a growing one. The thing that pleases me most, as a teacher of drawing, is to 
see here tonight, men who were trained first in drawing alongside men who 
began with the other side, handicraft. The two ultimately must be one, and the 
cities and towns in this state that have had the sense to put the drawing and the 
manual training under one head, so that the two large topics shall be thoroly 
interrelated into every department, have shown a wisdom beyond the time in 
which we live. 

The topic upon which I am to speak to you tonight is a topic in which 
every teacher of manual training must be interested — must have an increasing 
interest — never mind why — perhaps we will come to that again. 

I am going to begin by quoting a statement Colonel Parker made to me 
the last time I saw him. I happened to be in his own house sitting opposite 
him at dinner. He looked at me, put his fingers together, shut his eyes, then 
opened them suddenly and he said, "Mr. Bailey, you are a younger man than I. 
You will live to see all the courses of study in the scliools of this country 
reorganized on the basis of the arts." I thought, at the time, he was saying 
something he thought complimentary to my profession, that he was saying some- 
thing he really did not mean, but I know now that he did mean it, and I know 
that his prophecy is being fulfilled. I wish I had the letter with me that I 
received vesterday from Dr. Bonser, of Columbia, with his comment on the 
L'niversity, and what the L'niversity has got to do in relation to this wide- 
spreading movement which is emphasizing the arts in education. 




However, I must get at my topic. The topic is "The Curve in Relation to 
Manual Art." 

There are two fundamental kinds of curves. These two fundamental kinds 
may be represented one by the arc of a circle and the other by a line like this. 
(See accompanying sketch.) Now the arc of a circle is a line controlled by a 
center. If a curve has a 6-inch radius, you know it is possible to compute the 
length of the life of that curve. It is 
3.1459+ you know, times the diameter. 
That curve, therefore, returns upon 
itself after a run of about a meter. For 
that reason, it has been called by Rus- 
kin a "finite curve" because knowing 
one part of the arc, it is possible, as 
you know by a problem in geometry, 
to determine its center and the length 
of its life. Moreover, j'ou know that 
if an arc of a circle be cut into parts 
of equal length — let us say 4 inches — 
that each part has precisely the same 
curvature as that next to it; therefore, 
the curve of a circle is a monotonous 
curve, a finite, monotonous curve. Every 
part of that curve is evidently pre- 
determined by a center. Anything 
which has any art in it expresses free- 
dom in some way. There is no free- 
dom expressed in the arc of a circle. 

Now this other curve is quite differ- 
ent. Let us consider its structure. If we 
were to draw here a line — let us say, 
to make it definite, 7'A inches in length; 
and if we were to make here an angle, 
let us say 179%° — again to make it 
definite — and then if I were to make 
the length of this second line four-fifths of the first (\ou need not try to figure 
that out!) and if I were to proceed maintaining the same angle, 179V2°, and the 
same ratio, four-fifths of the preceeding line, going on and on, you begin to see 
what we would get. We are constantly approaching a point. You see that 
theoretically- this process is limitless in both directions. Now if I draw a curve 
passing thru these points, you see we have a curve like that first drawn free- 
hand. That curve, theoretically, is unlimited in both directions. Ruskin calls 
it an "Infinite" curve; knowing any part of it, you cannot predict the length of 
its life. You see also that if this curve were cut into pieces 4 inches long, no 
two of these pieces would have the same curvature. Every part of that curve 
4" in length is different from every other part. That curve expresses a freedom 
It appears to bend of its own will, from within. It shows no constraint from 
without; controlled by law it appears perfectly free. The old problem of fate 
and free will is here solved. This infinite curve — a curve expressing freedom 

1. A circular arc. Finite, monoton- 
ous, with no freedom of movement. 

2. A straight line, equally necessi- 

3. A free infinite, varied curve, ap- 
parently controlled only from within. 

4. The basis of lav,' beneath an in- 
finite curve. 

5. Two curves of 3 making a re- 
versed curve. 

6. The logical termination of 3 and 
4. The spiral. 

7. Two curves like 3 and 4 com- 
bined to produce Hogarth's "Line of 


— is the other type of cur\e to be set over against that circular curve. Let us 
consider the functions of the two types of curves: first the nature and then the 

First, nature. Here is a section of an onion sliced across. The different 
parts are grouped around the central core and the lines which define them are 
practically circular cur\es. That onion, in side view, however, does not present 
the curves of a circle. The curves of a circle are to be found only in the 
horizontal section. The side view shows curves of the other type; everyone is 
related to that finite curve, either in its simplest form or doubled upon itself to 
make what is known as a reversed curve, or curve of grace. 

Suppose we substitute for our onion, the bulb of a hyacinth. Put that into 
a glass of water. What takes place? Life begins to manifest itself. That life 
is free. It expresses itself in lines of freedom and the first curve of the first 
leaf and ever\- other line that comes out of it takes the path of an infinite 
curve. When the hyacinth blooms you know what takes place. Every little 
flower that comes is matle up of these refined infinite curves — not circular. 
You will find that the section of the grass stem is circular, that the trunk of a 
tree is circular in section, and that thruout nature every bud, every flower, 
everv cross-section is circular, or has some form derived from the circular. 
Nature uses the circle for structural purposes in plan or ^vhere equal subdivision 
of work or distribution of stress is desirable. But the moment you come to the 
elevation of anything in nature — manifestation of aspiring life — that moment 
all your circles disappear and you find only the infinite curves. Let me give 
you two or three illustrations. (Mr. Bailey here drew goldenrod. violet, ferns, 
lilies, insects, birds, animal, etc., to prove this point.) 

Look at your own body. Take contours of the muscles; infinite curves every- 
where, not the arcs of circles. Observe the ends of your fingers. Open \our 
hands. Look at them. Where do you see the arc of a circle. Well now those 
infinite curves are the curves not only which give beaut>' to everything in nature, 
but those are curves which have given beauty to everything in art in every 
period, and always will. 

For instance when the old Egyptians made tlie most beautiful and typical 
capitals the Lotus Bud, there are your curves; here is your stem. When they 
made that capital they simply used these curves of force. ( Mr. Bailey here 
reviewed by rapid drawings the history of these types of capital, thru the six 
historic schools of architecture, and sketched typical Egyptian, Greek, and 
Medieval utensils to show the presence in them all of the infinite curves). 

You have got to train your boys so that they know a good curve when they 
see it, and so that the\' can produce a curve of good character. You can not 
possibly sell a pair of shoes, if your sample was like this (making outline on 
board). Could you? ^ ini know perfectly well that when tiiey bring out their 
samples thev work on these lines. (Drawing). It makes very little difference 
whether a shoe fits them or not. Nothing will sell in the long run unless it 
has fine design. It is coming to be more true every year that the man who can 
produce the fine thing is the man who gets the money. A statement was made 
to me recently by a big manufacturer that the cheap things that are made for 
the people now have to be made with fine lines, tho produced by machinery. 


I could name a man known to all of you here tonight who once said in 
print that all the art education Massachusetts has given in the last 40 years has 
produced nothing except a negligible result! 

I said to a wall paper man in Boston, not long ago, "Can you see that the 
instruction of design in Massachusetts schools has had an effect?" "Yes sir," he 
replied. "In what way?" I asked. "We can still sell anything to the rich," 
he said, "provided it is imported or is sufficiently expensive, or is the fad ; but 
we cannot palm off the poor truck on the common people any more because they 
bring their children with them to the store and the children know what is good." 

Nothing in Massachusetts out of 40 years drawing of the handicraft except 
a negligible result? Is that so? It seems to me that in 40 years our architecture 
has improved; it seems to me that our school furniture has improved. 
Our silverware has improved ; our newspapers are better than thev used to be 
in design. I am sure if you could make a visit to the homes of the common 
people in this state you would find better wall paper and better rugs and better 
ornaments of every sort. How did they come by these things? If you think 
that the art and manual training teachers have had nothing to do with it, you 
assume that all education means nothing. The whole system of public education 
is wrong if you can produce nothing with 40 years of teaching but "a negligible 
result." No, my friends, you men know that art and craft instruction has meant 
something and that it must mean more. And I want you to see tonight that the 
time has come when you must give up vour old mechanical design where every 
curve is the arc of a circle with a prescribed radius, and pass on to the higher 
and finer design that smacks of good taste, that presents the refind contours al- 
ways found in the finest handicraft. The human spirit, itself infinite in its 
aspirations, will never be satisfied with anything short of infinite beauty. 

I want in closing to make a plea for manual art as a cultural study. I 
want you to see that your department holds within itself the means of culture for 
your boys and girls. These manufacturers who are advocating industrial train- 
ing, greater industrial efficiency, prevocational work and all that sort of thing, 
do not want real education of the boys and girls of America. They simple want 
to get hold of more efficient workers for their commercial systems. They openly 
say that they want those who are more skilled with their fingers so that they 
can turn out more dollars. I want you men to understand that these manufactur- 
ers who are anxious about this matter of industrial education will not secure 
what they hope to secure — their supremacy in the commercial world — by getting 
hold of boys and girls sooner in life to work their machines. They will be 
disappointed. With the best intention, they will be disappointed. You can pro- 
duce fine products only when 30U have fine workmen. You have got to have 
workmen of cultivated taste and it is for you men, who are interested in the 
training of boys from the educational side, to hold on to these boys and girls 
as long as you can and to give them all the cultivation you can by means of your 
handicrafts. When you stop to think of it, what a tremendous reservoir of 
culture has never been tapped by manual training. When did you ever hear 
manual training men say anything about the great master craftsmen of the 


When did you or your boys in carpentry learn anything about the royal 
carpenters to the Pharaohs whose proud memorials have been freed from the 
sands of Eg>pt? Go thru tlie \\hole history of craft — in (ireece, Rome, and the 
middle ages. When did your students ever hear of the men who have filled 
Europe with beautiful towns and cathedrals, and stocked its countless 
museums with beautiful objects we Americans pay $50,000,000 a year to go to 
look at? Oh there is a vast wealth of culture waiting for you men to bring 
to vour bovs and girls. The greatest misfortune that can come to the ignorant 
working man is leisure. He flies to drink — he flies to every sort of dissipation 
that incapacitates him from his work. He does not know what to do with his 
time. The most important thing you can do for a workingman is to give him 
home inspiration that will make his leisure hours precious to him. Give the 
workingman an interest in anything outside the mere mechanism of his work — 
an interest in biography, history, the history of his own craft, in music, in design, 
an interest in raising flowers, I do not care what it is — give him an interest that 
will absorb his attention the moment he is away from his bench or machine and 
you will make him a better man. He will live better, he will grow better as 
long as he lives. It is always the man behind the gun — the man behind the 
machine — the man of taste and cultivation who will produce the fine thing. A 
manufacturing man, in the hardware business, once said to me "We have the 
greatest dirticulty in getting men who can run our polishing machines satis- 
factorilv." He was referring to cast work for door plates. "We have skilled 
designers who can produce fine ornaments, we can get the ornament cast all 
right, but these polishers who know nothing about curvature and fine modeling 
are sure to spoil the plates because they do not know enough to know when to 
stop polishing. They polish our finest effects into the dust heap." 

A big manufacturing jeweler once told me he could not produce the 
finest grades of jewelry because his workmen "could not make a perfect spiral 
even with a perfect copy before him!" We have got to have workmen with 
eyes trained to see and hands trained to obey. We have got to produce for our 
manufacturers, if they are to have their share of the business in the markets of 
the world — we have got to produce for them something besides mechanics — some- 
thing besides human machines. We have got to produce cultivated men. 

Your bovs ought to come out from the manual training shops with eyes for 
the beautv of nature primarily, and then eyes for the beauty of fine arts. All 
fine things in art are human interpretations of fine things in nature. Your boys 
ought to make sketches from buds, leaves, flowers, seed pods, everything with 
beautiful curves. They ought to be trained to find in all these, hints for the 
designing of beautiful objects. 

You manual training men have a boundless opportunity before you. 

God has made nothing common or unclean. When your eyes are opened 
to nature vou will find in everything lines of beauty which transmitted in the 
work of vour hands, will make your work precious to the human spirit. If 
there is one prayer that manual training men ought to pray it is the prayer of 
Moses the Man of God, in the 90th Psalm. "Let thy work appear unto thy 
servants and thv glory unto their children and let the beauty of the Lord our 
God be upon us; and establish thou the work of our hands upon us; yea, the 
work of our hands establish thou it." 


They have preserved in the museum of Europe the work of masters' hands 
because something of the jnfinite beauty of the works of the Lord our God is upon 
them. When we learn more about beauty we will talk less about the mechanical 
side of industrial training. That will take care of itself. We will hear more 
talk about the esthetic side of industrial training. When we can lead boys 
and girls to live a large and abundant life, then will they produce the kind of 
art that will hold the markets of the world, because it will be worth buying. 
There are three absolutely ineradicable hungers of the human spirit: hunger for 
truth; hunger for goodness; and hunger for beauty-. You can not afford to ignore 
any one of them. The human spirit cannot exist without law; it cannot grow 
without religion ; it cannot be happy without art. 


Speaking on this topic, Meyer Bloomfield, director of the Boston Vocation 
Bureau, said in part: 

I wish that Mr. Bailey had left his circle and the curve of force on the 
blackboard because these two figures illustrate very much the whole conflict 
in our educational conceptions of the child today. The vocational guidance 
movement asks that we view the child as that curve of force, as that human 
being of infinite possibility, as that human being of every possibilit\', and that 
we view the educator as a person who enables that child to find itself; to 
discover itself in the process of schooling. 

I will not take the time to go into the history of the courses in our schools. 
Every course of study, every subject, is the result first of somebody's vision or 
somebody's dreams, and in the second place, the result of some organized agita- 
tion, and in the third place, a process of forgetfulness and routine. 

No scheme which deals with human nature can long remain vital if it for- 
gets its original excuses for being. Drawing, of course, is an old subject in 
Massachusetts, if we can call anything old here. A little later mechanical 
drawing came. Then manual training was suggested. Now like many move- 
ments in education or in social life, a number of forces were at work and are at 
work to alter the original ideas. 

I wish to correct the chairman in saying vocational guidance is new. It is 
not new. Its organized form is perhaps new, but vocational influence is one of 
the ancient services. Manual training was agitated by the same forces which are 
behind the movement for vocational and educational guidance. Some manu- 
facturers, some business men, were very active in urging manual training as some 
manufacturers are interested in urging vocational or perhaps industrial educa- 
tion, but the largest excuses and motive for manual training did not come from 
manufacturers, any more than it comes today in vocational education from the 
side of industry. It came from humanitarians. It came from those who wanted 
to give children a chance. It came from those who saw .that many children 
could not possibly realize themselves under the older forms of schools, and 
furthermore, they saw that education for the most part must be meaningless to 
the masses who find no relation between what they learn during their few 
years of schooling and what they must know and possess during the largest 
portion of their lives. 


Now it is a great tragedy in our social life that we think and have per- 
mitted education to be one thing and work another. And when we fear the 
vocational movement, when we fear the introduction of work motives in a school, 
it is because we have now acquired that stagnant routine of separating the sources 
of everyday livelihood from the scheme of educators. 

How can we ever make work yield any educational \alues? How can we 
make working life mean any more than wages if we permit that sort of thing 
in this countrv? We do great damage to our entire social structure in not 
seeing to it that the greatest task for every educator, particularly those whose 
work brings them close to the livelihood sources of people, is to see how far we 
can connect work with school. If work is not fit to be connected with the school 
then we must find a way to make the work fit, because school must influence 
industry quite as much as we think industry has influenced the school. After 
all if manufacturers will not cater to the schools, we shall do no better than we 
did when business invaded our commercial departments in the early days when 
business training was started in the schools. 

This is the way this problem has been faced by Germany. These people, 
with their passion for efficiency, are studying one of the most remarkable things 
in the world. They are studying how to make any kind of occupation yield some 
kind of educational return. What is its intellectual content? What is the 
development content of the occupation of a chimney sweeper? Shall a messenger 
boy be a degraded being as he is in this country, or shall messenger boys 
represent a form of social service. The people in Berlin are meeting this prob- 
lem for the messenger boy. We should be met with ridicule in this country if 
we were to announce today that we are prepared to give a short course for 
messenger boy service. We have given him a bad name. That is characteristic 
of the ugliness which Mr. Bailey has described. That is the ugliness we 
associate with work. 

I remember that in Worcester three years ago there was a hearing by a 
local commission on industrial education. A workman spoke. He wanted a 
ver\- fine industrial school erected. He was opposed to having the cit\' rent a 
brick building, fitting it up with used machines, and making the whole place 
look grimy and realistic. One of the members of the Commission asked "If 
you have such a school as you propose here, when these boys leave that school 
and go into factories in this city and find them different, they will be discontent- 
ed." "That is the reason why I urge a school such as I have described," the 
workman answered. 

A little over a year ago, I went on a tour of Indian schools for the Depart- 
ment of the Interior, and in the northwest corner of the State of Washington 
we came to the main street of a town where there was a local election going on. 
We saw a banner across the street. This is what that banner contained fl 
think the man was running for the office of coroner) : "Vote for John Smith, 
the people's friend. Vote for the man who gave you your morgue." 

Many issues are still of that type. And unless the children are helped by 
the educational forces to find themselves in the work, most of them do not. 
And that is what has brought vocational guidance to the front. We want the 
children to remain in school as long as possible. Therefore, the problem, how 


shall we keep them? Not by compulsory school laws, because that is a kind 
of imprisonment to many a child. How shall we keep them? By interesting 
them. What interests them? Things that they connect with their impulses to 
share the surging life of the day. No child escapes the appeal of these forces. 
We must reckon with them — must respect and utilize them. 

I have always thought that the manual training people have an enormous 
function in this field of vocational guidance. If it were possible to make the 
vocational counsellors of our school system the manual training people, I should 
think we were approaching the work wisely, because when you are given proper 
opportunit}- whereby children may discover what their capacities really are, 
your judgment in a consultation of what that child is best prepared for would 
be of infinitely greater value than the judgment of any other sort of instructors. 

Our average classroom test is not the test which is represented in the life 
experience of the children. You may have your tests, and some day there will 
probably be a system of records developed whereby you will record not only your 
opinions — that is what the classroom usualK' records — but your observations. 
You will make a scientific study of little natures which are struggling to find 
themselves, and when you find significant clues, that knowledge of industry- 
which is growing and is becoming organized, will be connected with your dis- 
coveries. Today we are guessing. We are not having vocational guidance in 
our average schools, but vocational misguidance. I have sometimes asked the 
graduating classes of schools in different cities to write what they are going to 
be and why? You never find out what children are going to be from these 
compositions, but you always find out what the teacher is — what the school is — 
what are the biases, prejudices, and traditions of the communitv', because these 
children reflect these things. We are living in a day when the layman, old or 
j'oung, cannot possibly form an accurate judgment as to the occupations. 

A year ago I made a visit to a Rochester clothing factory where I saw a 
coat made by 38 different persons — a man"s coat. A readymade coat was subject 
to 38 specializations — pocket-makers, sleeve-makers, button-makers, basters, and 
what not. In a new bulletin on the clothing industry there are specified 48 
different operations, and mention is made of a factory- where 62 different persons 
worked on a coat. 

We know how in Massachusetts the shoemaking, woodworking, and other 
industries have become enormously subdivided. Where is the child to get an 
all-round view and preparation? 

The manual training people must tell us how to observe children's capacities. 
We cannot guess nor can we do much with a child who comes to us for a 
temporary- bit of guidance. There must be continuous, consecutive study based 
on shop experience. 

Next month Superintendent Dyer will reorganize the vocational guidance 
work of the Boston schools. He intends to create a department with special 
workers in charge. His idea is to connect the vocational guidance work with 
the continuation school work. Even then we shall fall far short of what we 
need to do. Within a year Dr. Kerschensteiner found it necessary to introduce 
another vear in the elementary school, before the child could go to work — a 
vear devoted to self-discovering purposes — a prevocational year. This prevoca- 


tional 3'ear will act as a logical feeder to the continuation school. We look 
for manual training men who interpret school in terms of livelihood — in terms of 
motive — not only in terms of routine — in terms of tradition. The manual training 
people can give a scientific foundation to this vocational guidance work; if 
they do not, their ■work and the work of vocational guidance will not have a 
solid foundation. 


This subject was discussed by Robert O. Small, Deputy Commissioner of 
Education for Massachusetts. 

In coming before you this evening, I am reminded of the story Miss 
Gladys Ravenscroft, the English champion lady golfer, tells regarding herself. 
She says, "When I was first learning the game of golf, I had as a caddy, an old 
Scotchman by the name of Saunders. After I had been playing for about six 
months I said, 'Well, Saunders, how am I getting on?;' and Saunders replied, 
'Yer no makin' a fool o' yerself, but ye'il never be a gowfer.' " My prayer in 
coming into the position which I now occupy, and in my attempt to guide this 
movement for vocational education, might be as follows: "That I may not make 
a fool of myself" while I am trying to qualify in the judgment of the people 
who are criticizing me and who are judging me as deputy commissioner in 
charge of vocational education. I approach this field with a good deal of 
humility, and I shall need all the cooperation I can get. But I am encouraged 
by this gathering under the auspices of the Manual Training Club of Boston. 
This is ''right nice" of you people to ask me to come here to speak to you this 
evening. It is with great satisfaction that, looking into your faces, I see some 
assembled here who are engaged definitely in the field of industrial education ; 
those who are engaged their entire time in teaching trades to minors. Associated 
with them I see those who are engaged in teaching art to youngsters. This is 
very significant. Extremes meet liere and the exponents sit down together agreed 
that, after all, whether education is cultural, social, or vocational is determined 
by the aim more than by the content. I can conceive a situation where in con- 
tent practically the same education is given, but the aim is that of culture or 
social improvement, in turn it is prevocational, and still again it is vocational. 

I am satisfied that when we get together and agree upon definitions, and 
decide upon what our aim is, w'e will find less cause for quarreling. We have 
not quarreled much anyway, but we have been somewhat confused in regard to 
content, when after all it is the aim which makes the education social, cultural, 
or vocational. This is, at least, my interpretation of the situation. 

There is a great deal of confusion regarding industrial education. If you 
listen to the various usages to which the term is put you will be keenlv alive 
to the fact that there is much confusion. Only the other day I read of a teacher, 
one of those sweet creatures recently graduated from a normal school. Esthetic 
of taste, moved by a desire to bring her school closely in contact with this latest 
movement, and to industrialize her work, she visited some of the industrial plants 
and among them a locomotive boiler shop. She asked her guide, "What is 
that large thing over there? I never saw one of those things before." The 


guide replied, "That is an engine boiler." "(Jh, is that an engine boiler? Whv 
do you know, I never knew that they boiled engines." The guide, while taken 
back, rose to the occasion and when she came with her next question, "Why do 
they boil engines?" he replied, "I do not know, I am sure, unless it is to make 
the engine tender." 

In discussing industrial education, terminology is as confused as were the 
facts in the instance I have mentioned. Within two weeks I was discussing the 
subject of vocational and industrial education with some leaders in the move- 
ment not from this commonwealth, and I was told of a superintendent of 
schools who said he had succeeded in systematically vocationalizing his school 
program from the second grade up. He was asked what he put in for the second 
grade in the way of industrial education. He told about this scheme. He had 
the children of Grade II make sleds from cardboard. The sleds thev made were 
three inches long and he had systematized the program in the other grades bv 
having the children make more sleds. As they proceeded from the second grade 
they made tlie sleds one inch longer in each grade. That is not fiction, gentle- 
men. It was told to me as a fact. You will agree with me that \ve should get 
together on some terminology and some definitions before we have any serious 
falling-out in regard to these subjects which we are teaching; then we will not 
have these misunderstandings, because it is to a very large degree a matter of 

We who are interested in industrial education are using the term to mean 
that t\'pe of education which has for its aim the qualifying and fitting of a boy 
or girl to go into industry and earn a living wage. If we are honest about it, 
and that is our aim, what other way can we go about finding a boy or girl for 
an occupation than by putting them into training for a real industry. 

Give the boys and girls a part of all that Mr. Bailey has told you about. 
We all know that as they leave school now and go into industries thev have 
little chance to get it. The only opportunity- for us to fit out these boys with 
any of that wealth is thru continuation schools, thru vocational education supple- 
mented by some of that education which Mr. Bailey spoke to you about. We 
want them to have it. There is nobody seriously engaged in this business of 
vocational education %vho feels any other way, so far as I have become acquainted 
with them. If you find anyone who does "line up" in disregard for related 
work he is out to exploit the boy or girl. He does not belong in our camp. He 
is lost. 

I am aware of the fact that there has been more difference between the 
advocates of the established traditional t>-pe of education and those who champion 
the cause of industrial education than there should have been. My contention to- 
night is that this is unnecessary; that there should be none of it. A committee — I 
think there is a committee of this Manual Training Club which is now at work on 
a report — will discharge a great responsibility- and perform a great service if it 
can formulate an authoritative statement of the purposes and the aims of manual 
training and their relations to industrial education. I do not know that this is 
what their report is upon, but they certainly have a great opportunity to agree 
upon some facts and terms which will correct some of the misunderstandings. 

I have not the method of attack that the advocates of some svstems have. 

322 .l/.V.Vr.VA TR.^IMXa MAGAZIXE 

My method of "shooting" at things is somewhat different; I find it absolutely 
necessary to have a mark and good aim before I can attempt to make a bull's- 
eye. I cannot shoot until I get my object before me. Neither can I do any suc- 
cessful teaching until I get my problem before me, until I get my aim pretty well 
defined. \\'hen that has been done, as I have said earlier, I am inclined to think 
that the aim counts more than the content. I think it is necessary for us in 
manual training or industrial education to get our problem definitely before us 
before we undertake to solve it. 

I ha\e defined industrial education. I should define prevocational education 
as that type tif education which has for its aim the giving to pupils an oppor- 
tunit}- to participate in many types of industries, to find if possible, thru a tjpe of 
vocational guidance, where they can succeed. In industrial education the aim is 
to give a training for the industry-; in prevocational education the aim is to 
give information and intelligence about many industries. In any given industry, 
at a certain stage of the training, the content might be much the same in both 
the industrial and the prevocational school, while the aim differed. This dif- 
ference in aim determines the school. 

Until we get more clear thinking along these lines, until we mutually 
understand our problem and what we are trying to do, until we agree upon 
certain definitions of terms, I fear that our logic at different times and in many 
deductions will be much like the logic of the man who went down the street, saw 
a stove advertised which would save half the fuel, and bought two of them, 
because ''If one stove will save half of it, two will save all of it." We do not 
want this kind of logic in deductions regarding manual training and industrial 
education. Let us get our definitions and our terminology- straightened out and 
we will have less of it. But I am reminded of that additional beatitude, 
''Blessed is the man who speaks and sits down, for he may be asked to speak 

I wish to leave with you this suggestion as a final suggestion, "We must 
pull together." I do not mean you are to do my job, I do not mean you are to 
agree with me or I with you all the time, but we must pull together and help 
solve and work out this problem. 

If you enjoy Kipling you probably remember this jungle rhyme. It fits our 

"Now this is the law of the Jungle, as old and as true as the sky. 

And the wolf that shall keep it may prosper, but the wolf that shall break it 

must die. 
As the creeper that circles the tree trunk, so the law runneth forward and back; 
For the strength of the pack is the wolf, and the strength of the wolf is the pack. 
I am the wolf and you are the wolf, and we all are the pack." 


The third annual meeting of the College Art Association of America was 
held in the assembly room of the Harper Memorial Library at the University of 
Chicago on the twenty-ninth and thirtieth of December, 1913. 

This organization of college art teachers, now in its fourth vear, represents 


thru its membership, over fifty of the leading colleges and universities of the 
United States. The purpose of the organization is to promote and standardize 
efficient instruction in the fine arts in the American institutions of higher 

The opening address of the president of the Association, Professor Holmes 
Smith of Washington University, emphasized the necessity of placing the study 
of the fine arts on a par with other college subjects, and suggested definite 
methods of proceedure for the organization to this end. 

Professor F. B. Tarbell of the University of Chicago, presented evidence in 
Greek sculpture of the free and direct attack on the marble without the modeled 
lay figure in clay or plaster from which the finished marble is reproduced by 
mechanical process in more recent sculpture. His argument was supported by 
reference to the slight variety' in similar forms; by the absence of marks, sug- 
gesting mechanical reproduction in unfinished pieces; by tendencies to compose 
figures out of pieces of marble, rather than in one piece; by the avoidance of 
division in the marble thru conspicuous parts of the sculpture; and by the 
different depths of background given to different parts of the same frieze, 
suggesting that no finished model was prepared before the attack upon the 

The subject "Fine Arts as a Requirement for the A. B. Degree" was well 
presented by Professor A. V. Churchill of Smith College. Professor Churchill's 
assertion that '"histor}- has been rewritten on the evidence of fine arts yet un- 
discovered" was argument for the necessity of a study of these arts by those 
who presume to know and understand cultural development. 

A paper on the subject "The Teaching of Arts in the College," by Professor 
O. S. Tonks of Vassar College, in which it was asserted that technical work 
in drawing, painting, and modeling had no place in the college course, aroused 
much discussion. It was evident from this discussion that a majority of those 
present favored technical work as a laboratory process, supplementing the study 
of theory, history, and philosophy of esthetics. 

Professor Arthur Pope of Harvard University, gave a detailed and illus- 
trated presentation of "Drawing and Painting in College Courses," as developed 
at Harvard. The purpose of these courses was emphasized as cultural rather 
than professional and as comparable to methods of teaching English composition. 

The reports of two important committees of the Association were referred 
back for further investigation: one on "Investigation of the Condition of Art 
Instruction in Colleges and Universities," Professor Allen Marquand, chair- 
man, and one on "College Art Courses," Professor G. H. Chase, chairman. 

The Association voted to affiliate with the American Federation of Arts. 
Professor Sargeant of Chicago University, was elected President of the Associa- 
tion for the coming year, and Miss Cushman of Chicago University', was 
elected Secretary-Treasurer. 

The membership has been doubled during the past year, and the Associa- 
tion has become a factor among the organizations of the country for the promo- 
tion of esthetical study. 

Edward J- L.\ke, 
University of Illinois, Urbana. 


George A. Seaton, Editor. 

At the request of the editors of The Manual Traikixg Magazine the fol- 
lowing suggestions for the Shop Problems Department are contributed by the 
School of Practical Arts, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, 
N. Y. The air compressor, as described, was designed and built by students 
during 1913 and 1914. The following Departments cooperated: Mechanical 
Drafting and Machine Design, under the direction of Professor Weick ; Pattern- 


Making, Professor \oyes and Mr. Constantine ; Foundry and Forge-Shop, 
Professor Sleffel ; and Machine-Shop, Mr. Walsh. 

This machine was designee! with two objects in view: one was the making 
of something of practical value; the other the application of mathematics and 
shop principles. F. G. Bonser, Director. 

School of Practical Arts, 
Teachers College, New York. 


After the drawings (Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4) were completed i-i the drafting de- 
partments, blueprints were made, and sent to the pattern shop where the patterns 
for the base, cylinders, c>linder-iiead, piston, and main bearing caps were turned 

The first pattern to be made was the base which is a "shell" pattern that 











fe i S 

z 5 



leaves its own base core. The only dry sand cores used were for coreing out 
the main bearings. The bosses for the main bearings were made loose so that 
the pattern could be easily molded in a two part flask, the bosses being picked 
out after the pattern had been drawn. 

The cylinder pattern was made "split" to facilitate molding, a full core- 
box being made. The piston pattern was made solid with a large print so that 
the core would be well supported. The core-box for the piston was made in 
two halves to produce a solid core; this did away with the necessity of pasting 
the cores together. The pulley pattern was turned up in t\vo halves and fitted 
together making a "split" pattern very easily molded. As tiie shape of the 
flywheel gave plenty of "draft" it was built up in segments with only the upper 
half of the hub loose. The pattern for the main bearing cap was made to leave 
its own core, thus obviating the necessit>- of having a core-box. The patterns 
are shown in Fig. 5. 






y'_ ;■ 





2. Cylinder. 

3. Cylinder-head. 

4. Piston. 

5. Cores and core-boxes. 
A flask made of wood was selected 

for this job with a drag deep enougli 
to allow for an inch of sand or more 
over the pattern. The follower board 
was placed on the molding bench, and 
on this board was placed the drag, 
Fig. 6. Then the pattern was put on 
the follower board so that it lay 
equally distant from the walls of the 
flask. Enough sand was riddled over 
the pattern to cover it. Then the drag 
was filled with shoveled sand. This 
sand was rammed hard with the hand 
rammers close to the walls of the 
drag, but "ot so hard over the pattern. 
Then the drag was filled with the sand, 

the surplus struck off, and it was vented with a vent rod, pushing this vent rod 
down to the pattern (vent rod is a darning needle with handle.) The bottom 
board was then placed on this side and flask rolled over, the follower board re- 
moved, and the loose sand smoothed with the trowel. The surface was then 
covered with parting sand (beach sand). This sand prevents the cope sand 
from sticking to the drag sand. The cope was then placed on the drag. Two round 
pins are used, one of which is for the sprue, thru which the molten meltal is pour- 
ed ; the other for the riser, and can be much smaller than the sprue pin. The 




riser is used to allow the gases and dirt to escape. The sprue pin was placed 
about an inch from the pattern and the riser was placed on the opposite end 
about the same distance from the pattern, both pins sticking up with the lower 
ends resting in the drag. Enough sand was riddled over the pattern to cover 
it. Then the cope was filled with shoveled sand, and the ramming repeated 
as in the drag. The surplus sand was struck off, and the sprue and riser pins 


were taken out. A pouring basin was made at the top of the sprue. This 
pouring basin or funnel makes it easy to pour metal in to the sprue hole. The 
cope was then lifted from the drag, all loose sand blown off, and the sand 
dampened around the pattern with the swab. A draw spike was driven into 
the pattern and the pattern gently rapped. At the same time it was raised or 
drawn from the sand. The cores were then set, and a gate cut from the mold 
to the sprue large enough to admit a good flow of metal. The mold was then 
clamped and ready to receive the molten metal. 

The pig iron and scrap were melted in a 9 inch cupola, and molten metal 



"> s 


^^•'^ -^ 



*Jf »■ 








So >i^s 




was tapped into a hand ladle. The molten iron was then carried to the mold 
and poured in the sprue, and thence to the pattern. 

The castings were taken out of the sand, all burnt sand cleaned off with the 
aid of a wire brush, and all rough edges ground clean on the emery wheel, 
Fig. S. 

The process of molding the pulley, cylinders, cylinder-head, flwvheel, and 
other patterns was the same as that explained 
for the bed-plate. To be sure, each one had 
its own problem, yet the same principles 
governed all. (Fig. 9 and 10.) 

Cores. The dry sand cores were made 
from certain proportions of beach-sand, 
molding sands, and flour. These were all 
riddled thru a very fine sieve and thorol\' 
mixed. Then enough water was sprinkled 
over the same to make it lumpy when squeez- 
ed in the hand. This sand was rammed into 
the core-boxes, taken out, and placed in the 
core-oven to bake. After they were baked 
they were painted over with wet graphite 
and again placed in the core-oven to dry, 

when they were ready for the sand mold. pjQ jq cylinder pattern in 
Core-boxes are shown in Fig. 5. FLASK. 



FIG. 11. 


This shaft was made from a piece of 45 carbon steel 2x1x10 inch stock. 
The center was marked with the center-punch. The bar of steel was then 

placed in the fire, heated in tl:e part 
marked. When white hot it was taken 
out of the fire and placed on the anvil. 
The center-punch mark was placed one 
inch beyond the outside of the anvil 
face. The large fuller was placed on 
the center-punch mark. The helper with 
the aid of the sledge-hammer drove 
the fuller into the metal bending it 
down one inch. Fig. 11. This bent the 
metal in a definite place on one side of 
the center-punch mark. The other side 
was then forged like the first, by plac- 
ing the bend on the near side of the an- 
vil, and driving it down with the 
sledge-h?mmer, Fig. 12. This gives the 
required amount of stock to make the crank throw. It was then forged into 
shape on the fuller which was placed in the anvil, Fig. 13. The set-hammer was 
placed against the side of the throw to reduce it for length, by driving on the 
head of the tool with the sledse-hammer. 


For each of the difFerent operations tlie metal was placed in the fire and 
lieateti to a white heat. It was then worked down to a red heat. If the metal 
is worked at a heat lower in temperature than red heat It will crack, and there 
is danger of it splitting off. Fig. 14 shows the crank throw about finished and 
readv for rounding of the ends or shafts. This was done by placing a bottom 

FIG. 13. 

FIG. 14. 

fuller in the anvil, and placing the top fuller tlirectly over the bottom. The 

forging was placet! bet\veen the two. This was reduced to required size by 

turning it round and roimd while the helper 
was driving on top of the fuller with his 
sledge. The end of the shaft was then placed 
on the anvil. With the blacksmith's ham- 
mer and the helper's sledge, it was finished 
round to about ^s" larger than required di- 
mensions. See Figs. 14 and 15. Work of 

this kind retjuires the help of some one to handle the sledge-hammer. One 

student helps another. 


FIG. 15. 




\\'hile the general drawings call for a bronze rod, we decided that one 
made from steel would answer the purpose just as well, and would be ver\ 
much cheaper. 

The heating and forging was the same for this piece as that explained 
above. A piece of 45 carbon 
steel 2x1x7 inch was selected. 
(;ne end was upset large enough 
to fit dimensions of general 
drawings, Fig. 16. Then each 
end was fullered, one end back 
two inches, the other back one 
inch from the ends, Fig. 17. The 
metal was then drawn out be- 
tween the shoulders and was 
made '»" larger to allow for 
finishing and machining. The 
corners were cut off, Fig. 18, 
and rounded. Fig. 19. The whole rod was then heated to about 1200 degrees F. 



and was placed in a box of slaked lime and covered. When it was cold it was 
then ready for machining. 


T/ie base was the first casting fin- 
ished. It was placed on and bolted to ' . 
the planer bed, bottom upwards, and a .'■'.' 
very light cut taken off the bottom. 
Then it was unbolted and turned up- 
side down and again bolted to the plan- 
er bed. A light cut was taken off the 
cylinder supports and bearing cap 
seats, to get the comparative heights of 
these surfaces correct. This determined 

the cylinder and crank-shaft aligment. The bearing caps were next clamped in 
the shaper vise and planed off; then il" holes were drilled for the holes. These 

caps were then placed in position on the 
housings, so that the housings could be 
marked and drilled for i%" taps. After 
this they were tapped with a js" tap. 
The caps were then securely bolted in 
place on the base. The whole bed was 
bolted to angle plate, and holes were 
drilled thru the bearings, and then 
reamed to receive the crank-shaft. The 
bearings were easily babbited by plac- 
ing the crank-shaft in place in the 
bearing, and pouring babbit in and 
around the shaft, pouring first one half, 
and then the other. 
Crank-Shaft. The ends of the shaft were centered, placed between the 
centers of the lathe, and turned to within I's" of finished size. 

Two castings. Fig. 20, with hub on each large enough to receive a lij" hole 
and a %" set-screw were then made into a jig and the ends of the crank-shaft 
pushed one into each, Ficr. 20. The 
whole jig with the shaft secured was 
placed on the surface-plate. With the 
help of the surface-gage, the throw or 
crank centers were marked on the 
dies. Fig. 20 shows the throw centers. 
It was then placed between the lathe 
centers and driven by a bolt put thru the face-plate of the lathe and thru the 
rim of the jig. 

Since the crank and all the weight was off center, counter weights were 
placed on the face plate to balance. These counter weights were blocks of 
cast iron bolted to the side opposite from the swinging crank-shaft. The cranks 
or throws were now faced off both inside and outside to the required dimensions. 

FIG. 19 

FIG. 20. 




Cylinder casting. The small end of the cylinder was placed in the lathe 
and held fast in the chuck, and the other end faced off. The cylinder was then 
taken out of the chuck, reversed, and the finished face was clamped to the face 
plate by its flange. The other end was then faced off and turned true. This 
was then supported in the steady rest of the lathe and bored to fit a 2" standard 
plug gage. Four V2" holes were drilled in the lugs. The cylinder was placed 
on the base, the connecting-rod and piston set in position, and the holes marked 
for alignment. The holes were then drilled in the base and tapped. The 
cylinder was then bolted to the base. Holes for the oiler, and inlet valves 
were drilled and tapped as per drawing. 

Cylinder-Head. The cylinder-head was chucked and turned, and finished to 
size, and the screw holes drilled. Then it was put in place and scribed on the 
flange of the cylinder, after which the holes were drilled in the flange and 
tapped to fit a 'i" bolt. The hole was drilled and tapped for the outlet valve. 

Piston. A hole was drilled in the piston to fit the wrist-pin by the use of 
the "V" block on the drill-press. The wrist-pin was made from a piece of tool 
steel turned to fit hole, and rod and piston were assembled. 

Connecttng-Rod. The connecting-rod, made from a piece of 45 carbon steel, 
was planed to fit the dimensions. The cap was drilled for "s" bolts. The cap 
was then fitted to the rod and marked for the holes which were drilled and 
tapped. The cap was then bolted in place. The rod was clamped to the drill- 
press table and drilled and reamed, both for the wrist-pin and crank bearings. 

Pulley and Flyivheel. The pulley was chucked in the lathe and bored, then 
it was forced on a %" mandrel. This was put between the lathe centers and 
the face and outside of pulley turned to size. The flywheel was finished same 
as the pulley. 

Keyiuays. Pulleys and wheels requiring keywa3s were placed in the shaper 
vise and clamped ; the keyways were then cut in each with a goose-neck tool 
clamped in a regular tool-post. 

J'alves. The machining of the valves presented no special difficulty. The 
drawing shows that the inlet and outlet valve bodies are exactly similar, except 
that the balls are placed at opposite ends. The inlet valve has a cap screwed 
on in place of the discharge pipe on the outlet valve. 


The cylinder was bolted to the bed. A gasket cut to fit the cylinder- 
head, and the head bolted in place. The piston was placed in the connecting- 
rod, and the piston pushed into the cylinder; next the end of connecting-rod 
was bolted on the crank-shaft. Then the shaft was placed in the bearings, and 
the bearing caps screwed on. The cylinder was aligned with the piston and 
bolted to the base. The flywheel and pulley were placed on the shaft and the 
key fitted and driven home. Oil-cups which can be bought, or made, were then 
placed on the compressor. 

For continuous work small oil-cups should be fitted to the main bearing 
caps, and one on the top of connecting-rod to lubricate tiie crank-pin. 



The number of grammar schools being conducted as semi-industrial or pre- 
vocational schools has increased rapidly during the last year. Many of them 
are developing as a part of the manual arts department in a city system. We 
believe, therefore, that the following details concerning the semi-industrial 
schools of Indianapolis, Indiana, will prove helpful to a number of supervisors 
and superintendents. 

These semi-industrial schools embrace the work of the seventh and eighth 
years. The program of studies is divided into three sections, one — theory, two — 
practice, and three — study. Six hundred and thirty minutes a week are devoted 
to theory, 400 to practice and 465 to study, and recesses, etc., totalling 1,500 
minutes a week. 

Under "Theory" are listed English (composition, reading, spelling, gram- 
mar) ; mathematics, geography, history and civics as one period; hygiene; pen- 
manship; music; and drawing. Under "practice" the work is arranged for 
boys and girls separately. The boys have 1. Shop work, (a) benchwork (b), 
mechanical drawing and designing; 2. Printing; 3. Iron work. The girls 
have home economics as (a) cooking, (b) housekeeping, (c) sewing, (d), cleaning 
and dyeing of textiles, (e) weaving, (f) mechanical drawing and designing. 

The following notes on the "theory" side of the program show the effort to 
lend an industrial content to the academic work: "Some reading should be done 
in connection with the industrial work, during the reading periods, in "Shop" 
and "Home Economic" time, and at home. Books should be read and discussed 
which throw light on the general industrial problem, which give information on 
the various available occupations, and which deal with specific materials used 
by the pupils;" regarding mathematics, "the course of study laid down for the 
regular schools will be followed. The material for examples will, however, be 
drawn as far as possible from the work actually going on in the shop, sewing 
room, and kitchen. Shop records for labor time, quantity and cost of material, 
etc., will be kept under the direction of the industrial teachers. Bookkeeping 
will be taught to the extent that it is actually needed in the conduct of the shop, 
sewing-room, and kitchen;" in regard to geography and history, "Without neglect- 
ing the course of study laid down for the regular schools, the geography and 
history of industrial and commercial activities should be emphasized in the 
general reading and in the periods devoted to these subjects." 

The following outlines of the courses in shop work will be of value for com- 
parative purposes: 

Bench JVork, (Including woodwork and some simple metal work.) Four and 
one-half hours per week. 

Mechanical Draining and Design. One and one-half hours per week. 

Printing. One and one-half hours per week. 



Bexch Work — (Seventh Year.) 

1. Squaring up stock to size and ideas involved in simple problems in 
woodwork, such as bread-board, etc. 

2. Use and care of simple woodworking tools such as plane, saw, rule, gauge, 
knife, brace and bit, hammer, chisel, screwdriver and spoke shave and ideas 
involved in making single pieces or pieces assembled with screws, nails and glue 
with no more difficult construction than butt joints. 

3. Theory and practice in sharpening knife, chisel, plane-bit and spoke 

4. Group projects for the schools involving, for some of the more expert 
boys, some of the more difficult joints, but for the majority of the class mainly 
a repetition of the above in larger dimensions. 

5. Finishing with stain and wax. (The group projects sometimes involve 
finishing with paint or occasionally varnish. This is done as before mentioned 
by the more expert pupils.) 

6. Talks on tools. Talks on lumbering. Visit to lumber yard. 
Visit to Atkins' Saw Works. 

(The work in Section 6 is done in connection with composition work and 
English work. The teacher of English is present at the shop talks and 
makes the visit with the pupils, in order to have accurate data for the 
work in English.) 

Bench Work — ^Eighth Year.) 

1. Use, sharpening, and care of a comprehensive set of woodworking tools. 
(Also used in connection with English work.) 

2. Problems involving cross-lap and grain joints. 

3. Study of wood construction. (Difference between table-top and door 
construction, drawing board and floor construction, weather-boarding and wains- 
coting, etc.) (Also in connection with English work.) 

4. From this point on the work is individual, chosen by the boys under 
supervision of the teacher. A mechanical drawing of the special project is re- 
quired carefully worked out and dimensioned. In this special project the form 
of construction is dependent upon the ability of the individual. Sometimes a 
joint or difficult part of the work is required to be made before permission is 
granted to undertake the work.) 

5. Finishing with stain, wax, filler, paint or varnish. 

6. Shop visit to furniture factory. Shop visit to paint works. 

The metal work is done in connection with the woodwork such as sled run- 
ners, braces, ties, hinges, pulls, etc., worked either hot or cold. (Xo exercises in 
metal working are undertaken just as exercises.) 

Mechaxical Drawin'G — (Seventh Year.) 

1. Layout of sheet. 

2. Use of instruments, T square, triangles, pencils, scale, compass. 

3. Qualit}- of line. 

4. Principles of projection. 

5. Meaning of use of lines: projection, dimension, center, and lines indicat- 
ing surface. 



6. Lettering — alphabet of simple Roman letters and figures. 

7. Simple working drawings involving liree views. 

(The drawings are confined to problems made in the shop.) 

Mechanical Drawing — (Eighth Year.) 

1. Mechanical drawings of shop problems (in pencil rendering) involving 
three or more views, cross-sections and details. 

2. Detail and assembly drawings of individual projects. 

3. Mechanical drawing and structural design. (Work in school projects 
such as built-in book cases, desks, sewing tables, etc., work in which the design 
and construction features are important factors. 

Printing — 'Seventh Year.) 

1. Learning the case (taught at fir^t by making a mechanical drawing of 
the case and subsequent drill. 

2. Setting large point type (16 and 18 point). 

3. Proof reading and proof markings. 

4. Running hand press. (Imposing and making ready done by advanced 
pupils.) Care of the press. 

5. Setting S and 10 point. 

6. Proof taking and reading. 

7. Setting, proof reading, and imposing simple card or letter head. 

8. Distributing. 

9. Setting and imposing simple program or poem. 

10. Setting, proof reading, imposing and making ready, simple card or 
letter head. Press work on hand press. 

11. Setting, proof reading, imposing and making ready, program or poem. 
Press work on foot-power press. Care of the press. 

Printing — (Eighth Year.) 

1. Speed and accuracy is the object of the year's work. 

2. Planning and arrangement of job work. 

3. Display headings. 

4. Choice of stock and ink for job work. 

5. Mixing colored inks for special jobs. 

6. Modern processes discussed and illustrated, and some experiments made 
by the class — zinc etchings, half-tones, chalk plates, wood cuts, electrotj'pes, 
lithographs, etc. 

7. Visit a newspaper plant. 
^'isit to job printing plant. 

Visit to book printing and binding plant. 
(The above in connection with work in English.) 
The job work done in the printing classes has been principally on work for 
the schools, such as programs, poems, reading and spelling lessons, letter heads, 
blank forms, ec. 

No work has been taken for profit. The few jobs done for individuals out- 
side the schools iiave been done without charge except for materials. 



On page 315, \'olume XIL of this magazine will be found an outline of a 
plan for carrying on woodwork in rural schools. Clinton S. Van Deusen, the 
author of that article, has had faith in the plan ever since he first thought of it, 
and almost continusuoly since then he has had some work of that character carried 
on under his supervision. This year he has the opportunity he has wanted of 
actually doing the work himself. This is made possible by the state of Ohio 
acting thru the Kent State Normal School, with which institution he is now 

Each Wednesday morning Mr. Van Deusen starts out with a horse and 
buggy, hired from a livery, and arrives at his first school at about 8:15. He 
remains there about fort}-five minutes, consulting with the boys most of the 
time. He examines the work they have done, and commends and criticizes as 
needed. He leaves material and typewritten instructions to be followed on 
advance work, and if necessary, explains some of the more difficult work to be 
taken up the coming week. Parts that are made clear in the instructions he 
refuses to discuss with them, but requires them to get it from the instructions. 
The boys work, one at a time, from two to three hours each week, mainly on 
schedule, but at times as a reward for faithful work in other school subjects. 

He visits during the day six one-room rural schools and in five of them 
directs benchwork as explained above for boys from the sixth grade up. He 
also directs coping-saw work in the six schools for girls from the fourth grade 
up and for boys in the same grades not taking the benchwork. 

The benches similar to the one shown in the illustration on the next page are 
loaned to the schools by the Normal School but are to be replaced by similar 
benches that the boys are making from S4S material. 

The work being carried on this first year emphasizes the use of the saw, 
and is similar to that explained on page 183, Vol. XIV. of this magazine. 

The following test questions were given at the close of the first twelve 

Test in Mafiual Training — Fall Term, 1913. 

"1. Is the working side (W. S.) on the broad or narrow surface of a piece 
of wood and how should it be marked? 

"2. Name the parts of the try square. 

"3. Write out in detail how you would square a line around a piece of 

"4. Take a clean piece of material of any thickness and width, mark the 
W. F. and W. S. as you think they should be and saw a piece 4" long from it 
Mark your name on it and hand it to your teacher." 

The letter shown below was given to the boys taking the benchwork in the 
week following the test: 

"To the boys taking benc/n^-ork in ^i-ood in the schools of Franklin To^vnship 

"I had hoped that the experience you have had in your manual training 
during the fall term would have developed in each of you several habits that 
will help you do effective work with wood. To acquire a habit, an operation 



must be dciiie in a liefinite way at least several times, and it is better if it can be 
done many times. Judsiini; from the results of the tests I belie\e that most of vou 
have made a good start in actjiiiring some of tliein. I trust that very soon I 
can say that all of you have acquired all of them. 

"To help \ou, I give 
them below : 

"Habit No. l — T/ie Habit 
of Marking the If'ork- 
ing Face. 

"A single light slanting 
pencil line should be 
made on a broad surface 
of each piece of material 
to be used, to designate 
that surface as the work- 
ing face (W. F.) 

"This is the first thing 
to do with tiie material, 
but do not mark on ma- 
terial that >"nu are not to 

"Do not make the line 
heavy. It should only be 
heavy enough so that you 
and I can see it when we 
look for it. 

"Habit No. 2— The Habit 
of Markinv the Jf'ork- 
iiig Side. 

"Two slanting light 
pencil lines should be 
made on a narrow sur- 
face of each piece of 
material to be used, to 
designate that surface as 
the working side (W. S.) 
"Make sure that the 
marks referred to under 
Habit No. 1 and Habit No. 2 are on eacli piece when sawed from the material. 
"Avoid making other marks on your pieces except your initials and such 
other marks as you are directed to make. 
"Habit No. 3 — The Habit of Kiiijing Around Correctly. 

"The beam of the try-scjuare should be pinched tightly against the W. S. 
when knifing the lines on the W. F. and the surface opposite and against the 
W. F. when knifing on tlie \X. S. and the side opposite. 

"At first the knife line should be made lightly along the blade of the trv- 
snuare and then go o\er tl'.e line, making it deeper. 




"Habit No. A — The Habit of Measuring and Salving A ccitrately to Length. 

"You should now be able to saw pieces, at least, to within 1/64" of the 
correct length, but it requires care in the measuring and in the sawing to do it. 

"The habit is well worth the effort necessary to acquire it. 

"I would suggest that you keep this letter and read it again after a few 
weeks. I trust you may then feel that you have made progress. 

"Yours for the acquiring of good habits." 

Mr. Van Deusen is having an opportunity to study the rural school problem 
at first hand and will be able to modify his plan as he finds the conditions 


The manual arts building shown above is one of a group of ten new 
buildings in course of erection at the Los Angeles State Normal School, Los 
Angeles, California. The cornerstone of the administration building was laid 
November 18th, and the date of expected completion is August 15th. The 
manual arts building is 226 feet by 86 feet. It contains departments for cabinet 
work, pattern making, mill work, and a glue room, a finishing room, a lumber 
room and rooms for forging, for machine shop practice, foundry work in iron 
and brass, mechanical drawing, and rooms for lectures. This building, like 
the rest of the group, is built of dark red ruffled brick, with clay tile roofs, and 
artificial stone trimmings. 


Frank H. Ball, director of industrial education in Pittsburg, Pennsvl- 
vania, has originated a new plan or system of unit credits for public school 
work. By means of this plan a pupil will receive a certificate of credit at the 
completion of each unit of work, and a m.ore elaborate certificate on the com- 
pletion of a group of units. Tiu;s a pupil may have, to show to prospective 
employers or other interested people, certificates of credit of some degree altho he 
may leave school before the usual "graduation" from the eighth grade. Pupils 
leaving school before completing the eighth grade under the regular school 
system, have lost all evidence of credits for the work accomplished. 

The new system is being tried at two Pittsburgh schools, both of the ele- 



mentary industrial t\pe, the North Industrial School, and the Irwin Avenue 
Industrial School. In these two schools the full term is only two years. Certifi- 
cates are granted every two months. As there are twenty school days in each 
month, there is a "graduation" in the industrial school every fifty days. The 
unit courses are so arranged that at the end of the two-month period the pupil 
can do one thing expertly with his hands and that fact is plainly stated on the 
certificate he gets. Five certificates represent a full year's work. 

The unit course is defined as a brief course or limited number of lessons 
meeting some specific and common need or requirement of a group of workers. 
In this system of unit courses time is not considered as important a factor as 
the accomplishment of the principles and practice outlined in each unit. The 
principles of drawing in all departments are the same, but their application is 
developed in connection with the actual work done in each shop. 

The outline of the unit courses in sheet metal work are given here as an 
example of the organization of material under Mr. Ball's system. 



150 Hours 

Names of tools. 

Use of tools. 

Lectures on the use 
of bench ma- 

Lectures on sheet 

150 Hours 
Cost keeping. 
Time keeping. 

Principles of Me- 
chanical Draw- 


150 Hours 
Cost keeping. 
Time keeping. 

150 Hours 
Time and cost 

Lectures on cornice The theory of prac- Shop organization, 
work. tical work given \'isit to Carnegie 

in this unit. Institute of Tech- 

Principles underly- nology, Sheet 
ing the develop- Metal Depart- 
ment of a face ment. 
meter. Lectures on the use 

of electric signs. 
Use of hand ham- 
mering tools. 

Fundamentals of Geometrical draw- Pattern Drafting 
Development of 
two and three 
piece 6" elbows. 

geometrical pro- 

Radial line devel- 

Blue print reading. 

Care of soldering Wiring irregular 

copper. shapes. 

Methods of solder- Forming irregular 

ing. shapes. 

Proper use of Doubling irregular 

flukes. shapes. 

for concrete 
forms and for 
general sheet 
metal work. 
Designing of con- 
crete forms. 
Transferring of the Working in con- 
patterns of the Crete original de- 
two and three signs to be 
piece elbows to Butt soldering, 
the metal, allow- Raised letters. 
ing laps, etc. Repousse work. 



Practical use of 
hand tools, 
square, shears, 
bar folder, oper- 
ating bench. 

Cirooving machine. 

Sledging machine. 

iiurring machine. 

riiick edge ma- 

Setting down ma- 

Double seaming 

\\'iring machine. 

Crimping machine. 

noughnui cutters. 

Biscuit cutters. 

Round shaped. 

I^iamond shaped. 

Heart shaped. 

Star shaped. 

Animal shaped. 

Scpiare pans. 

Pitched pans. 

Fi'nnels and 


Special processes in 
hand work. 

Practical use of 
hand brake and 
wooil forms. 

Forming and as- 
sembling of sim- 
ple moulds. 

Transferring of 
full sized details 
to metal. 

Special school 



Sink strainer. 

Cake mould. 

Sprinkling can. 

Detailing simple 

Cutting blanks. 

Forming blanks. 

Turning double 

Purning single 

c\ linder. 

Cirooving seams. 

Forming and as- 
sembling face 

Special school 

Ornamental con- 
crete sleet metal 

Mixinfr nf cdti- 


Picture frames. 

Card holders. 

Card travs. 

Electric signs. 
Lawn vases. 
Flower boxes. 
Hand hammerin 

in copper 
Brass etching. 
Marcjuiese and 

their use. 


In Berks County, Pennsvlvania, the school authorities are deeply interested 
in rural school improvement, including the introduction of manual training, 
domestic economy, and agricultural lessons. County Superintendent E. M. Rapp, 
has published a leaflet entitled "Country School Betterment," which sets forth 
in detail many valuable suggestions which will repay study. He makes a plea 
that the normal schools prepare rural teachers in the industrial subjects, enabling 
them to interpret to the pupils their natural and industrial environment. 

He believes that the ideal teacher for a rural school is a country-reared 
graduate of an agricultural colleee. The great obstacle to the rapid spread of 
manual training in the rural schools is the lack of teachers trained in the subject. 
Even so, Berks County is more fortunate than many other sections, since a large 
proportion of the teachers are men, a number of whom have a natural aptitude for 

One such, Lawrence C. Kline, teacher of the Friends' School, is a pioneer 
in rural school manual training. A brief mention of the beginning of his work 
was made two years ago in this department. A more definite account of that 
beginning and a report of progress mav serve to inspire other rural teachers and 
county superintendents to make the most of the means at hand. 


The Friends' Scliool is a staiulardi/cii oiie-idoiii scliool, eciuippeil witli single 
desks, a reading-table on wliicli are found tlie current issues of liaif a dozen 
of the best magazines, a bookcase containing tiie scliooi library, an individual 
drinking-cup cabinet, jiaper towels, and benches and tools for manual training. 

At the beginning an improvised workshop was fitted up in the attic or loft, 
the equipment being limited to a brace with several bits, a plane, a hatchet, a 
saw, a chisel, and a square. With these the first task was accomplished, that 
of demolishing the old desks stored in the attic and preparing the wood for use. 
When planed and scjuared up the material thus secured was made into drawing 
boards, T-squares, triangles, etc. The lighting of the loft was, of course, poor 
and it could be reached only by a ladder thru a hole in the ceiling. The 
teacher and pupils determined to have more convenient quarters for the shop, 
so last year they began earl\ in the term tlie work of excavating for a room 
under the school. This was no easy task as the building stood over red shale 
rock, but the work was finally accomplished and the finishing rapidly followed. 
The floor was made of cement. The room is reached thru a trap door in the 
school-room floor. 

About fifty dollars' worth of new eciuipment was purchased, the funds 
coming from private donations or school entertainments. The benches, tool 
cabinets and such equipment were made by the students. 

All work in the shop is done outside of the regular progrom, mostly during 
the noon intermission. The boys have made the reading-table, cup cabinet, 
picture frames, and clock frame for their room and are now engaged in making 
the driking-cup cabinets to sell to other school districts, thus getting a com- 
mercial view-point in the work as a further step in industrial life. The girls 
sew while the boys are in the shop. 

The progress made in this work is doubtless due, in no small degree, to 
tlie inspiration and originality of the teacher, who lives in the county and is 
devoting his life to this school. He has been in the Friends' school eight years, 
and has refused many offers of more lucrative positions. This permanency of 
interest is a thing greatly to be desired in the rural school work. Mr. Kline 
attributes much of his success to the encouragement of his school director. 
Rural school betterment will come more surely with the multiplication of such 
devoted teachers and such understanding and helpful directors. 

Not long ago Congress passed a law providing for a Commission to study 
and report upon the subject of federal aid to vocational education. This com- 
mission has now been appointed and consists of the following members: Senator 
Hoke Smith, chairman, and Senator Carroll S. Page, representing the Senate; 
Congressman Hughes of Georgia, and Congressman Fess of Ohio, representing 
the House Committee on Education; Charles A. Prosser ; Charles H. Winslow, 
representing the Department of Labor; John A. Lapp, connected with the 
passage of the Indiana vocational education law; and Miss Florence Marshall, 
principal of the Manhattan Trade School for girls, and Miss Agnes Nestor 
of Chicago, who represent the field of woman's work in vocational education. 


Crafts for boys are encouraged by the Scout Movement under Sir Robert 
Baden-Powell. Up till 1913, 255,793 badges have been awarded for passing 
examination tests in various handicrafts. It is worth while to specify the num- 
bers of some crafts, as follows: Blacksmith, 2,777; Carpenter, 6,202; Cook, 
12,301; Handyman, 12,106; Photographer, 2,322; Printer, 2,850. To obtain 
the woodwork (carpenter) badge, a boy must make dovetail and mortise-and- 
tenon joints, must shute and glue a butt-joint 4 ft. long, and make a tool chest, 
table, or other article of similar difficulty and utility, complete. Many boys 
qualify for their badges in the day school and many more at evening school. 
In these cases the instructor testifies that the work has been properly carried 
out. I have yet to hear of an instance where it has been badly carried out.- 
Somehow, the desire to win that scout badge makes a dull boy brighter, and 
a bright boy positively dazzling. 

At a conference of Educational Associations recently considerable attention 
was given to manual training. Miss Dora Walford (City of Leeds Training Col- 
lege) said "that a vast amount of handwork done in schools at present was sheer 
waste of time because the principle which constituted its fundamental claim to 
a place in the curriculum was neglected, and the work was mainly dictated, 
collective and uniform." 

Mr. J. L. Paton (Manchester Grammar School) warmly praised "the practice 
of handicraft in schools. Manual training not only taught usefulness, but 
inculcated a certain aesthetic idea, and if they wanted to stop vandalism it 
was to manual training that they must look. Colonel Ulick de Burgh (Deputy 
Chief of the Boy Scouts) suggested that teachers should incorporate in the 
intellectual education given in the schools more of the Scouts' systematised 
manual training, with constant and definite appeal, in both work and play, to 
all that was best in their boys. Miss Cleghorn (Ex-President of N. U. L.) 
spoke of the importance of training girls in housecraft. Already in such places 
as London and Bradford splendid training was given. But the Board of Edu- 
cation must make such training compulsory in the schools. 

At the above-mentioned conference manual men held a meeting of their 
own. Sir John A. Cockburn, who took the chair, said that education should 
be not a preparation for life, but a part of life. The problem was not how 
to fit manual training into the framework of the school curriculum, but how to 
get the other subjects fitted round manual training. Mr. J. H. Judd (Manchester) 
who gives so continuously and generously of his best for manual training, and 
v.'hose many activities show no signs of falling off, said that twenty-five years 
ago Sir Philip Magnus laid down good rules for the conduct of manual training, 
but the subject had not yet got beyond the permissive stage. Much of the 
success achieved by manual training was due to its comparative isolation for 
twenty years. Mr. Judd concluded by appealing for a national scheme of 


346 .1/ /,Vr.//, TR.IIMXG M.lG.lZlNE 

liaiidwork, all-emlii;iiin<^ in cliaracter. Mr. H. Holinan reaii a paper on "Some 
Dangers Conceniiiig Handwork Teacliififi." Danger 1. Regarding manual 
trainig as a universal spetitic. Danger 2. 'J'he cry for the vocational rather 
than the etiutational, especially as to elementary schools. Danger 3. Using 
manual training to "sugar the pill" i. e. using it as a factitious means of render- 
ing unattractive subjects somewhat more tasty. Danger 4. The heuristic 
method. Danger 5. Handwork as a metiiod. Danger 6. The neglect of a 
jirojier development of skill. 

At the same meeting, Prof. White of l^unedin University, said that thirtv 
\ears ago he moved a resolution that manual training should form no part of 
the national system of eilucation for New Zealand. Prof. White has done some 
more thinking in those thirty years, and now he takes pride in tiie fact thai 
manual training is compulsorx in all the schools of New Zealand and in the 
training of teachers. Quite a number of ex-London instructors are working in 
New Zealand. 

Says The .loiinuil oj h.Jucdlion: — "An experiment which has been tried in 
Leeds and elsewhere, might lie adopted generally, not only for the older girls, 
but, with suitable forms of manual instruction, for boys in nearly all schools. 
In Leeds sets of girls in the poorer liistricts of the city were allowed to ilevote 
the major portion of their time tliiring the last period before leaving school to 
instruction in home management and allied subjects. The girls evidenced an 
interest ami an enthusiasm in the work such as would not be possible where 
the instruction is spread over long periods and in lessons given once a week." 
Perhaps! It all depends how far vocation is to dominate the curriculum. There 
is much to be said for and against the experiment. And what is good for Leeds 
ma\ be unsuitable for, say, the Cinque Ports. 

Lhe Cheshire I-^ducation Committee has decided that its children who attend 
the cookery classes shall do their own shopping. The purchase money will be 
given to the girls themsehes, and the\ will be sent out, before the cooker\' 
lesson begins, to bu\ the meat, vegetables, flour, and other commodities required 
for the lesson, at first accompanied by the mistress, and then "on their own." 

Says The Times oj Liverpool: — "It has been held that "fads" are otficially 
recognized; but when these "fads" take the form of better music, art, and 
handicraft it would be more reasonable to consider that a real moNcment towards 
self-expression and self-training is being made." 

In her presidential address, Miss Hewitt of the East Ham Teachers As- 
sociation said, "Witli regard to handwork and its bearing upon the mental 
training there was much which could be said, but an attitude of caustic suspicion 
towards handw^ork was the safest for the teacher." I suppose you could beat 
that utterance in America, but yo\i would ha\e to search liard even to eipial it. 
What are we to make of a reall\ intelligent teacher who talks like this? And 


\et there are thousands like lier in Cireat Britain who consistently adopt to- 
wards manual training "an attitude of caustic suspicion." I think it would do 
them good if tliey onl\' knew our cuastic opinion of them. "Ephraim is joined 
to his idols, let him alone," is, perhaps, the best way to dismiss them from our 

Interesting accounts have recently appeared in the English papers of the 
"Little Commonwealth," which is situated at Batcombe in the county of Dorset, 
one of the most beautiful and sparsely populated parts of England. This com- 
monwealth is intended for the reclamation of delinquent bovs and girls, and 
its superintendent, Mr. Homer Lane, is an American from Detroit. A sub- 
stantial, stone-built farmhouse is the central seat of government and a "House 
Court" for internal affairs, and a "Community Court" for external aflrairs are 
the chief means of law and order. A capacious barn is being converted into a 
large assembly room, and in a cottage near, nine babies who have been rescued 
from disreputable surroundings are being fostered and educated on Montessori 
lines. The boys work under exactly the same economic conditions that they will 
find in later life. Here is a \oung carter with his wagon of building materials; 
here is a youthful engineer in charge of the petrol engine at the water-pumping 
station; along the lane the hedge-trimmers are at work, while the masons are 
busy constructing a wall around the settlement. Other crafts, such as carpentry, 
bookbinding and market-gardening for the boys, and laundry work for the girls 
will be taught in due course. The Earl of Sandwich has most generouslv given 
the Commonwealth an estate of 200 acres on a lease of 30 \ears. So in the 
romantic county of W'essex, which has been immortalized by the great novelist, 
Thomas Hardy, is the still more romantic newer education, under energetic and 
enthusiastic American supervision, to aid in the making of that better nation 
yet to be. 

For purposes of manual training organization, London is mapped out into 
four districts, each of which is placed under an organizer, whose duties now 
greatly resemble those of an inspector, but whose salaries are much less than 
those received by assistant inspectors. These organizers have just been placed 
on a new scale; from £200 to £300 by £10 increments. On this scale, thev will 
be receiving at their maximum only £50 a year less than a form master in a 
secondary school. This its a sample of the prospects afforded to good men who 
take up manual work in England. A man whose duties take him into nearly a 
hundred centers and three hundred schools gets less pay than the man in the 
class room with about thirty pupils. Is it the classics that do it? 


Tlif liofik of Srhnnl llurid^vork. Edited by II. Holmnn, formerly professor 
of education in tlie I niversity of Wales. Caxtoii Puiilishiiig Company, London. 
To consist of six \()lumes, each 9VixG\'-2 inches, containing about 240 pages; 
illustrated with color plates, plates of half-tones, also line drawings in the 
text; price S s. and U d. in London. \'ohime I and II already issued. 

This is b\- far the most comprehensive work on the manual arts in sch(K)l 
work ever publislieti. As stated in the subtitle, it is an "encyclopaedia of 
educational handwork subjects, methods, materials, tools and organization" so 
far as England is concerned. It is written by the men who have made hand- 
work a recognized school subject in Englisli schools. Among these are Sir 
John Cockburn, president of the National Union of Manual Training Teachers, 
who writes from the standpoint of a scientist. Sir Philip Magnus of the City and 
Guilds of London Institute, who considers the- vocational bearing of handwork. 
Dr. LN'ttelton, Headmaster of Eaton, Professor J. J. Findlay of Manchester 
I'niversity, Professor J. A. Green of the L'niversity of Sheffield, Dr. Percy Nunn 
of London University, Inspector P. B. Ballard of London, J. T. Bailey of 
Rochester, G. F. Johnson of Liverpool, J. H. Judd of Manchester, J. Vaughan 
of Glasgow, Charles H. Binns, H. Williams Smith, and James Boorman of 
London, John Arrowsmitli of Halifax, Charles Bird of Leicester, and many 
other men and a lumiber of women who are leaders in organizing the several 
types of handwork that are rapidly becoming a part of English elementary 
school work. Every effort has been made by both editor and publisher to make 
this "an encyclopaedic survey of the 'why' and the 'how' of handwork for the 

One wlio knew English schools ten, or perhaps five years ago might wonder 
how it can be that England has reached the point where such a book is needed, 
but he finds his answer in part, at least, in the prospectus of this book. It 
points to a significant series of events: In 1897 a National Commission was 
appointed to determine how far and in what form manual and practical in- 
struction should be included in the educational system of the elementary schools 
of Ireland. The report urged that "hand and eye training" should be given 
in all the primary schools under the National Board. In 1909 the Board of 
Education of England and Wales issued a report on handicraft in public ele- 
mentary schools which gave as a conclusion that handwork was an essential 
feature of elementary school work and that it should be continuous "from the 
infants' stage upwards." Next came the London County Council's report of a 
conference on tlie teaching of handwork in 1912, which recommended "that 
handwork of some kind form a part of the training of every child during its 
school life." "We are satisfied," says the report, "that handwork is an essential 
part of the school curriculum. * * * The school must be the place where 
this form of education must be systematically given." And recently Lord 
Haldane, on liehalf of the Government, has stated that a new education bill 



will make jirovision for a broadening of the ciirricukun, "particularly in tlie 
direction of increased manual and technical instruction in primary schools." 

From tiiis it is easily seen why there is need for a presentation and probably 
a sifting of the several types of handwork that have come into more or less 
prominence in the schools. The former, Mr. Holman proposes to accomplish in 
his great work. He says that "e\ery known point of view with regard to modes 
of teaching" will be represented in the book — "the subjectist, methodist, heuris- 
ticist, self-expressionist, formal disciplinist, didacticist, informationalist, cor- 
relationist, recapitulationist," and very likely he will discover new ones to add 
before the six volumes have been completed. The sifting process will probably 
begin soon after all the theories are presented. We heartily commend the 
editor's democratic method and the publisher's faith in English teachers. 

It is evident that the movement for "\'ocational education" is having the 
same beneficial effect upon handwork in the schools of England as it is in 
America. Mr. Holman says in his introduction that "the outcrv' of today for 
'practical' education is most fortunate and helpful, inasmuch as it comes just 
when the most advanced educationists are fighting to secure a place for educa- 
tional handwork in the ordinary curriculum of schools." He would, however, 
be sure to avoid having handwork become "primarily vocational in the in- 
dustrial sense." His fundamental viewpoint is made clear when he says that 
"handwork is essentially necessary to the best form of true education, and that 
its primary function is educational and not industrial." 

We expect to review the individual volumes of this work at some length in 
later issues. — C. A. B. 

Hoiv to Know Per'toJ Styles in Furniture, W. L. Kimerly, Grand Rapids 
Furniture Record Company, 6x9^ ■; inches; 147 pages, price. 

Altho this book was intended for a handy reference book, giving a brief 
history of furniture styles for the busy furniture dealer and salesman, the 
teacher who wishes to know the various styles and has no time to go more 
deepl\- into the subject, will find it of service. It is profusely illustrated. 

Pencil Sketching, George W. Koch, The Prang Company; SVtxlO'A inches; 
60 pages ; price 

This book covers in a brief but pointed way the subjects of method in 
applying the pencil, rendering foliage, flowers, and leaves, and sketching from 
life. "Direct" pencil handling is advocated thruout. The full-page illustrations 
are unusually well produced and are deserving of the highest praise. The book 
as a whole is a timely and welcome addition to the too-small group of books 
of really high standard on phases of art work. 

Simple Garments for Children, M. B. Synge, Longmans, Green and Co., 
6^2x8^/^ inches; pages 47; price $1.25. 

This book is a worthy attempt to induce the simplification of children's 
clothing by providing a group of patterns with detailed directions and numerous 
illustrations of the sort of garments considered comfortable and hygienic. The 

350 M.IM.II. IR.IIMXC M IC.l/.lXE 

uiii<)uc tcatuic (it till' liook is tliat tissue-paper patterns tOf tiie jiarmeiils are 
iiiriuiieil in a iiocket or tdliler inside tlie li()t)k. 


Elcnifntary Eiiiudlhiit in Etii^land , 1. I.. Kaiulel, Bulletin No. 57, 1913; 
rnitecf States Bureau of Etiucation. 

riiis Imlletin contains an interesting chapter on the teachinji of special suh- 
jccls, inchuling manual training;. It is illustrateil. 

TiL-i'fity-Siiitli liiiniiidl Rrport of llic SiiprrintrnJrnt nj l'ii//!ic Instruction, 
Sit/ If (if Illinois. 

This contains the report of the Illinois Etiucational Commission in which 
is included "A Course of Stuily in Manual Training for the Cjraded Schools," 
and "What Can Be Done in Manual Training in the One-Room Country 
School," together \vith other valuahle outlines which have been much in demand. 

Xationol Etiiiration .1 ssociatinn, .IJiIrrssrs and Pro< ccdini^!, Salt Lake City 
Meeting, 1913. 

Tilt' I'drraiiut S<//ool. I Ttwinrssfr C.ounlry-Litc H'.^/' School, A. C. 
Monahan and Adams Phillii)s; Bulletin No. 49, 1913; I'niteil States Bureau of 

Statistics of State Universities and other Institutions of Hii^her Education 
Partially Supported hy the State; Bulletin No. 6ii, 1913; I'nited States Bureau of 

Xorth liennet Street Industrial School; Boston, Mass.; Aiuiual Report, 1913. 

.Innual. Edi^ar County I'ul'ln S<hools; 1913-14; tjeorge N\'. Brown, Super- 

This annual from one of Illinois' most progressi\e counties contains a \alu- 
ahle chapter on " Ehe New Countr\ Life." 


Manual Training Magazine 

JUNE, 1914 


Forrest E. Cardullo. 

ONE of the unsolved problems in educational work is the purpose 
of manual training. I have seen a great many schools with a 
line technical equipment, whose students were doing creditable 
specimens of handiwork of various kinds and who were spending a good 
deal of money on Sloyd, manual training, or mechanical arts as the work 
is variously called, but I have met very few teachers who had any clear 
and definite idea of the purpose for which the work was being given, 
of the methods w^hich would best accomplish that purpose, or of the true 
possibilities of that form of education. 

Studies may be in general divided into three classes: (1) Fact 
studies— spelling, political geography, and history are primarily of this 
class. (2) Exercises in reasoning — grammar, mathematics, and formal 
logic are examples of this class. (3) Exercises in expression — English 
composition, drawing, and music are examples of this class. Every 
subject taught in school falls in part or in whole under one or another 
of these classes, altho it is very seldom that a subject does not belong in 
greater or less degree to all three of these classes. For instance, altho 
mechanical drawing is primarily a mode of expression, a good deal of 
reasoning must be employed in order that the drawing shall correctly 
represent the desired object. In like manner, a great many facts con- 
cerning geometry must be known before a person can correctly represent 
an object in perspective by freehand drawing or by painting. Similarly, 
altho political geography is primarily a fact study, there are principles 
which may be developed and reasoning which may be employed in ex- 
tending our knowledge of the subject. 



We may also classify studies with respect to the objects we desire 
to accomplish by teaching them. The first of these objects is to teach 
useful facts. There are certain facts which every person must know if 
he is to take a useful place in society. A man must know for instance 
how to spell certain words, what their meanings are. what the common 
modes of expression are, how to tell time, how to count money and make 
change, how to reckon, etc. A knowledge of these facts must form the 
foundation of any sort of education, because we cannot reason, except 
about facts, nor can we express ourselves except with reference to facts. 

The second object is to train the pupil to a quickness of perception 
of the relations between facts, to deduce the cause from an observed 
effect, and conversely to deduce the probable effect of something which 
he observes. This faculty is nothing more or less than what we term 
common sense, and it should be the purpose of the school to develop 
common sense by training the pupil to seek and to detect these relations. 

The third object of education is to establish certain habits which 
will be of advantage to the individual, or of social value. Such are 
habits of observation, of neatness, of accuracy, of attention, of concen- 
tration, of diligence, of thoroness, and of cleanliness. 

The fourth object of education is to cultivate in the pupil an appre- 
ciation of beautiful things, to lead him to find enjoyment in good music, 
poetry, literature, and art. We increase his store of happiness by teach- 
ing him how to find that which is beautiful rather than that which is 
ugly in those things he finds daily about him. We teach him to find and 
to value the finest things in human nature. We tr}' to develop a sym- 
pathetic appreciation of the feelings and desires of others, and therefore 
to lead him to desire to be of the maximum social usefulness and to 
confer upon others the greatest possible measure of happiness. 

The fifth and final object of education is so to train the pupil that 
when he becomes one of the productive units in the economic world his 
efficiency there shall be a maximum, and society shall receive the largest 
possible return from his efforts. 

I know of no other objects, at least of no other proper objects, which 
education may have in mind. We must seek for the objects of manual 
training w^ork among those which I have enumerated. We must not be 
misled by advantages which are incidental. We must not, for instance, 
introduce manual training for the purpose of keeping boys in school. If 
that is our only purpose, we might better let the boys go to work. Nor 
do I have any patience with those educators who attempt to hide their 


ignorance of the objects of manual training work by rattling off a stock 
of phrases culled from the vocabulary of the psychologist. Manual train- 
ing ought to be taught for a certain specific purpose. That purpose 
ought to be so reasonable as to appeal to the man in the street, and 
whatever the purpose, it can be expressed in such language as to make it 
clear to the man in the street. Until the teacher does express it in such 
language, the object is as unreal to him as the subtilties of metaphysics 
are to the most of us. 


I have studied many schools in which manual training of some kind 
has been given, and I find that consciously or unconsciously manual train- 
ing is being given for the following reasons : 

In the first place manual training is given because "other schools 
are giving it and are doing splendid work" or "are getting splendid 
results." That is, manual training is given in Smithville because the boys 
in Johnstown are making pretty furniture or have built a dynamo which 
will actually run an electric light. Now I believe that is the poorest of 
all poor reasons for a change in our educational system. We ought to 
know whether these splendid results come from added ability or greater 
happiness in the case of the children trained, or whether they exist only 
in the minds of the school committee or the proud parents. The fact that 
some one else is doing it is no reason for the introduction of manual 
training w^ork. 

Secondly, manual training is often given as busy work. It may be 
used to fill up so much time, to make discipline easier and to keep idle 
hands out of mischief. If we accept this as the object, it follows that 
the output of the school should have a maximum economic value, and 
that the student should be employed upon those things which will be 
worth the most when they are completed. Since very little of the 
handiwork produced by these students has any economic value whatever, 
it follows that either manual training is being wrongly taught, or that 
it is not a successful form of busy work. 

In the third place, manual training is often used as a sugar coating 
for the pill of education. It may be introduced because it is attractive 
to many boys, and keeps them in school while their real training and 
development is coming from the other subjects. They take their physics 
and chemistry, their Latin and French, their geometry, and their history 


in order that they may he permitted two or three times each week to do 
a h'ttle more work upon the hat-rack or dynamo upon which all of their 
interest is centered. I have already, intimated that I do not think much 
of manual training when this is its primary object. 

In the fourth place, manual training is often introduced into schools 
in order to furnish to manufacturers a supply of labor which is at least 
partially trained. I know that a very great number of our "principal 
tax payers" have this idea of the object of manual training. The nature 
of the equipment which many of our schools have, the avowed inten- 
tions of school committees and business men, even many of the argu- 
ments used and methods of teaching employed by educators, would indi- 
cate that manual training Is a partial substitute for the old apprentice- 
ship system. I can see no reason, however, why a certain class of manu- 
facturers should have their workmen trained for them while another 
class does not have this advantage. Why should we furnish our machine- 
shops with a supply of partially trained machinists and neglect to furnish 
our textile mills with partially trained textile workers. Why should 
we try to educate ten times as many pattern-makers as can possibly be 
needed, and neglect entirely to supply our housewives with domestic 
servants. I can see neither right nor reason in training young men for 
certain special industries to the exclusion of others. Practically all 
manual training schools train men only in pattern-making, blacksmith- 
ing, and machine work. Why should all of the people be taxed for the 
benefit of a portion of the manufacturers? And why should we turn 
ten times as many men out as are needed, trained in a certain industry, 
while other industries find it hard to get intelligent labor? The only 
result can be to force down wages in those industries in which these 
men are trained, and I have some suspicion that manual training of this 
character is so strongly advocated by some of our manufacturing friends 
because they believe such a reduction in wages to be a "consummation 
devoutly to be wished." 

In the fifth place, many people will tell you that manual training is 
for the purpose of "coordinating the motor and the higher centers." 
Just exactly what this phrase means I am unable to say, and I very 
much doubt if you will find any two men engaged in manual training 
who will agree as to its meaning. Now I have every respect for the 
psychologist and particularly for the modern type of psychologist who 
coordinates his psychology*' with physiology, and who conducts his re- 
searches and develops his theories in the spirit of modern science. To be 


of use, however, the theories of any science must be clearly apprehended 
and intelligently applied, not by a devotee of that science, but by a person 
engaged in a practical way in the art or profession in which the know- 
ledge is to be utilized. Our steel industry, for instance, must be carried 
on not by chemists but by engineers who thoroly understand chemistry. 
Our surveying must be done not by mathematicians but by surveyors 
who have mastered the necessary parts of the science of mathematics. 
Our electrical business must be carried on not by physicists but by engin- 
eers thoroly trained in all those branches of physics which have any bear- 
ing on the nature and use of electricity. In the same way, I firmly 
believe that our educational work should be carried out by educators who 
bring to their task all of the resources of phycholog\' rather than by men 
who are psychologists first and educators afterwards. Education is not 
a science, it is an art or a profession involving the application of many 
sciences for the production of practical results. When we bring to our 
manual training work the spirit of the psychologist rather than that of 
the educator, we transform it from a method of education into a scientific 
experiment and thereby destroy the real value of the work. 

Not only do I object to approaching the work of manual training 
in the spirit of the psychologist, but I also object to a psychology which 
is not in accordance with the actual facts of human nature or the actual 
construction of the human body. Let us assume for an instant that the 
purpose, of manual training is the coordination of the "motor and the 
higher centers." The motor centers are those parts of the nervous system 
which control the movements of the body. The higher centers are those 
parts of the nervous system in which the process of reasoning occurs. 
The obvious meaning of the phrase is that the reason and the motion 
shall harmonize but that neither shall be subordinated to the other. I 
think, however, that most of us do not have this idea in mind, but rather 
the idea that the body shall be subservient to the reason and shall per- 
form, in a dextrous and efficient manner, the movements which the reason 
calls for. 

If this is what we are really seeking in manual training, manual 
training is a mistake. It is based upon a wrong conception of the rela- 
tion of the motor to the higher centers. Let us suppose a case in point. 
A child does manual training work for a good many years. He is thoro- 
ly instructed in the theory of music. He is able to sing well and has 
heard many piano performances. Can he play the piano? Not till he 
has expended days and weeks and months in the practice of certain 


particular acts. He must repeat them again and again and again. His 
manual training has not helped one whit in the process except perhaps 
to give him a little added muscular strength. 

Now there is no question that training in any line of work will 
bring about this so called coordination in the performance of particular 
and SF>ecific acts. It will not, however, develop any coordination in the 
performance of other acts, on account of the physical structure of our 
nervous system, and the nature of nervous and muscular action. If, 
on the other hand, you are seeking a general improvement in motor 
accuracy and muscular control, you will have to admit that manual 
training work is distinctly inferior to many games, to dancing, to well 
planned exercises, and to many of the feats of skill with which boys 
naturally amuse themselves. 

If I understand at all the meaning of this phrase "coordination of 
the motor and the higher centers," those who use it believe it is th.* 
purpose of manual training to place the muscular movements of the 
bod\ more surely and accurately within the control of the mind. Its 
purpose is to shorten the time between the will to move and the move- 
ment itself, and to make that movement more direct, more sure, and 
more precise. If manual training accomplished this in a general way, 
it would be a most wonderful method of education, but this idea is un- 
tenable. It is based upon the assumption" that all our useful acts are 
voluntary in the sense that each movement is directed by the higher 
centers. Now nothing can be further from the truth than this assump- 
tion. When our movements are directed in this way, they are labored, 
unsure, unskilful, and for economic purposes useless. Movements of 
this type are perfomed by a child when he takes his first steps, when 
he is learning to write, when he first begins his piano practice, and 
when the chisel, the saw, and the hammer are strange and unfamiliar 
objects in his hand. Movements of this type are made by the beginner 
and not by the adept. In fact the whole process of training in any 
hamlicraft must be directed toward an entirely opposite object. The 
training must be for the purpose of divorcing the reason and the move- 
ment, so that the movement becomes habitual and instinctive, proceeding 
automatically from the stimulation of the motor centers, and not con- 
sciously from the desire of the will. I am therefore compelled to reject 
entirely this theory of the purpose of manual training. I believe that 
any system of manual training founded upon it will be essentially 
faulty and will only result in a waste of the child's time, or worse, in 
a misdirection of his natural habits and energies. 


I have been informed by some teachers that they have a sixth reason. 
They teach manual training work in order that engineering students 
may receive advanced credit for it when they reach college. Now I 
most heartily believe that manual training is a good thing. I believe 
that reasonable entrance credit should be given for manual training 
work, but I do not believe that the high school is a proper place for 
giving advanced technical courses, nor do I believe that the courses 
usually given are the equivalent of the advanced work of an engineering 
school. I am compelled to reject this wtw also. 


I have outlined what I believe to be the live objects of educational 
work. If you consider them for a minute, I believe you will agree 
with me that a man is educated when he has acquired a set of habits 
that are socially desirable. Accordingly our problem simplifies itself 
to this : First, what are the socially desirable habits that are not fostered 
sufficiently by the conventional high school curriculum; Second, will man- 
ual training foster these habits?: Third, what form of manual training 
work must be given, and how must it be taught, in order to foster 
these habits in the highest degree?; Fourth, is there any other system of 
work or method of education which is superior to manual training for 
this purpose? 

The fundamental defect of the conventional high school curriculum 
lies in the fact that its attention is devoted exclusively to those things 
which have little or no connection with our every day life. The con- 
ventional curriculum, for instance, attempts to develop a child's reason- 
ing faculties by teaching mathematics. It is more important, however, 
that he should be trained in the habit of reasoning about his daily work 
than that he should be trained in the habit of reasoning about geometric 
problems. The conventional curriculum attempts to develop an appreci- 
ation of the beautiful by a study of literature, but it is more important 
that a girl should be taught to find beauty in the home, in its life, 
and in its relationships, than that she should be taught to find it in 
Shakespeare or Schiller. In like manner, it is more important that our 
boys and girls should learn useful facts about tools, woods, fabrics, food, 
etc., than that they should be taught the date of the battle of Hastings 
or the number of I's in parallel. The men originally responsible for our 
conventional high school curriculum were imbued with the Greek idea 


that in order to he nohle and worthy of study, knowledge must be dis- 
sociated from all its practical relationships, that only those things are 
worthy of study which have no social value, and that science is degraded 
when it is made to serve commerce. Of course, in remedying this defect, 
it is important that we shall not fall into the opposite error, and confuse 
social value with financial return. Neither must we lose sight of the 
fact that the maximum of ultimate social value is often incompatible 
with immediate social return, for education is a long process, and the 
foundation must be laid broad and deep if a really valuable superstruc- 
ture is to be erected. 

Since the educational theory upon which the conventional high school 
curriculum is based is essentially wrong, it follows that not only must 
the methods of teaching be changed in order to comply with the re- 
quirements of modern society, but that the curriculum is not sufficient, 
and must be supplemented by other work. The new curriculum must 
be based, not upon the erroneous Greek idea of the inherent superiority 
of abstract knowledge, but upon the modern theory that the purpose of 
education is to meet a social need. 


Unquestionably the most important object which manual training 
work accomplishes, is to compel the child to think. We think in words, 
in mental images, and in emotions. Of course manual training work 
does not give a command of language, and hence does not assist in teach- 
ing us to think in terms of words. It does, however, force us to create 
a mental picture of the thing which we desire to make, which is an even 
more important method of thought. It does more than that, however. 
It compels the thought to be definite and complete. Most people have 
only hazy and indefinite images about things which ought to be clear cut 
and exact. For instance they think of a table as consisting of only five 
pieces of wood, a top and four legs, and the sizes of these parts are in 
most cases very indefinite. So long as the mental image has a superficial 
and elusive resemblance to what they are attempting to picture, they are 
satisfied. Since they are unable to create for themselves a definite and 
clear cut conception, their thoughts are hazy and useless. They no more 
resemble the type of mental image which one must have before real 
thought becomes possible than an impressionist picture resembles a photo- 
graph. When properly carried on, manual training absolutely forces the 


pupil to imagine something for himself. It forces him to make his image 
so definite and clear cut that a model can be made of it. If the gaining 
of this power of visualizing something, and of imagining operations per- 
formed upon the vision, were the only benefit conferred by manual train- 
ing, it would even then be one of the most valuable studies which we 
have. There are many other socially desirable habits which manual train- 
ing develops. Habits may be mental as well as physical. The laws of 
mental habit are very similar to those of physical habit. To illustrate 
to you one of the laws of physical habit, I would call to your attention 
the fact that we cannot develop an expert typewritist by daily practice 
upon the piano. The same law holds with mental habits. We cannot 
develop in a child the ability to reason about the things of daily life, by 
practice in solving problems in algebra. The purpose of manual training 
then is to get the child to reason about the common every day things ; to 
develop in him habits of industry with respect to manual work; to make 
him neat and orderly in the things which he does ; to make him appreciate 
excellence of workmanship ; and to bring him to a realizing sense of the 
value of labor and the possibilties which intelligently applied labor may 

Within the time at my disposal, I cannot begin to point out to 
you all of the educational objects which may be accomplished by man- 
ual training work. I must leave them for you to study by yourselves. 
I want to remind you, however, that in doing so you must get down to 
fundamentals. You must discover first the desirable characteristics which 
you intend to develop. Then you must analyze these characteristics, 
determining the items of knowledge, and the physical and mental habit 
elements which constitute them. W^hen you have determined these habit 
elements you must devise some kind of work which will form them by 
exercise. When the desired elements become habits thru exercise, the 
characteristic is fixed. And in all your work, you must be careful that 
it is so devised that in forming good habits you do not also form bad 

Many of the educational methods which we adopt in order to bring 
about certain results, are not successful because they are not properly 
devised. Any characteristic which is a complex of several habits cannot 
be successfully fixed by insisting upon the characteristic itself. It must 
be fixed by developing the several habits which form the characteristic. 
To take an example from athletics, we cannot develop a high jumper by 
commanding the man to jump high, by insisting that he do it, and by re- 


quiring him to attempt to do it again and again. Instead we must make 
a study of the positions which a man must assume, of the motions which 
he must go thru, and of the efforts which he must make in order to jump 
high, and then we carefully train the man in each of these elements. 
When perfection in the several elements is achieved, and not till then, the 
man becomes a high jumper. 


After we have grasped the fundamental needs which our conven- 
tional curriculum does not meet, and which may be met by the introduc- 
tion of manual training, we must attack the problem of how we shall 
conduct our manual training work in order to accomplish what we 
desire. I believe that the best method of manual training is first to teach 
the pupil the uses of the tools employed, and then as soon as possible, 
to compel the pupil to originate his own designs. Before a bit of work 
is done, a perspective sketch, a detail drawing, a bill of material, a list 
of the tools needed, and an outline of the operations to be performed, 
their sequence, and the method proposed for their performance, ought 
to be required. The work will then proceed in an orderly and effective 
manner. Good workmanship should be insisted upon, and every facilit>' 
should be provided for securing it. Proper tools properly sharpened, 
good stock, and constant supervision and suggestion are necessary. The 
pupil should be encouraged to believe that what he is making is a thing 
of beaut}' and value, and he should have it for his own. or be paid for 
it. when it is done. 

Always we must keep it in mind that we must inspire the pupil 
with a vision of the possibilities of his work. He must feel not only 
that labor is necessary and therefore honorable, but that it is a pleasure. 
He must feel the thrill of accomplishment, and realize that knowledge, 
imagination, and labor, are the threefold keys to all the treasures of 
the world. 

Is the manual training which you are giving being done in this 
spirit? Is it accomplishing the results which are possible, (I mean the 
educational result, and not the piece of work), or is your manual 
training of the type which I have seen more than once in a state whose 
name I will not mention? I have seen boys given pieces of drygoods 
box full of knots, nail holes, and shakes in order that they might make 
with a iack-knife, possibly supplemented by a few dull chisels, some- 


thing which had neither beauty nor utility ; compelled because they 
lacked the manual skill to use poor tools and their school committee 
lacked the breadth of vision to give them good tools, to spend untold 
hours in doing tasks that could be accomplished in a few minutes. I 
have heard of boys who labored for eight or ten weeks, three and four 
hours every week, in whittling out a smooth round wooden cylinder 12 
inches long and 1 inch in diameter. When it was done, it was good 
only for kindling wood, and the boys knew it. Does that sort of work 
accomplish the thing we desire? Is it a useful form of education? Does 
it open before the pupil an endless vista of the possibilities of beauty 
and utility which lie within the combined power of knowledge, of 
imagination, and of labor? Does it perfect him in a useful habit? Does 
it give him the satisfaction of work well done and of reasonable accom- 
plishment? Does it compel him to exercise his imagination, to devise 
ways and means of accomplishing some valuable result? Does it develop 
in him habits of industry, of observation, of thoroness? No, you know- 
it does not. The kind of work taught under the guise of manual train- 
ing in some of our schools is a wicked waste of time. The children 
might far better be playing in the school yard, under the direction of 
the teacher. Why teach the pupil absurd and ridiculous methods of 
accomplishing work? Why teach him methods so crude and primitive 
that even the veriest savage could improve them ? Why allow him to 
make something unbeautiful and useless ; a thing in the possession of 
which he will have no joy, when he might out of the rich stores of his 
imagination draw forms of beauty and utility which would be to him a 
source of inspiration and delight all his life? Why make a poor coat- 
hanger out of the top of a drygoods box, or a pencil-rack from some- 
thing rescued from the kindling wood, when he might make a tool box 
or a table from beautiful wood, beautifully finished? 

I wish I had both the time and the words to give you an idea of 
the possibilities that I see in manual training, and I wish I had the 
ability to make you feel the tremendous loss in potential educational 
training which wrong methods bring about. Until you get down to 
the fundamentals of education ; until you learn what the very elements 
are that build up the characteristics we are striving to develop; until 
you learn the effect of every method employed upon these elements ; 
until you realize the finest possibilities lying open to you ; your manual 
training will not be what it should be. Stop doing the things that the 
other fellow does. Begin to seek for yourselves the things that you 



ought to do and remember that the precious opportunities are not yours 
but the child's, and that he does not control them, but that you hold 
them in trust, and that it is your sacred duty to make the most of them 
for his sake. 




















^ \ 8 


I - 

I a 









Thomas W. Johnston. 

THE following outline is the first of two articles on bell wiring 
and exposed electric light wiring. This outline for bell wiring 
is taken from the general course in electricity given at the two 
elementary industrial schools in the cit}- of Pittsburgh, Pa. These two 
schools are known as the North Industrial School and the Irwin Avenue 
Industrial School ; and the writer is giving the outline of the course as 
it is used in the latter. 

The general course was planned for and given to boys of at least 
fourteen years of age, who could put in from 6 to 9 hours per week 
in shopwork in any special line. 

The bell and light wiring is done on panel boards placed in frames 
about two feet from the floor, making it convenient for the boys to do 
their work, and each boy has a panel for his own individual use. 

In all the work everything that is used is the same as might be 
found on a real job, and the work is carried out as nearly as possible 
like the work on an actual job. In some cases the construction is changed 
slightly to help the boy to better understand what he is doing. For 
instance, in several of the bell problems the wires are run one inch 
apart, which is not done in actual practice when the wires are exposed ; 
but done here so that the boy can trace the circuit more easily. 

While the purpose of the industrial school is not to teach a trade, 
at the same time the work is made as practical as possible to help the 
boy to better understand the theory and in order that if he should enter 
the trade he may be that much better fitted for it. 

The bell wiring course consists of ten problems. In each problem 
the boy is required to figure the amount of material needed from a 
blueprint, and make out an order for these materials. This order is 
kept on file to show what he has received and to re-check materials re- 
turned. Each drawing or blueprint is furnished the boy with the 
exception of the last; this being worked out entirely by himself. 

With the shopwork, lessons and lectures are given on wire, fasten- 
ers, such as insulating staples, bells, batteries, etc. 






This problem is to illustrate the installation of a bell, such as is 
found in most homes. This is the simplest kind of bell circuit, but it 
lays the foundation for all circuits that follow. Each part is arranged 
to conform as nearly as possible to the conditions usually found in the 
house — the bell up the highest, the push button at one side, illustrating 
or representing the front door, and the position for the batteries, the 
basement, for this is the usual place for the battery, altho not always 
the best. A cool dry place is the proper place for the battery regardless 
of its position in the house. 

After the bell, wire, and push button are in place the batterv is 
connected. The battery consists of two cells connected in series, which 
means that the carbon of one is connected to the zinc of the other; the 
other two terminals being connected to the ends of the wires, one lead- 
ing to the bell and the other to the push button. The push is now 
pressed and the bell adjusted to ring the best with that particular bat- 
tery. If everything is in satisfactory condition the pupil is ready for the 
next exercise. 


This problem illustrates the connecting of several bells so that 
they can be operated all at the same time from one push — "push" is 
the term used commonly for push button. All the pupil is required 
to do here is to connect properly two additional bells to the circuit he 
had in problem No. 1. The two additional circuits are so connected 
that one side of each bell is connected to the battery and the other is 
connected to the push. Such circuits are called branch circuits and the 
bells are connected in what is called parallel or multiple. Here the 
current from the battery has three paths in its trip from the one side 
of the battery thru the bells and push back to the other side of the 
battery. It is best to have all the bells the same when connected 
in this way as then each bell will take the same amount of current and 
each bell ring with the same force. 

After the test, the entire wiring, bells, and push are taken down, 
as the next exercise is quite different. 



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Hoa^ oot" 



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2: Id 




This problem is to illustrate the connections of two bells, two 
pushes, and one battery ; as found in a two story building where different 
families live on each floor and each has a push at the front door to 
operate its bell. In this case each bell, with its corresponding push, is 
arranged in multiple with the other ; in fact, we have two simple bell 
circuits connected in multiple. One battery is used to save expense. 

The usual test is made in this exercise, after which part of the 
wiring is left up for the next problem. 


This is simply making a few changes in problem No. 3 to show 
how the same two bells can be made to ring at the same time from 
several different points. Here we have the two bells connected in 
multiple, and the three pushes connected in multiple, and the bells as 
usual in series with the pushes ; that is, the current can get thru the 
bells by means of any one of the pushes. Conditions often arise where 
such connections are necessary ; in fact, this circuit is similar to the bell 
system used in the school building where these exercises were worked 

The usual test is made with the battery. 


It is quite common to find a call bell system where a person in 
one room or building can call another person in another room or build- 
ing, and be sure that the other person gets the call as the second person 
can answer or return the call. So we have the return call system. Now 
this can be done by means of two separate bell circuits, but if connected 
as shown on the drawing one wire can be saved. As in any simple bell 
circuit one side of the battery is connected to each hell, and one side 
of the battery is connected to each push. 

The usual test is made, and part of the wire left up for the next 

It is often necessarv to have a bell so connected so that one may 




know positively that it rings when the push is pressed. This can be 
done by arranging two bells in series. By placing in series it means 
that they are so connected that the current in flowing from the battery 
must pass thru both bells before returning to the battery. For two bells 
to operate satisfactorily connected in series, one must be a single stroke 
bell — that is, one that has no circuit breaker and makes only one stroke 
every time the push is pressed. When connected in series with a vib- 
rating bell the single stroke bell also vibrates as the vibrating bell 
breaks the circuit every time it makes a stroke, so the single stroke bell 
will act much like a vibrating bell. 

In making the test with battery on this exercise, a battery of four 
cells connected in series is used. The reason for this is that since the 
current is compelled to pass thru both bells before it can return to the 
battery, it will require more force to cause the current to flow. If the 
two bells are of the same resistance it will take exactly twice as much 
force, so we use a battery of twice the voltage, which means force. 

The additional wire and push shown in dotted lines is another push 
in parallel with the first. This part is optional. 


This problem is the connecting up of a two point annunciator or 
indicating bell. This bell is so made that when the current passes thru 
it, causing it to ring, it also must pass thru a coil which acts as a magnet 
to throw a pointer toward a number, this number indicating where the 
call came from. A bell of this kind may have any number of these 
extra coils, but the one used here has only two since it gives the principle 
of the device as well as a more complicated one would. One wire from 
the battery goes to the bell, and the other goes to each of the two 
pushes. Each push is connected to one of the coils in the annunciator. 

The exercise is tested with battery in usual manner. 


There are many different kinds of burglar alarm systems which 
may come under one of the following three heads: open circuit, closed 
circuit, and a combination of these two systems. The one shown in 
problem No. 8 is of the first type — the open circuit system. This system 
is one where the battery is in use only when the alarm is in actual 





372 M.IM n. TR.n.\L\G M.IGIZIXE 

operation, so we nia\ use a dry battery, which is intended for inter- 
mittent use onl\. 

There are two distinct circuits in this system, one the bell circuit, 
and the other the automatic drop circuit. When any one of the spring 
contacts is pressed together it closes the circuit thru the drop which 
automaticalh' closes the other circuit thru the bell causing it to ring 
continuously until shut off by resettinji the drop or opening the switch 
on the bell circuit. 

The spring contacts may be placed under the carpet, in windows, 
in doors, or any place where they are likely to be tampered with un- 
consciously by an intruder. 

The test for this exercise is to press all the springs to see that each 
separately works correctly. Then one is pressed and after the bell starts 
to ring the wires on the drop circuit are cut to show that such cutting 
of wires, which an intruder would be likely to do, would not have any 
effect upon the ringing of the bell. The bell can be stopped only by 
opening the switch intended for that purpose, or by resetting the auto- 
matic drop. The bell, switch, and drop can all be placed where no one 
could have access to them except the owner of the house. 


This problem illustrates the use of a selective switch. Either bell 
can be caused to ring at will by setting the switch before pressing the 
button so that the current will have to flow to whichever bell the 
switch is connected to. The switch in this exercise has only two con- 
tacts and is called a two point switch as it can be used to select between 
two separate bells. 

The usual test with battery is made. 


This problem illustrates the connections required in wiring a two 
story flat, with pushes at front door (first floor) for front door bells on 
each floor, and back door pushes on each floor for buzzers on each 

The diagram given here was copied from one made by one of the 
boys in the class. He endeavored to place everything relatively in the 
positions occupied in a real building. Also he arranged the different 









.UJAT.V/. TR.!I\I.\(; M.IG.^ZISE 

circuits to save the most wire, and all to operate from one battery. 
The usual test is made with battery. 

in all these problems after the first two, the boy is eiven his choice 
about running the wires separated one inch, as on the diagrams, or close 
toirether. In most cases it is found more satisfactory to run the wires 
as given on diagram as it is much easier to trace trouble when it occurs. 
Ami trouble often occurs as the boys are given defective apparatus pur- 
posely, and often the instructor cuts wires without the pupils knowing 
it. This was done to give them a chance to find the trouble. Locating 
trouble in a scientific manner is often worth more than knowing how 
to put the apparatus up. 

Thruout this work practicability is the slogan. 



Herbert G. Lull. 

THE manual labor movement in the United States began about 
eighty-three years ago (1830) and lapsed about sixty-eight 3'ears 
ago ( 1 843 ) . This movement is interesting because of the light 
it throws upon the different phases of vocational education of the present 
time. There had been a few instances of successful attempts in combin- 
ing manual labor of one kind or another with instruction even from the 
earliest days in the colonies. But this duty was for the most part per- 
formed by the home. The manual labor movement to be discussed in 
this paper, however, was distinctively a secondary and higher school 
movement, and it was the first thorogoing trial of the manual labor idea 
of instruction in the United States. The movement suddenly assumed 
large proportions about 1830 and ceased to exist almost as suddenly from 
ten to fifteen years later. Its failure was due to many causes, chief 
among which were the following: first, there was no insistent social de- 
mand for manual labor instruction; second, the notions of the values of 
manual labor in relation to literary instruction were in error; and third, 
the labor performed by students could not be made a financial success. 

Like many another educational movement, the chief inspiration 
establishing the manual labor movement came to the United States from 
Europe. The movement originated with the so-called DeFellenberg 
schools at Hofwyl, Switzerland, about 1805. Two years later the first 
building was erected for the "Literary Institution," a school for the 
children of the patrician families. In 1808, Fellenberg organized the 
"Agricultural Institution" or "Poor School." Agriculture was to afford 
the means for the livelihood and the moral education of the poor. About 
this time a school of "Theoretical and Practical Agriculture" for all 
classes was formed, equipped, and provided w^th professors. Fellenberg 
also began his normal school in 1808. In 1823, a school for poor girls 
was erected, and in 1827, the "Intermediate or Practical School," de- 

1 I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness in the preparation of this paper 
to Dr. Richard Gause Boone, Professor of Education of the University of Cali- 
fornia, who suggested the topic. His books, "Education in Indiana," and "Edu- 
cation in the United States," have been invaluable sources in furnishing a list of 
manual labor schools as well as interpretations of the movement. 



signed for the children of the middle classes of Switzerland was 
organized. - 


Fellenberg's principles of education were essentially those of Pest- 
alozzi with perhaps an additional emphasis placed on the educational 
value of activities. They may be summarized as follows: first, all the 
faculties of the mind should be developed harmoniously; second, when a 
new pupil is to be received for instruction, a teacher should secure an 
accurate knowledge of his individual character — all its resources and 
defects; third, the child is not to be a mere receptacle of ill-digested 
knowledge, and the teacher must "endeavor to cultivate conscience, the 
understanding and the judgment"; fourth, ''a great variety of exercises 
of the body and senses" should be "employed to prepare the pupils for the 
fulfillment of their destination. All the various relations of space should 
be presented to the eye." "Instruction in design and the cultivation of 
the ear by means of vocal and instrumental music" should be provided. 
Opportunity for systematic observation of natural objects should be pro- 
vided ; fifth, "the social life of the pupils should be made to contribute 
to the formation of moral character;"' sixth, "their religious education 
should be kept in mind in every branch of study"; seventh, "We occupy 
the pupils' attention according to their individual necessities and capaci- 
ties, with philolog}-. the ancient and modern languages, the mathematics 
and their various modes of application, and a course of historical studies 
comprising geography statistics, and political economy." Eighth, Fellen- 
berg " was not in favor of artificial incentives or emulation and the fear 
of punishment. "^ 

The following description of Fellenberg's methods of training 
teachers for industrial work seems very much like that of present day 
industrial training schools: "In the morning, the hours from five to seven 
and from eight to twelve were devoted to lessons. In the afternoons the 
teachers worked in the fields and in the garden. In the evening they 
prepared the vegetables for the next day's meals. During the harvest 
they assisted in the fields during the whole day. * * * He gave 
them * « * every evening a lesson in agriculture in which he ex- 

- American Journal of Education, 1857, Vol. 3, p. 591. 

" Quotations from William DeFellenberg. See .American Journal of Educa- 
tion, 1857, Vol. 3, p. 591 ff. 


plained the various field operations and their connection. He conversed 
with them on the subject of making agricultural labor a valuable aid 
in education and a subject of instruction for boys. Each evening he 
talked over with them the labors of the following day." Andrew Bell 
of Monitorial School fame gave an interesting description of Fellen- 
berg's school for the poor from which the following sentences are taken : 
"His school for the poor consists of thirty-t\vo boys who work about 
two hours and study two. They are chiefly employed in agricultural 
labor ; sometimes in mechanical work. They learn reading, writing, 
ciphering, drawing, music, and the elements of geometry. Music and 
drawing (designing) are in great request in their schools, and also 
geometry. The new school has but one master (Verhli) of distinguished 
merit." The excellency of this school ''consists * * * of a single 
point, which is not much noticed. Every class, and every scholar, has 
his master always at his side, whether at study, work, or play."* 

The Fellenberg schools at Hofwyl possess the essential characteris- 
tics of the broad gage industrial schools of the United States of the 
present time. By essential characteristics is not meant buildings, equip- 
ment, and developed technic, but educational values, motives, and funda- 
mental methods. With the exception of the school for the children of 
the "patrician" class the schools at Hofwyl were designed to prepare the 
pupils for their present and future life work. Manual labor for the 
''patrician" class was intended to broaden their sympathies for humanity. 
Manual labor was to develop the pupils' mental powers, for said Fellen- 
berg, "what has been done, and done with thought, will be retained 
more flrmly by the memory, and will bring a surer experience than that 
which has only been seen or heard." But the disciplinary value was not 
detached from life's work and life's interests. Manual labor loses its 
disciplinary value when it becomes drudgery. Manual labor was to 
induce health of body and mind, and for this purpose, joy and interest 
in the work and outlook for the work were essential factors of success. 
Fellenberg held that manual labor should lay the foundation for and be 
intimately related to the larger social interests of life, economics, politics, 

The institutions at Hofwyl continued to exist and flourish until 
1848, two years after the death of the great educator and philanthropist. 
At this time his family discontinued all the schools except the "School for 

* American Journal of Education, 1861, Vol. 10, pp. 487, 4S8. 

378 .l/./.Vr.VZ. TR.^1\I.\(; MAG.IZISE 

the Poor,'' which was still in operation as late as 1857. How much 
longer or whether it still exists the writer is not informed. The princi- 
ples of education developed and applied hy Fellenberg have been widely 
adopted in his native country, in Europe, and in the United States."' 

"The iirst president of Dartmouth College, Doctor Wheelock, 
admonished his students in 1771, two years after the college was opened, 
'to turn the course of their diversions and exercises for their health to the 
practice of some manual arts, or cultivation of gardens and other lands, 
at the proper hours of leisure and intermission from studies and vacan- 
cies' ( i. e. vacations)."^ 

As early as 17^0, Dr. Benjamin Rush, of Philadelphia, advocated 
agricvdtural and mechanical pursuits in educational institutions; and in 
1796, the first manual labor school was founded in Ahbevville county, 

s. c.^ 


However, the great interest in the idea of combining manual labor 
with study in seminaries and colleges was largely inspired by the suc- 
cesses of the Fellenberg manual labor schools at Hofwyl. The Gardiner 
Lyceum ^Manual Labor School of Maine was founded in 1823. Then 
followed the founding of the Fellenberg School at Windsor, Connecti- 
cut, in 1824, and in the same year one at Derby, Connecticut, and one at 
New Harmony, Indiana; the Maine Wesle^an Seminary at Augusta, 
1825 ; the Oneida Institute of Science and Industry, at Whitesboro, New 
York, 1825-26, which became a very successful manual labor school; the 
^Mechanical Association at Andover Theological Seminary, Massachu- 
setts, 1826; Kenyon College, O., and Waterville College (later Colby 
College), Maine, both with manual labor departments, 1827; the Gene- 
see Manual Labor School, and the Yates Polytechnic, of New York, be- 
fore 1830. "This movement came in when the gymnastic movement 
began to wane." The "idea became strong with the belief that the 
solution of the whole problem of physical exercise in the educational in- 
stitutions was found."* 

•'' American Journal of Education, 1S57. Vol. 3, p. 596. 

^ Special report of the Bureau of Education. Educational Exhibits and Con- 
ventions, New Orleans, 1884-S5. Part 1, p. 426. 

7 Circulars of information of the United States Bureau of Education, No. 
4, p. 51. 

* Report of the United States Commissioner of Education, 1891-92, Vol. 1, 
page 506. 


But the substitution of manual labor for gymnastics as we shall see 
was not successful. Even the bo^s preparing for the ministry required 
the joy of free activities, at least as free as that oltered by gymnastics. 
One must infer after examining the evidence that the majority of the 
promoters of the manual labor movement missed the essential principles 
of the movement as it developed at Hofwyl by being all too eager to 
banish play and substitute a regimen of vigorous and sober discipline. 
Something of the early Puritan asceticism seems to have been in evidence. 
Dr. Benjamin Rush, above mentioned, is credited with commending 
"the ^Methodists for 'wisely banishing every species of play from their 
college' and that the experiment had been tried, 'with the happiest ef- 
fects, of introducing the care of vegetable gardens as an amusement' in 
the Methodist College at Abington in ^Maryland. He also says that 
all the amusements of the children of the ?vIoravians at Bethlehem, 
Pennsylvania, 'are derived from their performing the subordinate parts 
of several of the mechanical arts : and that a considerable portion of the 
•^vealth of that worthy and happy society is the product of the labor of 
their little hands.' "^ ' 


By 1829 the manual labor movement was growing rapidly. At 
this time Dr. Stephen H. Tyng of Philadelphia and Dr. Elias Cornelius, 
editor of the "American Quarterly Register" and secretary of the Ameri- 
can Education Society, were effectively championing the cause of manual 
labor. In 1831, the "Society- for Promoting jilanual Labor in Literary 
Institutions" was organized in New York, for the purpose of collecting 
and diffusing information designed to promote the establishment of 
manual labor schools and seminaries in the United States, and for in- 
troducing the system into institutions already established. The system 
was to be introduced without reducing the quantity or quality of the 
literary and scientific w^ork. On the contrary, thru the invigorating in- 
fluence of manual labor on body and mind the standards of literary and 
scientific attainment were to be raised. 

"Mr. Theodore D. Weld, who became secretary of the 'Society for 
Promoting Manual Labor and Literary Institutions,' visited most of the 
large towns and leading literary institutions in Ohio, Indiana. Illinois, 
Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama, prosecuting his inquiries 

" Special Report of the Bureau of Education. Educational Exhibits and 
•Conventions, New Orleans, 1884-85, Part 1, p. 427. 


and calling; public attention to the manual labor system by public lec- 
tures and private conferences with the manajjers of the institutions 
visited. Wherever he went he was well received, and his labors resulted 
in a jireat increase in public interest in bodily exercise in fi:eneral and 
manual labor in particular. "^" 

Mr. Weld's Hrst report hroug:ht out the followinjr points: 

1. The present system of education makes fearful havoc of health and life. 

2. The present system of education effeminates the mind. 

3. The present system of education is perilous to morals. 

4. The present system of education produces an indisposition to effort and 
destroys habits of activity and industry. 

5. The present s\stem of education is so expensive that its practical effects 
are anti-repuhlican. 

He reached the following conclusions: 

1. Bodily exercise is indispensable to man from the necessities of his cor- 
poreal, intellectual, and moral nature, his individual happiness and social use- 

2. This exercise should be incorporated into our system of education and 
alternated with study in all seminaries of learning. 

Still further he concluded : 

1. This exercise must be taken daily. 

2. The student should spend at least three hours daily in exercise. 

3. The exercise should be moderate. 

And then he criticizes the g}'mnastics of the time as: 

1. Dangerous; too violent for persons leading sedentary lives. 

2. Unnatural; many of the movements required are such as are rarely de- 
manded by human circumstances. 

3. Unphilosophical ; no visible effects are witnessed, and the production of 
manifest effects is a main element of interest in muscular movement. 

4. Gvmnastic exercise excites aversion in the public mind. Leave wooden 
bars to children and monkey tricks to monkeys. 

The author of the report finds manual labor to be a panacea for 
all the ills above described because: 

1. The manual labor system furnishes exercise natural to man. 

2. It furnishes exercise adapted to interest the mind. 

3. Its moral effects would be peculiarly happy. 

4. It would furnish the student with important practical acquisitions. 

5. It would promote habits of industry. 

6. It would promote independence of character. 

7. It would promote originality. 

1" Report of United States Commissioner of Education, 1891-92, Vol. 1, pp. 



8. It is adapted to render permanent all the manlier features of character. 

9. It would afford facilities to the student in acquiring a knowledge of 
human nature. 

10. It would greatly diminish the expense of education. 

11. It would increase the wealth of the country. 

12. It would do away with those absurd distinctions in societj- which 
make the occupation of an indi\'idual the standard of his worth. 

13. It would have a tendency to render permanent our republican insti- 
tions. 11 

At the third annual meeting of the American Lyceum, 1833, the 
association passed resolutions favoring manual labor schools. Three of 
the five resolutions are as follows : 

1. No system of education is complete which does not provide for the vigor 
of the body, as well as the cultivation of the mind, and the purity of the heart. 

2. The combination of manual labor with study is not only important as 
the means of promoting health, but is also calculated to invigorate the mind for 
intellectual labor, and to aid in regulating the feelings and restraining the 
passions of vouth which are so often excited by a sedentary life. 

3. That the acquisition of some mechanical employment in early life is 
desirable to every individual, as a means of relaxation and health, as a resource 
in case of difficultv, and especially as a means of rendering labor respectable 
in the eyes of all, and of promoting mutual regard and sympathy between the 
different portions of society in a republican government.^- 

The manual labor movement lies within the period of the introduc- 
tion of the American public high school. The high schools originated in 
response to democratic motives. There was a growing opinion that the 
seminaries, fitting schools, and finishing schools of the time were aristo- 
cratic. The manual labor movement was in part an attempt to check 
the growth of that opinion, and to correct the aristocratic tendency 
wherever it existed. 

Before considering the question farther it will be profitable to read 
some of the accounts of a few of the typical manual labor schools. 


In 1827 the trustees of Waterville College, now Colby Colle:.:e, 
Maine, voted 

"that it is expedient to have a convenient mechanics' shop erected on the college 
lot, at which students as are disposed may employ themselves a small portion 
of the day in such work as may yield them some profit." In 1830 the shop was 

11 Report of United States Commissioner of Education, 1891-92, Vol. 1, p. 509. 

1- American Journal of Education, 1864, Vol. 14, p. 544. 


built chieHv by the hands of the students. * * * A second and larger shop 
was erected by the students soon after. Three hours a day were assigned for 
labor, the work being made ready by the superintendent. The articles manu- 
factured were chiefly doors, blinds, sashes, bedsteads, tables, chairs, and boxes. 
The organization of the work was such that each student had his special labor — 
sawing, planing, mortising, grinding tools, etc. In 1832 the members of the 
department built the large boarding house, long known as the "Commons House." 
* * * A third shop was added soon after, and carriage making and painting 
attempted. In 183 5, there being no printer in Waterville, a printing office was 
started in one of the shops. It was supplied with a valuable press, the gift of a 
manufacturer, and placed in charge of Edgar H. Gray, class of 1838, who had 
learned the trade of printer. A variety of job work, the annual catalogs, and 
a 34-page catalog of the library were issued from the "College Press."' * * * 
Students were employed in 1836 in preparing tlie lumber and in mason work for 
the college chapel, now Champlin Hall, and for three professors' houses. Three 
shops were fully occupied at this time, tlie students earning from fifty cents to 
two dollars and fifty cents per week. At the accession of Dr. Pattison to the 
presidency in 183 6, it was found that several thousand dollars had been sunk 
in the manual labor experiment. 

The want of success may, without doubt, be mainly referred to the fact that 
the larger number of student workmen possessed little skill and produced inferior 
work. * * * But on the other hand, it attracted many students to the college 
and added a class of young men most valuable to the world by reason of the 
qualities developed in their struggle to obtain an education. The list of laborers 
in the shops bears the names of many of the most honored sons of the institution; 
men of energy, abilitv and culture, Including those of two college presidents. ^-^ 

GEORGIA, 1833-44. 

At the annual convention of the Georgia Baptists in 1831. it was 
decided to establish "in some central part of the state as soon as funds 
should justify it, a classical and theological school, which would unite 
agricultural labor with study and be open for those only preparing for 
the ministry.' Accordingly in 1832 the school was established at 
Eatonton. "In December. 1844, the manual labor system, which had 
been on trial since the foundation of the institute in 1831. was aban- 
doned, having proved to be inefficacious. Several other attempts had 
been made during the same decade to establish manual labor schools in 
different places, which, with one exception, had likewise failed. The 
country was not yet ready for the introduction of that new feature in 

I"' United States Bureau of Education, Circulars of Information, No. 3, 1913, 
pp. 108-9. 


Another manual labor school was established at Cave Springs, 
Georgia, in 1839, and was known as the Hearn Manual Labor School. 
This school continued to operate until it was destroyed by the Federal 
troops during the Civil War.^* 


Jackson College was a Presbyterian school that took its rise in a manual 
labor institute in Maury county, some ten miles from Columbia. About the year 
1832 the institute was erected by act of the legislature into Jackson College. In 
1837 the college was removed to Columbia. It was burned by the Federal army 
during the war. A report of the board of trustees in the year 1833 tells us that 
the manual labor feature of the institute was retained by the college. Every 
student was required to work two hours per day. As the college was not able 
to build shops and buy tools for mechanical labor, the students had the past 
year engaged mostly in farming. They had with little help cultivated between 
50 and 60 acres of corn and 2 acres of potatoes and had cleared 18 acres of new 
land. The writer of the report assures us that manual labor is beneficial to the 
help of students and as evidence that it does not interfere with their studies, says 
that those students who have been consulted concurred in saying that, instead of 
retarding, manual labor had accelerated their progress in study. Nevertheless, 
the manual labor feature was abolished when the college was removed to 
Columbia. * * * 


Franklin College, five miles east of Nashville, was founded in 1845, by Rev. 
Tolbert Fanning, a prominent man among the Disciples, or Christians. It was 
opened as a manual labor school. Mr. Fanning aimed to bring education within 
the reach of the poor. The college was closed at the outbreak of the Civil War. 
The building was burned in 1866 and never rebuilt. The property is now devoted 
to the Fanning Orphan School. i" 

CHURCH SCHOOL, 1833 — ■ 

It is a part of the plan of the school to connect with it the manual labor 
system. This is required, first, for the preservation of the health of the student, 
and second, to bring education within the reach of those who are not able to pay 
the full amount of tuition and board of ordinary academies. This class is very 
numerous, and they are looking anxiously to the complete establishment of our 
academy in Poultney, with high hopes of obtaining a good education. ^^ 

1* United States Bureau of Education, Circular of Information No. 4, 1889, 
pp. 60, 61, 70. 

15 United States Bureau of Education, Circular of Information No. 5, 1893, 
pp. 235-6. 

1* United States Bureau of Education, Circular of Information No. 4, 1900, 
p. 117. 

384 Mri.M.^I. TRrHMXC M.Ui.^ZlXE 


The collejre was reopened in 1S33. A marked feature of tlie new course of 
study was the prominence given to manual labor. This was part of the movement 
Avhich affected a large number of American colleges about this time, and arose 
from the demand for a "practical education," from the students' need of some 
means of self-support, and from the lack of facilities for physical exercise. In 
1S34 the trustees "set apart several acres to be leased to students at :: nominal 
rent, and arranged to employ students to make furniture and carry on improve- 
ments about the college grounds. No one, however, was to be required to perform 
manual labor." Not a success. Not announced after 1S40.1" 



In August 1833, a seal was adopted and a strange departure, but one 
characteristic of early Methodist colleges, determined on. * * * Resolved, 
That the necessary arrangement for connecting mechanical and agricultural labor 
with the course of instruction be made, each student to labor at least two hours 
every day, the system to be introduced at once, so that parents may have as- 
surance that the physical as well as the intellectual and moral education will 
be attended to. 

This system was continued until 1839 and then given up, as it did not 
prove a success. ^^ 


In 1833 the Baptist convention appointed a committee of five "to establish in 
Alabama a seminary of learning on the manual labor plan for the education 
of indigent young men called to the ministry." This committee located the 
institution on a farm, purchased for the purpose, about a mile east of the town of 
Greensborough. In 1834 the convention resolved that tlie institution should have 
both a literary and theological department, and providetl for its incorporation as 
the "Alabama Institute of Literature and Industry. "i" 

The reasons for the failure of the manual labor system in the 
Alabama Institute of Literature and Industry, later known as Howard 
Collefre, are interesting. 

The impracticability of the manual labor system soon became apparent. 
* * * A hundred hands were to be employed by the superintendent for two 

1' United States Bureau of Education, Circular of Information, No. 4, 1902, 
p. 13. 

'-'^ United States Bureau of Education, Circular of Inforination, No. 2, 1893, 
p. 258. 

1" Unitetl States Bureau of Education, Circular of Information, No. 3, 1889, 
Chapter 3, pp 172. 


or three hours. The most of these had never been taught and they often did 
more harm than good. Implements and work shops in corresponding numbers 
had to be provided, these to lie idle three-fourths of every day, and often the 
fields would scarcely be reached before the bell would summon them to return, 
and that too often at a time when the care of the crop required immediate and 
prolonged attention. It was soon discovered that a full corps of regular hands 
had to be employed in addition to the students. But the students had to be 
paid for their labor, for the subscribers and patrons had been led to expect that 
in this way a student could meet the greater part of his expenses. Board and 
tuition had to be put at scarcely more than nominal rate. Board was $1.25 per 
week, and tuition $10.00 per session of five months. -'' 


The Rev. John J. Shipherd and Mr. Philo P. Stewart decided to 
establish "A community of Christian families with a Christian school 
which should be 'a center of religious influence and power which should 
work mightily upon the surrounding country and the world — a sort of 
missionary institution for training laborers for the work abroad'- — the 
school to be conducted on the manual labor system, and to be open to 
both young men and young women. It was not proposed to establish a 
college but simply an academy for instruction in English and useful 
languages; and, if providence should favor it, in 'practical Theolog)-.' 
In accordance with this plan the corporate name, 'Oberlin Collegiate 
Institute' was chosen. Not until 1851 w^as a new and broader charter 
obtained, this time under the name of 'Oberlin College.' " "An essential 
of the Oberlin plan was the manual labor department. The objects to 
be attained by this department were eloquently set forth in the first 
circular of the institute as follows: 

This department is considered indispensable to a complete education. 

It is designed first, to preserve the student's health. 

For this purpose all of both sexes, rich and poor, are required to labor four 
hours daily. 

There being an intimate sympathy between soul and body, their labor pro- 
motes as a second object, clear and strong thought with a happy moral tempera- 

A third object of this system is its pecuniary advantage; for while taking 
that exercise necessary to health, a considerable portion of the student's expenses 
may be defrayed. 

This system, as a fourth object, aids essentially in forming habits of in- 
dustry and economy and secures, as a fifth desideratum, an acquaintance with 
common things. 

-'> United States Bureau of Education, Circular of Information, No. 1, 1888, 
pp. 271-2. 

386 U./.Vr.//. TRUXIXG M IG.IZIXE 

In a word, it meet> the wants of man as a compound being, and prevents 
the common and amazing waste of money, time, health, and life. 

But with five years of experimenting, these fond expectations van- 
ished. Student labor was unable to compete with ordinary labor.'-^ 

DEPARTMENT, 1835-1839. 

The system as first introduced here required that each student should labor 
three hours per day, receiving three cents per hour for his labor. Finally the 
time was reduced to one hour per day, and after about four years the system was 
abandoned altogether. 

Manual labor was unpopular with the students and the system was never 
from any standpoint even a nominal success. Professor W. T. Brooks, in an 
address before the alumni of Wake Forest College, in 1859, said: "The utter 
distaste which man\ of the students had for the system was but too evident 
when the bell rang for labor. \\'hen the roll was called some were taken sud- 
denly ill (?) — unable to work; but when supper time arrived it was very 
apparent that their sickness was not unto death." Prof. L. R. Mills, in a sketch 
of the financial history of the college says: "It was supposed in the beginning 
that the students' daily labor on the farm would go a long way towards paying 
their board. After a close examination of their acccounts of that year (1835), 
I find that they made on an average for a year's work $4.04."-- 


Olivet Institute, as it was first called, was opened in 1844. It was 
founded by John J. Shipherd, the founder of Oberlin. * * * its doors were 
open from the first to colored students as well as white, both sexes, and to the 
poorer classes, who had not the means to secure an education elsewhere. Manual 
labor was to be a feature of the institution.-" 

The manual labor movement spread thruout the country in private 
and denominational institutions of higher or secondary grade, variously 
called college, seminary, academy, farmers' academy, institute, school, 
However, as educational institutions ranked in those days the so-called 
manual labor colleges were probably of secondary grade when compared 
with Harv^ard, Yale, Princeton, Columbia. Virginia. Michigan, and 
many others. 

-^ United States Bureau of Education, Circular of Information, No, 5, 1894, 
pp. 56, 57, 59. 

-'-■ United States Bureau of Education, Circular of Information, 1888, Vol. 
I, pp. 103, 104. 

-3 United State Bureau of Education, Circular of Information, No. 4, 1891, 
pp. 138-139. 



How may we account for the very brief existence of a system so 
enthusiastically and vigorously started? Why did it not prove as suc- 
cessful as the Fellenberg schools in Europe? The answer is plain. In 
the first place the manual labor schools of the United States did not pro- 
vide adequate funds to carry on the work, but expected the labor to pay 
for itself as well as for much of the expense of the other departments of 
the school; and, second, they did not, in spite of their early claims 
succeed in making manual labor educative. They formulated a panacea 
of values, but in practice they forgot the one thing which would have 
made possible a realization of at least a few of their claims for the 
system. 7 hey failed to secure the appeal of manual labor to the indi- 
vidual which makes it worth while — makes it really educative. Simply 
to assume that manual labor gives man good physical exercise, that it is 
adapted to interest the mind, that its moral effects are good, that it 
would promote habits of industry, independence of character and origin- 
ality, etc. etc., and then to provide various odd jobs for students to per- 
form who were primarily interested in preparing themselves eilficiently 
for pulpit oratory did not work more effectively in those days than it 
would in our own. 

What was needed then, as now, in all manual labor exercises con- 
ducted by the school, was life meanings for the student performing the 
work. The young men attending the manual labor schools had already 
passed thru the stage of development when mere disinterested curiosity 
in manipulation and in manual dexterity were sufficient motives for en- 
gaging in the work. Manual labor for them meant something more 
than play. But the manual labor of these schools, failing to mean some- 
thing more than play, lost for the student the joy of play and inevitably 
became drudgery. The work was not designed to connect his interests 
with life, either immediately or remotely. Like many other subjects of 
the time it was prescribed for him as a discipline, but unlike other discipli- 
nary subjects it did not appeal to him as having even a remote relation- 
ship, reputed or real, to his future vocation and interests. To be sure, 
many of the boys were from the farm, but they had gone to school with 
the purpose of being educated for something else. In those days edu- 
cation for work on the farm or in other industries was not in the cate- 
gory of interests of educators or of those to be educated. Happily also 
for the student and for the future development of educational manual 
labor, this department proved uneconomic, and for this reason was soon 


dropped. One cannot but feel that it would have been in the interest 
of proiiress had the uneconomic aspect of other uneducative branches 
been as susceptible of accurate demonstration. Furthermore, for reasons 
alread\' fjiven and because there had been inadequate preparation by the 
student for taking up this work it could not he a financial success. 

Never since that time has there been any organized attempt to 
substitute manual labor for play. It is \vorth\- of notice that while we 
are now extending opportunities and requirements for work in industrial 
education we are giving equal attention to play and athletics. 


J . M . G R E E N' VV D . 

THIS is pre-eminently the measuring age in which specialists are 
chiefly engaged in magnifying the glories of their office, but not its 
fruits. Vocational guidance is in that state of fluidity, a nebulous, 
intangible obscurity floating in a fog bank of platitudes, hard to get at and 
too slippery to hold. The real problem is to find a measure for the aspira- 
tions of a human soul physically, morally, spiritually, socially, and 
economically that will fit it into the right vocation for life. But the 
light thus far shed on this subject is mostly darkness, and the currents 
are interrupted. 


1. In a brief discussion such as this, it is prudent to accept and 
recognize conditions as they are, and then to prosecute a further inquiry 
as to their genesis, and along what lines future development will prob- 
ably follow. 

An inquiry into the original meaning of "vocational guidance" 
will throw some light on one phase of the subject in order to get a clearer 
understanding of the subject. Vocational is derived from the Sanskrit 
root "wak" and from which we have "vac" speech, and it comes down 
to us thru the Latin as "vox," which translated into English is "voice." 
The literal significance is the voice that speaks to one. 

2. Guidance is from the word "guide" which runs back into the 
Sanskrit root "wid," or "wit," which means to see, observe, to know, so 
that turned into plain English, we have "voice-wit," or "speech-wit." 

This hasty excursion back into the word roots of the past leads to 
the conclusion that speech advising, is simply telling one what he ought 
properly to do, or refrain from doing. A better popular rendering would 
be the getting of wisdom and then acting prudently. 

3. The present usage of the term "vocational guidance" somewhat 
loosely employed signifies that knowledge of the organization of such 
physical, psychological, and social facts pertaining to a young person as 
will enable a mature person, having a broader insight of human nature 
and the world's industries, to direct the boy or girl into some proper 
employment with a reasonable hope that he or she will eventually succeed 


390 .l/.7.\r.7/. TR.^IMXC M.IGAZISE 

in that particular career. In a narrower sense as applied to the actual 
work of the school, it is the selection of suitable branches in a course of 
study best adapted to a particular pupil or a type of pupils. Some cities 
have vocational counselors or assistants to aid pupils in the selection of 
their studies and handwork; in others, surveys partly educational, social, 
and vocational, have been made as preliminary steps to such guidance. 
Guidance, therefore, takes two directions — training in general, and 
training for jobs. General training, if possible, should always precede 
special training for job work. There is a vast difference between a pre- 
paration for life and a preparation for a job ; one is permanent and the 
other is temporary. 


Since the days of Tubal Cain, the sons and daughters of men and 
women have been supposed to inherit some of the mental and physical 
qualities of their direct ancestors, and that their offspring had wit 
enough to learn under guidance to do the things their parents did. This 
is still practiced by people of simple habits of life generally. 

When schools for training the intellectual and moral faculties were 
started among the advanced nations of the earth, the students were fitted 
more or less for certain learned and professional occupations, as they are 
now% thru general culture in colleges and universities. There was some 
vocational guidance in these seats of learning, which, however, allowed 
considerable choice in the matter of selecting a vocation, but not of 
studies. Especially did bright young persons follow, to a very con- 
siderable extent, their inherent tastes. A broad all around outlook 
is regarded as a better equipment for general work, than a narrow micro- 
scopic view of a very few branches only. 


Upwards of a hundred years ago, Francis Joseph Gall had ex- 
poimded his views on the subject of phrenology before many people in 
Vienna. This doctrine is based on the theory that there exists a certain 
relation between the several faculties of the mind and particular regions 
of the brain, and that these regions are the organs thru which the mental 
faculties manifest themselves. The brain, as a whole, is the organ thru 
which the mind acts. Under modern investigations this doctrine is 
known as that of localized brain areas. Specific functions is only a 


modified scientific form of which Gall, Spurzheim, the two Combes of 
Scotland, the Fowlers of America, in a crude way had endeavored to 
formulate as a scientific interpretation of human nature. Whether the 
brain is a map of the man is still an open question. The phrenologists 
took cognizance of the temperaments of people so that their delineation of 
human nature really assumed the character of a scientific physiognomy 
of the human species. 

As practical interpreters of human nature, there is no doubt that 
the Fowler Brothers, Nelson Sizer, and S. R. Wells, of this country, 
were among the foremost in that art, that the world has yet produced. 
One of their specialties was the ability to tell parents by an examination 
of a child's head, body, and temperamental conditions, what vocation 
in life it ought to follow ; also to tell grown people what occupations 
they would succeed in. They often hit the mark exactly in telling men 
and women in what pursuits they were engaged, or in what line of work 
they were best qualified. 

To arrive at safe conclusions, they took into consideration the whole 
structure of the subject examined, including the shape of the head, face, 
body, limbs, color of the hair and eyes, and all physical and tempera- 
mental conditions. 

Notwithstanding the imperfect development of the subject and the 
valid objections to the pretensions of its advocates, it possessed a quasi- 
scientific basis far in advance of any method yet proposed in these later 
times. Any scientific basis that aims at exactitude must take into con- 
sideration the brain, the nervous system, and the bodily structure of the 
child in order to determine what kind of work it can do. This field is 
practically an unexplored region at present. Such an analysis and classi- 
fication of a boy's or girl's mental and physical powers are essential, 
indeed necessary, for his success in a career demanding knowledge, skill, 
and motives for entering upon and prosecuting successfully any vocation, 
if this phase of inquiry is to assume a standing on a scientific basis. 


The statistics tabulated from different sources in this country agree 
that children who enter the industries are usually about fourteen years 
old. There is a prevalent belief that if not taken out of school before 
sixteen they have passed the period when a trade appeals to them. 
Many of the native born mechanics began to learn a trade about their 
fourteenth year, and this fact confirms the general impression of the 

392 .U./.Vr.//. TR.n.MXCi M.IG.IZISE 

public. Of a hundred children employed under sixteen years of age, 
only about twelve are in a position to learn a trade. A large majority 
of the others are employed in such occupations as stunt the mind and 
body. Very many become newsboys, errand boys, elevator boys, drivers 
of delivery wagons, etc. These low occupations unfit them for more 
desirable and gainful occupations. Here is one of the greatest wastes in 
human life. There is no other form of waste of our national resources 
that is comparable to this. The children from fourteen to eighteen years 
of age must pass thru this crucial test whicli has not been provided for 
in any adequate manner of legislation or otherwise. This is the critical 
period during which children may become productive members of the 
community, or a menace to the state. 

Our so-called trade schools, out of some 303 occupations in which 
the workers of the nation are employed, thus far have restricted their 
operations chiefly to some woodwork, bricklaying and plumbing, and 
metalworking, a little printing and gardening for the boys, plain cook- 
ing, and planning of fancy dishes, cutting, fitting and dressmaking, mil- 
linery, typewriting, and shorthand for the girls. 

The welfare of our working people and of the nation is at stake, 
unless some plan is devised to block the passage thru which so many of 
the boys and young men of native ability drift into a very low grade 
of unskilled work. A low grade output of raw material causes an 
increased cost of production and stationary or diminishing wages as 
measured by purchasing power. It looks as if our national appetite, or 
power of consumption, has rapidly outgrown our capacity for the pro- 
duction of the necessaries of life. Population is outrunning the means 
of subsistence, bringing us face to face with one phase of ]\Ialthus' 
theory. A more productive method of agricultural and stock-raising 
industries will tend possibly to level down the cost of subsistence. An 
issue is squarely presented to the educators of this country to meet in a 
large way the duties violently thrust upon them. The means thus far 
employed are inadequate, reaching not more than one per cent of those 
who should be trained for skilled labor, llie latest available statistics 
dealing with the occupations of persons over ten years of age show 
definite work for 80 per cent of the males and 18.8 per cent of the 
females. That is. four-fifths of the males and one-fifth of the females 
are employed in paying occupations. In 1900, there were 600.000 car- 
penters in the United States, 277.500 painters and varnishers, 97,785 
plumbers and gas-fitters. 290,000 iron and steel workers, 155,174 print- 
ers and pressmen, 364,884 dressmakers. 87,84^ milliners, and 50,717 


electricians. The number engaged in agricultural pursuits was 
10,381,765; mechanical and manufacturing activities 7,085,309; 42,326 
wholesale merchants; and retail dealers, 790.886; transportation 582,150 
employes; in personal service, 2,577,957; 1,560,721 saloon keepers; and 
1, 455,677 servants and waiters. These startling figures show what a 
pitiful field in the special industries, "vocational guidance" has to offer 
to the child that wants to become a skilled workman. Comment is 
best expressed by the unspoken. 


At the outset, it is legitimate to inquire what are the qualifications 
for guiding boys and girls into the kind of work each is best fitted by 
nature to do. Are there any signs that will enable one to tell in advance 
what career a pupil is qualified to enter upon? Of the million and a 
half of the boys and girl in our high schools and the eighteen millions in 
our elementary schools, nearly all will soon enter the industries as workers 
or leaders ; our most valuable assets in the country are these young 
prospective citizens. All depends upon their general knowledge, intel- 
ligence, industry, skill, and constructive ability. It is not only for the 
high schools particularly, but for all upper grades of the elementary 
schools that vocational guidance must be considered. 


The director or counselor should be a good scholar of broad and 
liberal culture and possess a theoretical and practical knowledge of the 
larger lines of industry of the vicinity in which the school is located. He 
should have been connected with business of some kind a sufficient length 
of time to understand mercantile, manufacturing, and other industries 
from the standpoint of the employer and the employe. He should be 
able to give advice on how to eliminate waste in work and in material. 
This knowledge can be acquired only thru actual experience. Granting 
that this director is thus equipped, 3'et he may be utterly ignorant of the 
mental, moral, and physical qualifications of the one who seeks guidance. 
The supply of competent guides, so far as I have yet heard, or read, is 
a waiting and wanting commodity in the market. Principals and teach- 
ers are capable of directing pupils in their studies in school. That part 
of guidance is fairly well done. In a general way there are personal 


qualities or characteristics that bar some persons from engaging in certain 
occupations. Elementary teachers may make mistakes in regard to 
advising pupils to take, or not to take, certain subjects in high school. 
When advice is sought and is given thus early in life, the elementary 
teacher should have a general conception of the different courses offered 
in the high school the pupil expects to enter. Such advice is for four 
years only, and yet it has a bearing on the whole life of the child. To 
know a pupils' ability to meet all the requirements of a high school 
course and to avoid some waste is well nigh impossible. The difference 
between shopwork and scholastic work is so great in kind and output 
that there is no necessary connecting link between them. The one is 
chiefl\- concerned with a material output, and the other with the develop- 
ment and culture of an expanding human soul. Notwithstanding all 
that has been said and the uncertain direct progress thus far made in 
vocational guidance, yet everywhere on the anvil is being hammered out 
by blind impulse a sort of workable method that will result in something 
valuable eventually. 

Flippantly enough, we advocate the adaptation of the school work 
to the daily vocations of the community, but when it comes to picking 
out the boy or girl for the job and fitting him or her into it without fail, a 
new revelation is needed. 


In the last analysis, the question is how to pick out the high school 
boy or girl and fit him or her to a life-long job. This narrows the 
question within simple limits. On this point an interesting investigation 
was made by the Massachusetts Commission on Industrial and Technical 
Education which tabulated information of over three thousand families 
of the state whose children had quit school to go to work. 

Upon inquiry it was developed that sixty-six per cent of those 
families could have continued their children in school ; thirty-three per 
cent of these children were found in imskilled industries; sixty-five per 
cent in low grade industries, and less than two per cent in high grade in- 
dustries. The boys left school usually for a job, not to learn a trade. 
All sorts of attractions, usually of a temporary nature, had appealed to 
them, and they had drifted from one thing to another. This is a waste 
pure and simple from whatever standpoint it is viewed. Our country 
is nor alone in this aimlcssness, since investigations in Great Britain show 
the same facts. The usual places of loitering, after leaving job after job, 


is on the street corners, in pool halls, around bulletin boards on which 
advertisements are posted for laborers, or in looking over the daily want 
"ads" in the morning and evening papers. If this condition be trans- 
ferred to the high school pupils, the facts are not materially changed. 

Vocational guidance has its problems clearly stated, as the writer 
sees it, and here the work must be done. What reply can it give? If 
there is a right way, or something better than the tentative plans that 
have been half consciously evolved, it is time they be set forth. Some 
high school teachers having learned what vocational occupations oiifer 
probable openings to young persons, and knowing their wants and capa- 
bilities fairly well thru frequent interviews with applicants, emplovers. 
and managers of labor, have succeeded in placing some worthy boys and 
girls in good positions. Small booklets containing information in regard 
to certain industries carried on in a city and the opportunities for ad- 
vancement — the volume of business of various kinds and the require- 
ments for each kind of labor, etc. — would give a sort of piloting chart 
to the teacher, parent, and the child, a basis upon which a special line of 
work might be chosen congenial to the child and to which he is fitted. 
Whatever is done here to aid the child, his mind ought not to be directed 
away from the continuation of school work after once quitting the school- 
room. This plan simply places facts and conditions before the parents 
and the child with the supplementary information pertaining to specific 
lines of work. An observant teacher can tell with some degree of 
certainty what particular lines of work a pupil is likely to succeed in 
doing. But this is what most people have always known, and the child 
has often turned by his own impulses to undertake certain things. The 
sketch outlined is a sort of triple union including the parents, teacher, 
and employer to prevent the boy's becoming a drifter, so that he may 
become a skilled workman and a learner during his life. This is the 
aim of intelligent citizenship. It appears to the writer that this new 
profession has to be created, and its duties defined, if it is to be ad- 
vanced beyond the handling in an empirical way. The first qualification 
of such a specialist is to know human nature as he sees it in the raw, 
and what it can be trained into doing most successfully among the 303 
different occupations in which the American people are engaged. The 
preliminary knowledge must include the physical, moral, intellectual, 
social, and economic phases of the applicant's equipment and constructive 
ability potentially for success in a particular line of work. A complete 
inventory of the child's possibilities, including his potential stock of 
brain and hand power, ought to be made upon a basis of scientific ac- 

396 U./.Vr.7/, TR.n.M.XC: M.U: l/.ISE 

curac\ . 1 his is the personal equation demandin^i; investiiiation in all 
its var\ in*:^ factors. There is no special department of human nature in 
our universities now that is competent to deal with this subject. Such 
a department ouiiht to be created. 

In the fields of employment, under modern stressed conditions, 
shiftinsi and chan^in^i and displacements, are constantly occurring. Rest- 
lessness and economic waste abound on every hand. One is tempted to 
ask what is the matter when everybody complains? Beginners usually 
see just ahead, if diligent and improving in their work, to a chance for 
better wages, which acts as a stimulus for a time ; but not always when 
changes and strikes and lockouts are common. The employers of labor 
value permanent and progressive and improving employees. All these 
factors should center about one who enters an occupation with the view 
of becoming an efficient worker, and wants to be weighed by the employ- 
er, and to weigh himself by his own ideals. To fit the boy or the girl 
to the job, or the job to the boy or girl, there is the rub, and it is still 


A Statement from New York City will throw some light on the 
practical working of high school vocational guidance. It is entitled 
■'Report of the Students Aid Committee of the Xew York City High 
School Teachers' Association on Vocational Guidance.'' The aim of 
this committee is to aid deserving students to secure employment during 
vacations and out ot school hours in order to earn a part of their sup- 
port ; to advise those who are ready to leave school in the choice of a 
vocation ; to direct them how best to fit themselves for their chosen vo- 
cation and to assist them in securing employment which will lead to 
success in those vocations. This statement is clear and comprehensive, 
and is everything that could be expected from the teachers' standpoint. 

Here is another very interesting fact which is perhaps the most 
important one in connection with the whole question involved, and it 
sparkles brilliantly in an unexpected quarter. Observe the fact. Ten 
thousand pupils left the New York high schools to seek employment in 
industrial and commercial fields, and less than ten per cent sought the 
advice of the committee in securing employment. This tenth was 
evidentlv the most helpless. The committee further reports that four 
times during the year, the list of applicants was practically exhausted. 
The meaning of this is that all the high school pupils had foimd em- 


plo3"ment. But a report of one hundred and ninety-three representatives 
of the labor unions showed that sixty thousand, or twenty-eight per 
cent, were out of employment, while a canvass of all the eleven hundred 
students of an evening high school showed that only three per cent were 

The significant fact is that of the pupils more than ninet}- per cent 
had helped themselves to find positions, and they obtained work and held 
their jobs, and that the committee thru conferences with employers of 
labor had succeeded in placing those who needed their help. Whether 
the work will he better handled by specialists, looking at the object from 
a narrower vision, than by the teachers who size up pupils from the 
kind of school work the pupils did daily, is a question that time only will 
determine. The tendency at present is in the direction of specialists for 
all kinds of work that many common people can do as well. But the 
most recent investigation, made in New York where this particular kind 
of work has received the most careful attention, is to the effect that 
"there are no jobs for children under sixteen which they ought to under- 

Another conclusion is that a study of the facts of industry is, there- 
fore, the only sound basis for discovering what type of industrial training, 
whether pre-vocational, or continuation schools, should be attempted. 

Most people go thru life indifferent to its great purpose, acting 
under the impression that things will turn out well, or at any rate, better 
in the end. It is a truism that every one can not do everything, and yet 
the recklessness with which vocations are happened into is one of the 
queerest corners in individual history. So often interest lies in one direc- 
tion and the work one does in another. To face this problem in a manly 
way is to ask what is it, what is its purpose, its full meaning, and the 
underlying principles upon which it is based, and how these can be put 
into successful operation and reduced to a working test. If it is a 
question of human knowledge, it has been developed out of human ex- 
perience. Xo knowledge is possible outside of some sort of life exper- 
ience. The content of any science is simply an embodiment of human 
experience arranged on a scientific, or semi-scientific conception for think- 
ing and working purposes. Life leads one to a point where one begins to 
reflect or think about his knowledge, and when the young person has 
reached this condition his case is hopeful. 


(a) As a general statement, the one who is just a specialist is a 


narrowist, and sees only in straight lines just before his nose. 

(b) The greatest thing a boy or a girl can learn is to do one's 
duty cheerfully, even when it is unpleasant. 

(c) A young person who is placed in a wage-earning position 
should be followed up by a systematic oversight with the same care as 
he was in his behavior and studies in the upper grade work in the ele- 
mentary and high school. 

(d) He should do his present job so well that those who inspect 
his work will advance him to a bigger and better job. 

(e) He must accustom himself to pull hard against the collar 
whenever necessary, and not grumble. 

(f) He must continually increase and solidify his knowledge and 
grow in it every day. 

(g) As a man he must be bigger than his job, however large it 
may be. H one is settled on the bed rock of right, duty, obedience, 
industry, and keeps a good aim before him and lives up to it, he has 
no need of a Regularly Certificated Vocational Counselor outside his 
parents, immediate teachers, and a safe business or professional man from 
the outside. 


Presented for Consideration by the School Crafts Club, New York City. 

I. Manual training has come to an established and permanent 
place in our scheme of education : ( 1 ) because it is based upon the 
biological necessity for activity and self-expression to child life and 
growth, and (2) because it represents in the school the industrial arts 
which form the foundation of our present civilization. 

II. Developing individuality and power is forming what are es- 
sentially the vocational determining factors in child life. This is com- 
ing to be accepted as the business of education up to the time when vo- 
cational work or training must be taken up. It follows therefore: 

( 1 ) That this whole period is significant as prevocational edu- 

(2) That this is the particular period wherein the manual train- 
ing idea applies, and indicates the relation of manual training to the 
vocational interests of education, as distinguished from specific vocational 

III. Actual experience in productive activity, as contrasting with 
mere information getting, must continue to be the distinctive feature of 
the industrial arts work in our schools. In addition the practice of the 
industrial arts will provide for all ages concerned a distinctive subject 
matter and method of instruction. 

IV. The child's relation to the social world is the important 
factor determining the character of the work for different ages. To 
understand the social world and needs of the child at different ages is 
the heart of our present day problems. 

V. The great practical problem is to see to it : that all motor 
activity is enriched with idea and image; that all technical power is 
supplemented by social insight ; that genius of both the mechanic and the 
craftsman order is fostered ; that both the art and the science of in- 
dustry are represented ; and that not only the practical and the industrial, 
but also the humanistic signiiicance of the manual arts be expressed in 
our school workshops. 

It is clear that these considerations involve more than the manual 
arts teachers, and that they demand a more effective cooperation of all 
departments of the school. 



Much ot the intormational ccjnteiit is in fact the suhjcct matter of 
other hranches of the curriculum. The information which can ap- 
propriately be considered the business of the workshop is that which 
relates to or depends upon technical matters and practices. This is 
important and lar!j;e in amount because so much in the modern industrial 
world can be understood and so appreciated only thru technical insight, 
\'I. To meet the foregoing requirements and place the manual 
arts on a basis where they will produce adequate educational results 
the\- must be given ( 1 ) an increased industrialized subject matter and 
meaning, and (2) an increase of time which will provide adequate ex- 
perience and opportunity to realize the results desired. 

Committee of the School Crafts Club, New York City. 

A. W. Richards, Chairman. 

E. B. Kent 

W. T. Bawden 

A. W. Garrett 

William Noves 

M. W. Haynes. 


OCATIONAL Guidance seeks to take the selecting of an oc- 
cupation out of the realm of chance and of clairvoyance and to 
put it into the realm of practical science. Instead of sending a 
child to a phrenologist that his humps may be examined, or to the 
fortune teller that his palms may be read ; instead of trusting to luck 
and telling him to take the first opportunity that presents itself to 
earn money vocational guidance aims to study the child's tendencies, 
tastes and capacities, and then help him to fit himself for the best 
position he is potentially capable of filling. Instead of leaving the 
entire responsibility for guidance with respect to occupation with the 
parents, who too often misinterpret the interests and tendencies of child- 
hood, the teacher's special knowledge of the child is utilized. From 
one point of view vocational guidance is nothing new ; all good teachers 
have exerted some vocational influence upon their pupils. From another 
point of view it is quite new because it organizes and systematizes and 
renders more intelligent and more effective what has been done only 
incidentally before. The problem of vocational guidance, then, is, first, 
to find out by what means guidance can best be accomplished under 
school conditions, second, to utilize these means. 

Manual It seems hardly more than a truism to say that in order 

Training and (-q give effective vocational guidance a teacher must know 
oca lona j^j^ pupils and the requirements of possible occupa- 
tions. He must know the habits of thought, the mental 
and moral tendencies and limitations of each of his pupils; he must 
know the tastes, the skill and the deficiencies. Then he must know 
possible occupations. In order to be especially effective the teacher needs 
to know more than what he has read in a pamphlet or two. He really 
ought himself to have had some personal contact with the occupations 
which he is judging and helping his pupils to judge. It is not easy for 
a teacher to determine whether a boy's interest in seeing "the wheels 
go "round" indicates that he should become an engineer or whether it 
is merely an interest common to all boys, and therefore indicates nothing 
vital in his case. Before the teacher can have reasonable ground for 
judgment he must see the boy react under conditions that approximate 
those of the occupation he should enter. In other words, any school, 
in order to be most helpful in reference to vocational guidance, needs to 



provide experience in the fundamental elements of many occupations. 
This is essential from the standpoint of the teacher who is to do the 
guidinji. and even more essential from the standpoint of the pupil guided, 
because his taste for and interest in an occupation is affected by his ex- 
periences. The elements of occupations must be found in the schools, 
and the wider the range of occupations with reference to which the 
school would afford guidance the broader should be its curriculum. 
The teacher cannot give safe guidance with reference to the practice of 
medicine, for instance, until he has seen the pupil react in biological 
science, or with reference to mechanical industry until he has seen him 
in a workshop. It is the broad curriculum that counts most in a 
school planned to give vocational guidance. For the teacher to furnish 
facts about occupations — demand, supply, wages, healthfulness, etc., 
is of some value, but not so vital as experience in the fundamentals of 
the occupations themselves. This statement makes it clear why manual 
training has such an important relation to vocational guidance: It 
furnishes experiences that are fundamental in a large group of occupa- 
tions. The statement has been made that a well balanced elementary 
school curriculum should include work in all of the following manual 
arts: the graphic arts, the plastic arts, the textile arts, the bookmaking 
arts, the mechanic arts. From the standpoint of vocational guidance 
such a broad, or extensive experience in the manual arts is of greater 
value than an intensive experience in one craft. Manual training, then 
becomes a very important factor in vocational guidance ; vocational or 
trade training should follow after vocational guidance has done its work, 
or most of it. 

In a recent article in Vocational Education Frank P. Goodwin 
has pointed out that in most city school systems there are two distinct 
problems in vocational guidance, (a) the elementary school child who 
will not go to the high school, and (b) the student who expects to take 
the high school course. For the latter the modern democratic high 
school with its courses in shopwork, drawing, science, commerce, music, 
art, literature, history, economics, mathematics, etc., provides the right 
basis for work in vocational guidance. Concerning the former Mr. 
Goodwin seems to think that little can he done in vocational guidance 
"except as prevocational training, manual in character, is introduced into 
the elementary- school." He points out that this view has been sub- 
stantiated by the Chicago City Club Survey, by the New York Survey, 
and by the Cincinnati Work Certificate Office. Fortunately this thing 


that is being pointed to as something that can be done is already being 
done in several cities. "Prevocational," "semi-industrial," and "ele- 
mentary industrial schools" are being established, and more are quite 
sure to follow. But the question may be asked, What is this "prevoca- 
tional training, manual in character?" The question is easy to answer. 
When the details are studied it becomes evident that this prevocational 
training is essentially manual training given adequate time in the daily 
program to function educationally. It is manual training extended and 
broadened and enriched on the industrial side. It is manual training 
coming into its inheritance. It is the original manual training ideal 
realized at last. 

Vocational guidance does not mean requiring or even allowing the 
teacher to select the occupation for the pupil. It does not mean de- 
priving the child of his birthright to choose his own occupation. But 
it does mean guiding him so that he is quite sure not to make a serious 
mistake in choosing. In this guiding process the school work is an im- 
portant factor, and because manual training stands in the school as the 
representative of a large number of occupations, those which are es- 
sentially manual in character, it becomes a very important factor in vo- 
cational guidance. 

— C. A. Bennett. 

Forty-Four Last October when we published in this department an 
Hours argument for more time to be given to manual training 

in the upper grammar grades we did not foresee the effect 
it would have in calling forth letters from teachers in all 
parts of the country. At that time our imaginations had never more 
than begun to picture the variety of "impossible" conditions under which 
manual training work (or work under that name) is being attempted. 
Our December and April editorial notes revealed some new varieties, 
but the end is not yet. We hope, however, that nothing worse can be 
found than the following which comes from a college graduate with two 
added years of pedagogic training who is in a large city in a state that 
is noted for its progressive action with reference to industrial education : 

I am seeking another position this jear because the work here is too heavy. 
I teach 44 hours a week and must cut stock outside of that time. I have 
regular and irregular about 650 students a week. Now no man can do justice 
to his work or to himself under these circumstances. I certainly feel that it is 
the poorest work that I have ever done and I have worked the hardest. 


It is difficult t(j understand how any superintendent would allow — 
not to sa\ rec}uire such a condition to exist. This man has three times 
as man} pupils as he ought to teach and spends nearly twice as many 
hours in teaching as any man ought to spend in that kind of work. 
Our vocahulary of epithets is wholly inadequate when confronted w ith 
a realization of what such a condition means to this teacher, the hoys 
under him, and the attitude toward manual training in that cit\ . Ill 
health for the teacher, bad habits for boys, manual training in disrepute. 
What stupidity! 

In marked contrast with the above was a letter received a itw days 
ago from a teacher in Oakdale, California, which contained the follow- 
ing paragraph : 

Tl'.e time of inv present classes is eightv minutes a day, five da\s a week, and 
forty weeks in the year. That it is appreciated is shown by the boys being on 
hand at the tap of the bell. Some of them work at odd periods, some of them 
stay after school and some work is done on Saturdays. Just now we are building 
canoes, so there promises to be almost a night shift, and let me sa\- I am willing 
to help them at these odd times. 

We give below the results of the ''competition" announced 

""^^ in (uir February issue. The judges will prepare a state- 

Winners . ■ , 1 1 • I 11 -.u 

n:ent ccsncernrng the awards which will appear with some 
of the drawings in either the September or the October number. This 
statement will give some of the reasons for their final decisions. In 
Class E only one drawing was submitted, and that was not considered 
worthy of a prize. The awards were as follows: 
ClassA — A seventh grade problem in benchwork. 

First Prize, Fern Stand, M. J. Sherwood, Kalamazoo, Michigan. 

Second Prize, Step Ladder, L. R. James, Porterville, California. 

Third Prize, Caned Foot Rest, L. D. Perry, JoHet, Illinois. 

Mention, Wondergraph, J. H. Sandt, Winona, Minnesota. 
Class B — An eighth grade problem in benchwork. 

First Prize, Nail and Screw Tray, C. H. Oltman, Viroqua, Wisconsin. 

Second Prize, Costumer, L. D. Perry, Joliet, Illinois. 

Third Prize, Footstool and Slipper Box, S. S. Tingle, St. Paul, Minnesota. 

Mention, Tea Table, L. D. Perry, Joliet, Illinois. 

Mention, T-Square, H. Froling, Natick, Massachusetts. 

([^Ijisc; C — A farm problem in benchwork for a rural school or a town 
high school. 
First Prize, Farm Gate, E. E. Sowers, Arcadia, Indiana. 
Second Prize, Chicken Coop, L. D. Perry, Joliet, Illinois. 


Third Prize, Milkinp; Stool, Clay C. Curran, Glencoe, Minnesota. 

Mention, Mail Box, L. D. Perry, Joliet, Illinois. 
Class D — A high school problem involving benchwork and wood- 

First Prize, Pedestal, L. D. Perry, Joliet, Illinois. 

Second Prize, Dresser Set, W. R. Hull, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Third Prize, Piano Bench, L. D. Perry, Joliet, Illinois. 
Class E — A small construction problem in machine shop work. 

No awards in this class. 


On one of the advertising pages of this issue we have made an 
announcement of great importance to every one of our subscribers. The 
announcement states that beginning with September, 1914, this magazine 
will be combined with / ocational Education to produce one strong 
monthly publication. This is a long step forward, and one which we 
believe will be heartily welcomed by our readers. Anyone who has 
followed the discussions concerning vocational guidance and vocational 
training during the past two years cannot fail to realize that the 
great problems in these fields center around the upper grammar and 
early high school period just before and soon after the child passes the 
compulsory age limit of schooling. Moreover, it is becoming clearer that 
the proper basis for both vocational guidance and vocational training as 
such is a reasonably broad fundamental education which includes in- 
struction in some kind of organized handwork ; and further, that this 
instruction in handwork should not be too narrow in its scope. As 
might be expected under these circumstances, the two educational move- 
ments which started respectively as the manual training movement and 
the voctaional education movement are rapidly and inevitably converg- 
ing into one strong current of educational advance. This being so. 
the time is ripe for bringing together the two magazines which have 
stood for these two movements. For this reason, and for others stated 
in the announcement, we are glad to offer to our readers one strong 
monthly magazine instead of two bi-monthlies. 



The second stared meeting of the year was held at the Broadway Central 
Hotel, Broadway and 3rd Street, New York, on Friday evening, January 9th. 
The chairman of the evening was William A. Carter. At the request of the 
program committee a number of members brought in specimens of work made 
b\' boys in the shops, and the early part of tlie evening was spent In examining 
the suggestions thus offered. 

The first part of the formal program consisted of a discussion of the ques- 
tion: "What of Value to the Interests Represented by the Club May Come Out of 
the New York School Inquiry?" The discussion was opened by William T. 
Bawden, who called attention to the fact that at least three of the volumes that 
have resulted from the work of the Inquiry deal with questions that are related 
to the interests of this Club. In the "Report on Intermediate Schools," by Dr. 
Frank P. Bachman, a presentation is made of the special advantages of this new 
type of school in which handwork of various kinds is expected to play an im- 
portant part. 

Among other considerations, the Intermediate school makes possible certain 
economies in administration, teaching force required, and equipment. At any 
rate, figures are quoted to maintain this contention. For example: in 14 regular 
elementary schools in the cit}', having all grades, the manual training teachers 
average 338 pupils per teacher; whereas, In two intermediate schools, having 
only 7th and 8th grades, the manual training teachers average 368 pupils per 
teacher. The report then goes on to state, without inquiry into the question of 
the proper size of class — "it therefore appears that intermediate schools need 
fewer manual training teachers than schools having all grades." 

The speaker suggested that the School Crafts Club might set a committee 
to work to make a study of the possibilities of development under the inter- 
mediate school plan, including outlines of courses of study which would offer 
suggestions as to the contribution that handwork can inake when It is proposed 
to organize a school with differentiated courses of study, In the attempt to adapt 
the instruction somewhat more definitely to the needs of individual pupils. 
This study could also Include those schemes of organization and administration 
that promise to yield the best results In a school of this t\'pe, and the committee 
might raise and attempt to answer the question as to the proper size of shop 
classes upon some other than a statistical basis. Another important problem for 
study in connection with the proposed intermediate schools is that of vocational 
guidance, and this Club is the logical organization to take the initiative along 
this line. 

The second volume referred to is the "Report on Vocational Schools," by 
Dean Herman Schneider. This report. It was suggested, could be taken up by 
the Committee in the same way, and a careful study made of the recommenda- 
tions contained therein. The same suggestion was made with reference to the 



"Report on Course of Study for the Elementary Schools," by Professor Frank 
M. McMurry, with the following specific points for study: (1) Are the cases 
of shop instruction which have been selected for discussion in this report tvpical 
cases? (2) If so, are the criticisms offered just or unjust? Is work of the 
kind described defensible or not? (3) Does the shopwork as now carried on in 
the grammar grade shops provide real opportunity for the development of 
initiative? (4) Outlines of plans and methods for the improvement of the shop 
instruction, for discussion by the Club at its meetings, and for presentation for 
possible official approval after thoro revision. 

The discussion was continued by James McKinney, of the Ethical Culture 
School, and Albert W. Garritt, assistant supervisor for the New York City 
schools. The topic was then thrown open to discussion from the floor, and the 
response was so prompt and vigorous that the chairman found it necessary to 
announce a limit in order that the remainder of the program might be carried 

The second part of the program consisted of four illustrated addresses on 
shop projects: "Games — How to Make Them in the Workshop; How to Play 
Them in the Open," by John J. Nolan; "The Construction of a Three-Armed 
Towel-Rack," by Frank H. Pierce; "A Steam Engine and an Electric Motor for 
the 7B Grade," by E. G. Hainert; "Jigs and How to Use Them in the Wood- 
working Shop," by Fred P. Reagle. 

At the business session the Club voted to instruct the Executive Committee 
to create a special committee to initiate an inquiry along the lines suggested by 
Mr. Bawden, to report at future meetings of the Club. It is understood that 
the Program Committee will cooperate with the special committee in arranging 
opportunities for full discussion of any matters which it may be prepared to 
bring before the Club. 

The Publicity Committee. 


The annual meeting was held at the Hackley Manual Training School, 
Muskegon, Mich., December 15, 1913. At the evening session two very interest- 
ing addresses were given by Superintendent J. M. Frost, Muskegon, and E. H. 
Sheldon, of the Sheldon Manufacturing Company. 

Superintendent Frost, speaking on "Individualism in Manual Training," 
made an earnest plea for the cultivation of individual ideas and methods of work 
among both pupils and teachers. He said in part: 

"My experience has been that the best solution of any problem is arrived 
at by the concerted opinion of different people working on this problem from 
different points of view. The workers from the Michigan cities here represented 
have enough different elements entering Into the various problems to be able to 
give a pretts- definite Idea as to what it is best to do In the line of manual 
training and Industrial work in the schools of the state. We must have 
specialized workers to work out the problems thru their Individual ideas and 
Independent ways of doing things. Original methods are what are wanted and 
looked for." 

408 M.IM.n. rR.n\L\G MAG.1ZISE 

Mr. Sheldon took for liis subject "Maiuial Training From a Manufacturer's 
Standpoint," and spoke of the necessity of having accurate tools with which to 
work, of having a high standard in this regard, and doing everything possible 
to get the pupils to work up to it. He also spoke strongly in favor of accuracy 
in work, saying that there is nothing so discouraging from a manufacturer's 
point of \\c\\ as an individual who allows mistakes to pass by him because he 
has not accjuired the habit of being accurate. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: president, Harry 
M. Kurtzworth, director of drawing. Hackiey Manual Training School, 
Muskegon; vice-president, M. J. Sherwood, Kalamazoo; secretary-treasurer, A. E. 
Jacobson, Muskegon. 


The twenty-first annual convention was held in Milwaukee, May 6-9, 1914. 
The facilities of the immense Auditorium were placed at the disposal of the 
Association. The general topic for the convention was "A Casting of Accounts 
Educationally, of the Fine and Industrial Arts." Special round table sessions 
were devoted to Art, Vocational Education, Household Arts, Manual Training. 
There was also a special joint session of tlie Association with Wisconsin School 
Arts and Home Economics Association. It is hoped that a more adequate report 
of the convention may be presented later. 


The fiftli annual convention was held at Atlantic City, N. J., April 9-11, 
1914, and a very successful meeting is reported. Among the addresses were the 
following: The Fine, Industrial, and Household Arts in Education, C. N. 
Kendall, Commissioner of Education, Trenton, N. J.; How Far is Art a Factor 
in the Present Need for Industrial Education ?, Secretary C. A. Prosser, New 
York; Design in the Common Thing, Royal B. Farnum, State Dept., Albany, 
X. Y. ; Vocational Guidance as an Opportunity for Teachers of the Practical 
Arts, Prof. F. G. Bonser, Teachers College, New York; The Conservation of 
Beaut}" in the Industrial Arts, Miss Emma M. Church, Chicago; Pottery, G. C. 
Greener, North Bennet Street Industrial School, Boston ; Vocational Courses 
in the High School, F. E. Mathewson, Jerse> City, N. J.; The Training of 
Taste Thru Printing, Henry Turner Baile>, North Scituate, Mass. 


Altho the Illinois Manual Arts Association is much larger than formerlv, 
it still retains the same fine spirit of good fellowship that has characterized 
the organization ever since its first meeting ten years ago. This year the 
annual meeting was held at Lewis Institute on Februar>- 13th and 14th. The 
president. Professor A. C. Newell of the Illinois State Normal University, 
provided a very attractive program and the local committee, headed by George 
A. Ross of Lewis Institute, planned the warm welcome that Lewis Institute 


so well knows how to give. Moreover, thru Mrs. Ella Flagg Young, the Chicago 
teachers of manual training were allowed a half-day off from teaching In order 
to attend the meeting. This was much appreciated by the ofHcers of the Associa- 
tion as well as the Chicago teachers. Among the many agreeable impressions 
left bv the meeting were the hospitality of Lewis Institute, the president's 
humorous stories at the banquet, the success of the round-table scheme for serv- 
ing the varied interests of the members, and the presence of so many Chicago 

The meeting opened on Friday afternoon with a paper on "Cement Work" 
by Bristol E. Wing of LaSalle. This was followed by a discussion of "Definite 
Things a Boy Should Learn about Woodworking in the High School," by George 
A. Ross. Then the audience divided into three round tables as follows: applied 
arts, NL F. Gleason of Joliet, chairman; machine work, W. F. Raymond of 
Bradley Institute, chairman ; and mechanical drawing, A. W. Chase of Chicago, 
chairman. In these round table sessions the discussion centered on the practical 
problems of specialists and were very profitable. 

The banquet followed soon after six o'clock and was admirably served 
by the young women of the Domestic Science Department of the Institute. A 
pleasant address of welcome was made by Dr. Edwin H. Lewis, in which he 
said in speaking for Lewis Institute, "We have felt that manual training ought 
to be so well taught that if a man wanted to make use of it he wouldn't have 
anvthing to unlearn." In this sentence he spoke the sentiment of the entire 
Association. This welcome was followed by the president's address on "Self- 
Starters," a parable of the automobile. He spoke of hand starters, mechanical 
starters, air starters, gas starters, and electrical starters, pointing out the principles 
involved in each and applying them to educational problems. He gave emphasis 
to the need of vocational guidance and insisted that it should begin early. 
"Like plaster-of-paris the boy's set comes early." The teachers' work is therefore 
of great importance. "Watching the vocational temperature of a boy may re- 
veal a danger, as the sea captain notices the danger of icebergs by the change 
in the temperature of the water." 

The plan and motive of the Lucy Flower High School was presented in a 
most acceptable manner by Miss Wells, the principal. She spoke of the school 
as the outcome of Mrs. Young's desire to do something for the girls comparable 
to what had already been done for boys. Miss Wells added a new contribution 
to the discussion of "fundamentals" when she said that the real fundamentals 
in the education of the girl were (1) health, (2) ideals of living, (3) hospitalitv', 
and she made these loom up large as she developed her subject. Another signifi- 
cant sentence dropped by Miss Wells was "The first thing for these girls to do 
(those who had fallen behind in the grade work) is to succeed. It is an awful 
thing to have a girl feel at thirteen or fourteen that she has been a failure." 

Miss Wells was followed by William M. Roberts, district superintendent of 
schools in Chicago, who spoke on "Vocational Guidance and Education of 
Boys." He made his hearers appreciate the largeness of the problem when he 
told of the 15,127 work certificates issued in Chicago last year and stated that 
two-thirds of these were to boys who went to work as soon as their fourteenth 


birthday had been reached. He made the audience see the depth of the problem 
when he pointed to the fact that in the industries there is an enormous demand 
for the unsivilied, and that to teach skilled occupations to all children would not 
change this demand. He asked the question, "What shall we do? One who 
looks out over the field must see the 60 per cent must be in the unskilled occupa- 
tions because they can't get into any other. What can be done for the one who 
fails to get a good job because there is none?" Then he answered his own 
question in part when he expressed the opinion that the time had come when the 
industries themselves must change the conditions for their workers. They must 
be made better. 

On Saturday morning the general subject may be stated as "Teaching and 
Teacher.'' M. J. Lyon of Normal discussed the content of a course in light 
woodworking for the fifth and si.xth grades. Professor Leavitt of the University 
of Chicago gave a strong address on "Teaching as a Vocation." Principal 
William B. Owen of the Chicago Normal College gave a characteristically 
logical discussion of "The Training of the Manual Training Teacher," and 
Professor Bennett of Bradley Institute presented a comparative study of three 
typical methods of teaching the manual arts. These were followed by the 
reports of committees and the election of officers for the coming year. The officers 
were, S. J. \'aughn, DeKalb, president; L. D. Perry, Joliet, vice-president. The 
convention closed with a round table discussion on "Woodworking" Saturday 
afternoon led by Albert G. Bauersfeld, of the Lane Technical High School. 
Next year the meeting will be held in Danville. 


The April Bulletin contains the text of the report of the Committe on Reso- 
lutions, presented at the Richmond convention of the Department of Superin- 
tendence, February, 1914. Two of the resolutions are as follows-. 

Resolved, That we indorse the movement to establish and support voca- 
tional schools for pupils over fourteen years of age; that we urge the special 
preparation of teachers for this vocational work; that we encourage the estab- 
lishment of continuation schools for boys and girls between the ages of fourteen 
and eighteen years who have entered vocational life; that we recommend that 
the attendance upon these continuation schools be made compulsory for such 
boys and girls betAveen the ages of fourteen and sixteen. 

Resolved, That everv- rural school should provide a home including a small 
farm for the teacher. This teacher will be one trained for rural schools, will 
know the child and his needs, will cease to be a tramp teacher, will be able to 
correlate school life with life in the country, and will be a leader of men; that 
we favor a county or a larger administrative district union for rural school 
work, thus providing equality of educational privileges, equalization of taxes, 
adaptation to the growing needs, and efficient supervision. 

The Department voted to hold its next convention at Cincinnati. Supt. 
Henry Snyder, Jersey City, N. J., was elected president, and Mrs. E. C. Ripley, 
assistant superintendent of schools, Boston, Mass., secretary. 

The April Bulletin also contains full information concerning railroad rates, 


hotel accommodations, and the preliminan," program announcement for the 
annual convention of the Association in St. Paul in July. 

The sixth session is to be devoted to a discussion of "The Needs of the 
Public Schools," with the following addresses: Systematic Education for Pupils 
Leaving School Too Soon, Pres. L. D. Harvey, Stout Institute; Industrial Educa- 
tion, E. G. Cooley, Chicago; Vocational Education, Its Menace, Charles H. 
Keyes, Saratoga Springs, N. Y. ; Adaptation of the Work of the School to the 
Everyday Needs of the Life of the Community, State Supt. J. Y. Joyner, Raleigh, 
N. C. 

At the sessions of the Department of Secondary Education the following 
papers will be presented: The Utility of the German Continuation Schools — 
Their Imperative Need in the L^nited States, E. G. Cooley, Chicago; Progress in 
Technical Education in Cleveland, R. L. Short, Cleveland, O. ; Some Things 
Worth While in Technical Instruction in Secondary Schools, E. G. Allen, Detroit, 

The Department of Manual Training and Art Education will consider the 
Report of the Committe on Vocational Education and Vocational Guidance, R. 
J. Fuller, North Attleboro, Mass., chairman. President Carroll G. Pearse, State 
Normal School, Milwaukee, will discuss Vocational Education and the Need 
for Terminology-. The president's address will deal with The Place of Industrial 
Education in a Rational School System — Arthur L. Williston, Boston. Secretary 
C. A. Prosser will discuss Lessons Learned from Ten Year's Experience in 
Industrial Education. Special sessions, the programs of which are yet to be 
arranged, will be devoted to the following subjects: Fine and Applied Arts, 
Vocational Education, Household Economics, Manual Training. 

The Department of Rural and Agricultural Education announces as one 
of the topics for discussion: The Work in Agriculture, Home Economics, and 
Manual Training in their Relationship to the Program of the Rural School. 

The following statement concerning exhibits indicates an intention to ex- 
periment with a feature that has for some years been recognized as a very 
valuable part of the annual coventions of several of the technical organizations. 

The National Education Association has never attempted to feature com- 
mercial exhibits of materials and equipments. It is recognized, however, that 
many superintendents and schools board members are interested in examining 
the latest things in the way of school supplies, especially in view of the fact that 
more attention is being paid in recent years to the physical equipment side of the 
educational system. At Salt Lake Cit\' and at Richmond provision was made in 
a central building for those who desired to have exhibits, and the assignment 
of location was left to the local committee, with no effort on the part of the 
Association to secure exhibitors or lend them any assistance. It has been decided 
that in coruiection with the St. Paul meeting there shall be conducted what will 
be called the N. E. A. Commercial Exhibit Auxiliary. The same will be under 
the direction of C. E. Hoyt, Lewis Institute, Chicago, 111., who for the past five 
years has had charge of the exhibits in connection with the American Foundry- 
men's Association. 

412 M l.\[ ,11. TR.n.\L\(; MIC^ZISE 

The riftli annual meeting ot the New York State Branch (it tlie National 
Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education was held in the iiish school, 
Albany, N. Y., on Friday and Saturdav, May 1st and 2nd, 1914. The special 
topics considered included: The Traiiiin<r of Teachers, Value of Industrial 
Education to Employers and Employes, The Technical High School, Principles 
Underlying Vocational Education for Girls. The president of the New Y'ork 
State Branch is Alfred P. Fletcher, assistant superintendent of schools, Rochester; 
secretary-treasurer, Matthew P. Adams, Children's Aid Society, New Y'ork. 

An important series of public meetings was recently held under the aus- 
pices of the New Y'ork Vocational Ciuidance Association. The first was held on 
Tuesday evening, April 2Ist, 1914, at Cooper Union, with the following ad- 
dresses: The Meaning of Vocational Guidance, Prof. Henry Suzzallo, Teachers 
College, New Y'ork; Learning to Work Thru School and Industry, Mrs. Alice 
Barrows-Fernandez, director of the vocational education survey, New Y'ork; 
Child Labor and \'ocational Guidance, Secretary Owen R. Lov-ejoy, National 
Child Labor Committee. On Tuesday afternoon, April 28th, in the Milbank 
Memorial Chapel, Teachers College, the program included: Modern Home- 
iTiaking, Mrs. Martha Bently Bruere, Department Editor, "Good Housekeeping 
Magazine;" An Occupational Study in the Cloak, Suit, and Skirt Industry, 
William T. Bawden, special federal investigator; The Future of Vocational 
Guidance, Prof. F. G. Bonser, Teachers College. On Wednesdav evening, 
April 29th, Prof. E. L. Thorndike gave a demonstration of Tests for ^'ocational 
Guidance, and For the Selection of Employes, followed by questions and dis- 
cussion. On Thursday evening, May 7th, at the Washington Irving High 
School, the following addresses were given: Homemaking as a Profession, 
Christine Frederick, department editor, "The Ladies' Home Journal;" Nursing, 
An Attractive Field of Public Service for Women, Isabel M. Stewart, Teachers 
College; How to Choose an Employer, Eli W. Weaver, Brooklvn, N. Y. 

The Southwestern Ohio Manual Training Teachers" Association held its 
spring meeting at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, April 18, 1914. About fort\' 
members were present. Prof. Whitcomb of the Manual Arts Department had 
an exhibit of the students' work and gave an interesting talk on the work in 
industrial arts. The program consisted of discussions of a list of topics sent 
in by the members. Special interest was taken in the proposed law to govern 
industrial education in Ohio. Elmer Christy, supervisor of manual training in 
Cincinnati, was elected president to succeed Howard G. Carter of Hamilton. 
Chas. A. Brennan, of Hamilton, was elected secretary. The next meeting will 
held in Cincinnati, October 17, 1914. 


George A. Seatox, Editor. 

The following shop problems have been suggested by students at the Stout 
I.-stitute for use in the Manual Traixing Magazine. They are designed in 
each case for conditions in the public schools where these lines of work are 

The problem in Wagon Making for Lower Grade Bovs is contributed bv 
George W. Drescher; the Porch Lantern for a forge class by David B. Steffens ; 
the Compression Coupling for a machine-shop class bv Arthur V. O'Brien; the 
Shipping Label for a printing class by Walter H. Hanke ; the Garden Wall and 
Gate for a bricklaying class, and the Plumbing for Residence for an architect- 
ural drawing class, by Henry J. Hansen. 

George Fred Buxton, 

The Stout Institute. 


As a manual training problem the wagon is one that appeals to the interests 
of the boy and also provides abundant opportunity to teach the use of the com- 
mon tools. Soft wood is used and this is reduced to thickness in the mill. The 
principal tool processes and operations involved are: measuring, squaring, 
sawing, nailing, chiseling, whittling, boring, cutting wheels, fitting, adjusting, 
and assembling. 

So far as possible the construction and operation of a full size wagon has 
been represented or duplicated. The bolster, tongue, and reach are made as 
nearly topical as practicable. The reach is made in such a way that it may 
be shortened or lengthened according to the length of the box or hay rack which 






^; -j£- 



is to be used. The wheels are cut from V^ inch basswood with a wheel cutter. 
This tool was designed and constructed especially for such problems as these. 
It enables the boy to cut a wheel more quickly and more nearly true than 
with other tools. It is adjustable and will cut wheels from 3 inches to 6 inches 
in diameter. 


A problem of this kind fits in well toward the end of a year's work in 
the fifth or sixth grade, and if carefully taught and well made should suggest 
many lines of profitable thinking for the boys. 


This exercise may be handled in the second year high school class. It is 
a very desirable problem to give in a printing course for the reason that it 
oflfers an opportunity for a wide range of work, namely: selection of suitable 
t>'pe, balance and arrangement of type matter, difficult rule work, the cutting 
and making of the tag itstlf, besides the usual processes of composition, im- 
position, and presswork. 

In approaching this problem the pupils sketch roughly a number of small, 
suggestive shipping labels, each one different from the others. The relative 
weights and sizes of the different lines should be shown and also their ap- 
proximate spacing. From the rough sketches the pupils, with the teacher's 
assistance, select the best design and make a detailed working plan of it, show- 



ing every feature exactly as it will appear in tlie completed label. With this 
plan in hand, the pupil sets up the job. 

It is well not to make the shipping label larger than 4x5 inches, and yet 
it must be large enough to contain all the necessarv information. 

i THE 







! 1 










A simple yet attractive design is submitted for a porcii lantern and bracket 
which is a desirable problem in art smithing for high schools having an ordinary 
metalworking equipment. The material used is of mild steel thruout, No. 16 
gage sheet steel being used for the lantern. 

In making the lantern, cut nut the sides with tinner's snips and then mark 
out the design on each side. Cut out the design by clamping it in the vise 

at the edge of the lines and then shearing it out with a sharp cold chisel. File 
the edges smooth. Cut out the strips for the corners and bend them at right 
angles lengthwise. Fasten the sides together by riveting the top and bottom 
edges first, and then drill the holes in between and complete the process. Cut 
out the sides and strips for the top and rivet them together in the same man- 
ner. Do all riveting on the inside so that the heads will be of uniform size 
on the outside. 




Forge out the loop for the top and rivet it in place. At the apex of the 
top on the inside solder in a piece of % inch piping, 1 inch long. This is 
threaded on the end and fitted to an electric light bulb, the bulb being put in 
place after the lantern is finished. The top and bottom of the lantern are then 
fastened together by means of tv^'o short strips riveted thru the top and the 
upper edge of the side. Rivet on short strips to hold in the art glass on the 
inside at both top and bottom as is shown in sketch A. Rivet the top one first 
and then inserting the glass; rivet in the one at the bottom on each side of the 

In making the bracket, forge out the back and two arms and rivet them 
together. For the brace in the center of the bracket take a piece of stock 
%x%x9 inches. Split in the center from one end back 4 inches, and then 
square up these arms. Make them a little long so that they may be fitted 
in easily. Any extra stock may be cut off later. 

Draw out the base to the correct dimensions. This is done by splitting 
the stock 1 inch back and then drawing out the two parts for the rivets as 
shown in the drawing. Rivet this brace into the bracket. Blacken by rubbing 
with machine oil. The last step will be to forge out the S hook on which the 
lantern is hung, making both ends exactly the same. 


The garden wall with correlated design in carpentry and cement work is 
suggestive. The cement balls and slabs on top of the pilasters can be made by 
the cement class, the heavy wooden gate by the carpentry class, and the gate 
latch and hinges can be made by the forging class. 

Altho any of a number of bonds can be used in the wall, a garden wall 
laid in double Flemish bond, sometimes called the "garden bond" has the 
advantage of being the most pleasing in appearance. This is especially true 
when the wall is built of rough-textured brick, and more so, when the headers 
are of a darker shade than the stretchers. 

The wall could be built by using mortar of a color either contrasting with 
or corresponding to that of the dominating brick. If a rough-textured brick is 
used with a mortar of contrasting color, the rough-cut flush joint should be 
used ; but if a smooth brick is used with a mortar of a corresponding color, 
the gouged-out or raked joint is preferable as the shadows cast on the joints 
by the brick tend to break the monotony of the wall. 

A pleasing effect can be produced by using black headers, and such headers 
laid in vertical lines in alternating courses tend to improve the appearance of 
the wall. 

The wall shown in the drawing is 9 inches, with 16 inch pilasters at the 
openings. The pilasters show a reveal of 4 inches. If the smooth brick is used 
a No. 8 or No. 9 Veneer brick is advised, as these brick withstand weathering 
much better than the softer brick. 



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The compression shaft coupling is a problem that involves several different 
processes: straight turning and boring, facing, boring taper holes to fit a 
gage, boring and reaming a straight hole, turning external tapers to fit internal 
tapers, splitting with a saw on the milling machine, and laying out and drill- 
ing holes on the drill-press. 



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B A 




i G^ 

F H 



/j- taper per foot 



The order of operations is as follows: Chuck the large part of the coupling 
by the hub. Turn A, bore B, and face C, to within 1-32 inch of the finished 
sizes. Set the taper attachment to bore a taper of 1^2 inches per foot. Bore 
hole D, using the taper mandrel as a gage and adjusting the taper attachment 
until the mandrel fits the hole perfectly. After the taper hole is finished, finish 
A, B, and C, and round the edge E. 



Chuck the small part of the coupling by the hub. Turn F, and face G, 
to within 1-32 inch of finished sizes. Bore H in the same manner as D, finish 
G, and turn F to a running fit in B. Reverse both parts in the chuck and face 
the ends O. and P. Mount both parts on the taper mandrel and finish all over. 

Chuck the bushing casting. Bore and ream K. Mount on a standard 
mandrel and turn the tapers M and L. When D and H fit on M and L there 

should be ^4 inch between C and G. Hold the bushing endwise in the milling- 
machine vise and slit with 1-16 inch saw, making three cuts from one end 120° 
apart, alternating with three cuts from the other end. Lay out and drill the 
holes accurately on the small part of the coupling. Drill the large part, using 
the small part as a jig. 

It is not advisable to file, finish or polish this problem, as it is not tvpical 
of this class of work. The finishing cuts on the outside should be made with 
a wide tool using as heavy a feed as possible without chattering. 







This problem is suggested for a iiigh school class in arichtectural dra^ving. 

Each system of plumbing installed differs in some respect from anv other 
installation, altho all are based on the same fundamental principles. Each in- 
stallation has its own peculiarities which must be considered in planning the 
lay-out and each lay-out can be planned in many different wavs. It is therefore 
essential that the instructor know how to overcome these difficulties and at the 
same time have his pupils plan an installation which will \vork perfectK' and 
be sanitary in ail wavs. 

The accompanying drawing shows an installation with a house or main 
trap with its accompanying fresh-air inlet in the basement; a set of travs and 
a sink on the first floor, and a bath-room on the second floor. The closet bowl 
has a local vent connected to it which serves to carry off all foul odors from 
that source. All traps are metal and the pipes of ample size to carrv awav 
all the waste matter. The main vent pipe is of galvanized iron as are its 
branches to joints directly over the traps they serve. The soil stack, house drain, 
and fresh-air inlet are of cast iron soil pipe. The main vent stack connects 
into the soil stack above the highest fixture, and the waste from the sink and 
trays runs into the main vent at a point very close to where that pipe connects 
into the soil stack below tb.e lowest fixture. This prevents an\- scale or rust 
from the main vent from accumulating at that point and thus clogging that 
pipe. By leaving a clean-out at the foot of the soil stack, the run of pipe 
between that stack and the house trap can easily be cleaned out in case of a 
stoppage at any point along that line. 



The following notes on the Union High School, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 
furnished by Superintendent W. A. Greeson, will interest those who are making 
a study of various high schools to determine which type is best adapted to 
modern needs. 

The Union High School was planned for a typical American high school 
for an industrial center like Grand Rapids. It has two main and immediate 
ends in view; first, to offer students a broad and general education consisting 
not only of academic courses but having some industrial work added; second, to 
furnish an opportunity for some specialization along commercial and industrial 
lines, by making a product of commercial standard, such that the student will be 
fitted to do some definite work in the commercial or industrial institutions outside 
of school. The first end will very naturally cover the requirements for college, 
as it does; while in the second, boys and girls can not only discover the field in 
which they are best fitted to work naturally but be fitted to earn a living by 
having more than an elementary training in some one course. This specialization 
we aim to make an important feature; our courses of study and equipment make 
this possible and in addition to this members of our teaching corps are industrially 
trained and experienced. 

Because of the presence of a large number of eighth grade pupils in this 
building we are able to offer them some of the high school work. They all have 
the regular manual training courses in the grades, special students being placed 
in two ungraded rooms, working with the high school industrial classes. In 
this way an elementary school is unnecessary in this part of the city. The eighth 
grade is managed as part of the high school. More of these pupils are held In 
school and their needs more readily met by offering them this wider range of work. 

Our courses of study include the regular amount of work offered in the stand- 
ard high schools of this country; we have four years of Latin, German, science, 
history, mathematics, commercial subjects and French. Freehand and mechanical 
drawing, elementary machine design, arts and crafts in leather and brass as well 
as elementary jewelry, are offered to all. Two years in forge work and machine 
shop, the same time in pattern-making, wood-turning and cabinet-making and 
the history of furniture st\les are open to the boys. The girls may take courses in 
sewing, dressmaking, milliner\, laundry, and advanced work in domestic science. 
For graduation we require that each student shall have had work in English, 
history, science, mathematics, and applied art or industrial work. The teaching 
force of 34 people is composed of men and women of fine training and experience; 
of this number sixteen are men. 

Our shop courses have been received for advance credit in the engineering de- 
partment at the University of Michigan and other technical schools, and our grad- 
uates now hold some excellent positions in the commercial and industrial institu- 
tions of the city. The industrial courses are given five double periods, or one and 



a half hours daily five times per week, the shop mathematics and drawing being 
given with the shop practice so that they may be closely related. In the girls in- 
dustrial courses art is made a required and related subject. We expect physi- 
ology-, hygiene, botany and chemistry to precede or accompany the course in 
domestic science. 

A marked feature of the work is an evening technical and trade school. An 
enrollment of nearly six hundred was reached last year, the first vear in which in- 
dustrial courses were offered. Work in machine shop practice and tool making, 
forging, mechanical and free-hand drawing, machine design, rod making, electrical 
construction, sewing, and dress making, millinery and cooking were given. 

We feel that by our plan for the day school students as here presented, an 
excellent opportunity is offered for the young men and women, who do not know 
for what they are naturally fitted, to find themselves. In the cities where there 
are specialized high schools, students are forced to choose their work at the close 
of the grammar school. Here thev are able to defer a choice until after entering 
high school. 


The San Francisco high schools began the current year under a new plan 
of organization which includes a number of unique and significant features of 
general interest. The plan as a whole is very broad and flexible and shows an 
intent to serve all classes of students. The program is divided into groups, 
as follows: group A. — general, designed to allow a student to test his capabilities 
in manifold directions, and to inspire him with the desire for education beyond 
the high school. Its provisions open the doors to wide, yet thoro trial of the 
branches of instrucion offered by our high schools. Every restriction upon, and 
bar to, the student in the form of arbitrary exactions has been removed. At 
the same time, the prescription of forty "hours" of "advanced subjects" imposes 
a restraint upon superficialir\' and waste of time. Under the provisions of group A 
a student is permitted to turn in a different direction from that originally intended, 
wi»-iT^ut loss of time or standing, in accordance with newer life-plans, late in the 
course; group B optional, designed to allow much freedom to a student before 
he need ultmately conclude whether to extend his formal education beyond high 
school, or not to do so ; group C — occupational, designed to afford thoro pre- 
liminary instruction and drill to a student desiring a technical, scientific, or 
commercial education; group D — College of science preparatory; group E — 
inclusive college preparatory; group F — two-year commercial — industrial; and 
group G — one-year commercial — industrial. 

In the last two groups is found provision for students who find it impossible 
to finish a high school course. Should circumstances permit their doing so before 
the end of their courses they may easily enter one of the other groups and con- 

A student is assigned to one of the high schools as a registry school, but by 
an "interlocking" system, he may pursue studies not furnished in the registry 
school in one of the other high schools. By this means more intensive work in 


certain departments is possible for given high schools without duplication of 
equipment or teaching force. For example, if a girl is registered at the Lowell 
school as specializing in "fine arts" and desires to study Spanish she may 
go for that subject to the Polytechnic or Commerce high school-. A bov registered 
at the Polytechnic high school and majoring in mechanical arts, might if he 
desired take CJreek at the Lowell school, or Commercial history at the Commerce 
school. There is sufficient duplication of general subjects, however, to make 
going from one school to another the exception rather than the rule. 

Another interesting feature is the "continuation plan" by means of which 
"students -xiV/o present evidence that they are actually and seriously emploved in 
an occupation outside of school during a part of the regular school day, but onlv 
such, while their school work remains of a satisfactory character, may be allowed 
to register for a single half-day session in any San Francisco high school, 
provided that tliey include not less than eight hours or more tiian sixteen hours per 
term in their program; and to such students, upon the completion of one hundred 
sixty hours of work, according to the provisions of any one of groups A, B, C. 
D or E, will be granted a regular diploma and such recommendations to the 
universities as they may have earned." 

These students will be given a monthly report for employers. This con- 
tinuation plan will especially appeal to those taking the one or two-year courses 
as a means of continuing their work in school without the expense of a total 
use of time which they need for remunerative employment. The school authori- 
ties believe that they will encounter no difficulty in securing the cooperation of 
employers in the working out of the continuation plan. The board of education 
hopes to extend the plan in the near future. 

Thus by means of the "interlocking" system, the one and two-year courses, 
and the "continuation plan," the high schools of San Francisco are making a 
decided effort to provide liberally for the needs of students who are forced to 
earlv emplovment. President A. A. D'Ancona, of the Board of Education, and 
Superintendent Alfred Roncovieri, to whose persistent efforts the adoption of this 
reorganization scheme is largely due, are to be congratulated on the achieve- 
ment of such an "open-door" plan. It Is to be hoped that they will complete 
their contribution to the solution of secondarv school problems by keeping records 
of increased attendance, proficiency of students, and other follow-up data. 



The interesting itinerary offered by the German Travel Study Tour of 
New York L'niversity has tended to make this a very popular form of summer 
work for teachers, judging from the large number who are planning on taking 
the course. The party will leave New York on July 2nd on the North German' 


Lloyd S. S. Barbarossa due in Bremen on July 12. The itinerary in Germany 
includes Berlin, Dresden, Leipsic, Halle, Jena, Nuremberg, Munich,. Heidel- 
berg, Mannheim, Frankfurt and Cologne. In each of these cities the various 
types of German schools will be visited. Committees of prominent German 
educators have been organized in each city and will co-operate in this work. 
Students who complete the required reading and submit a satisfactory thesis will 
be given credit towards a degree for the work. The main part}- will reach 
New York on their return on August 17, but those who desire to make a longer 
trip may take one of the extensions which have been planned through Switzer- 
land and France, and Belgium and France requiring a week's more time. 


Bradley Polytechnic Institute has recently made an important announcement 
concerning courses for the training of teachers of manual training and industrial 
subjects. Beginning with next September a prospective teacher mav pursue a 
four-year professional course of college grade, and at its end receive the B. S. 
degree. This change is due to the growing demand for college-trained men in 
manual training work, and the number of requests that have been made for 
such a course. The new course does not change the two-year course nor the- 
three-year course now in operation. It simply adds a new and higher possibility. 
A feature of the new course which will be much appreciated is the arrangement 
whereby it is possible to elect enough work in athletics to prepare one to success- 
fully direct the work of high school athletic teams. Normal instruction in this 
department will be given by Professor Fred C. Brown. Or instead of athletics 
one may specialize in mathematics or science or history in addition to manual" 
arts. One-half of the entire time of the course will be devoted to manual arts 
and industrial subjects and one-half to other subjects. Graduates of the two- 
year course will be able to earn their degree in two additional years bv spend- 
ing most of the time on subjects other than the manual arts. 

The manual training department of Somerset, Ky., high school consisting of 
work in forging, pattern making, woodturning, bench work, mechanical drawing, 
architectural drawing and construction, cooking and sewing, has been further 
enlarged by the addition of a complete printing plant. The print shop does all 
printing for the school board, local merchants, and the school paper. The entire 
manual training equipment has been improved by the installation of new in- 
duction type motors on three phase current. All wiring is being done by 
students under direction of the supervisor. Plans are under way for the addition 
of a complete machine shop to be ready for use at the opening of school next 
fall. The classes in forging, pattern making, woodturning, and bench work 
make frequent trips to the shops of the Queen & Crescent Ry. which are in- 
teresting and instructive to the students in their work. L. J. Inman is director 
of manual training in the Somerset high school. 



Photograph by George G. Greene. 

The furnace shown on the opposite page which is used in the foundry work at 
the Lane Technical High School, Chicago, has the advantage of having a seventy- 
five foot staclf. The result is that the natural draft is sufficient to bring a charge 
of five hundred pounds of iron to such a heat that when the blast is turned on the 
iron is ready to pour in two minutes. 







The bootli shown in tlie accompanying pliotojiraiili was an interesting 
feature of the Tulare Counts Citrus Fair, at X'isalia, California. The fair 
lasted ten days during \vhicli time regular class work was coiuiucted in the 
manual training booth, uruler the direction of (leorge B. Holmes, the instructor 




■' 1 ..!£ ■ jMi"^'' ji|>--Mg 


W/m T'^ 



- -^fe-'^ ';|iP '*■ . ■ 


in the subject. Adjoining the shop booth was a living room twelve feet square, 
furnished by the work of the boys. The furniture included the following pieces: 
library table, hall clock, settee, morris chair, footstool, taboret and book-rack. 
Posters were displayed announcing that the department was prepared to do odd 
jobs of repairing and to fill orders for furniture and similar articles. 

This form of publicity' is increasing in use in \arious sections of the countr\ 
and serves to educate the public as to some of the newer ideals in school work. 

Foreign notes 

H. Williams Smith. 

In the House of Commons, Mr. Hoare, a conservative member, said he 
would like to see manual training adopted in every elementary school. Mr. 
Trevelyan, a Liberal, and a Government Minister, rejoined, "So would I; and 
it is coming." We know, of course, that politicians, sometimes, are never less 
definite than when they tell us something is coming. But here is a case where 
part}' does not appear to count. When a Conservative says he wants something 
and a Liberal sajs "so do I," there seems a reasonable probabilitv of that thing 
eventuating soon. Lord Macaulay, whose sister was this young Trevelyan's 
grandmother, once wrote in his poem of Horatius, "Then none was for a part)-, 
then all were for the state." So far as manual training is concerned. Home Rule 
has every cause to envy it. 

In Government reports on education, the screw is now being applied to 
delinquent authorities as regards manual training. Of Barry, Wales, a report 
reads: "No provision has been made for the instruction of boys in handicraft, 
and the authority should seriously consider the possibilit} of supplj'ing the 
omission." It isn't "desirability'" any longer. 

Queen Mary is very fond of skimming around to pay visits to benevolent 
institutions. She is a motherly kind of soul, and the British public likes her the 
better for it. Recently, while the King went to see a football game, she visited 
the Home for Crippled Boys at Blackheath. She was conducted over the whole 
building and saw the boys at their various occupations in the workshops. She 
was very interested in what she saw, and complimented the little workmen. It 
is hardly to be expected that the officials of such institutions really enjoy the 
Queen's visit so much as do the inmates, for the worry must nearly offset the 
honor. But the practical interest shown by King George and his wife in the 
lives of the people will do much to make that people cherish the institution 
of monarch} ; an institution which in theory seems a ridiculous survival from 
antiquity, but which in practice works out better than most republics. 

Staffordsire was one of the pioneers in school gardening, and has now 238 
such classes in connection with its primary schools. In the Black country- 
patches of waste and unsuitable ground have been converted into prim and 
productive vegetable gardens. They who have traveled through the Black 
country' will receive such news with joy and gratitude. Inspectors have been 
greatly impressed by the valuable training involved in the work done, and also 
by the educational possibilities which the working of the classes brought to 

At St. Albans" Grammar School the manual instruction room is situated 
in the ancient gate house of the old Abbey. At Whittington, in Derbyshire, the 



old club room of the village hostelry is used as a school handwork shop. These 
are not solitar\' instances, and they go to prove the perennial adaptability of the 
English nation to new ideas. It is even as Lowell sings: 

New occasions teach new duties; Time makes ancient good uncouth; 

They must upward still, and onward, who would keep abreast of truth. 

An experimental scheme of needlework instruction has been carried out in 
20 selected departments in London primary schools during the past two years, 
and has proved so successful that it is proposed to extend it to the whole of 
the schools throughout the county of London. It is considered that the experi- 
ment has proved that needlework supplies the most useful means in training 
hand and eye in girls' schools. It is estimated that the cost of supplying the 
necessary equipment to all schools will amount to £7,810. The equipment in- 
cludes tables for cutting out and pressing, heaters and irons, two sewing ma- 
chines for each school, and tape measure, thimble and scissors for each girl. 
Cost of materials is met by the sale of the garments made. 

There are 422 Domestic Science centers and 250 Handicraft centers in the 
county of London. 

Read what a London man writes: — "Handwork and nature study, I contend, 
are responsible for a great deal of the slipshod work done in the schools today. 
There is no time for these subjects. To teach nature study in London schools 
seems absurd to me; the natural conditions are absent. Handwork and symbolic 
arithmetic seem to be tremendously overestimated. .-Yn occasional model to 
illustrate a lesson, and a certain amount of practical work in arithmetic are 
eminently desirable, but the elaborate system of handwork so largely carried 
out today quite smothers the intellectual object to which it is meant to attain. 
Instead of being a means, this work is actually made an end." Poor fellow ! 
What can be done for him? His case seems hopeless. I guess there are a few 
Americans cast in a similar mould to his. Is it any good to tell these people a 
few things? The "Slipshod work" is mcstlj- due to out-of-date methods of 
using up-to-date educational instruments. If "there is no time for these subjects" 
we must make time. "To teach nature study" in cities is not absurd; the rivers, 
the parks, the animal life, the sky, even in cities, give the lie to the statement 
that "the natural conditions are absent." There is an involution of thought 
and word in one part of the writer's criticism. He really means that it is 
"eminently desirable" that the illustrative model should be very rarely "oc- 
casional," and that the "amount of practical work" should be uncertain. We 
know his type onlv too well. He says that handwork "smothers the intellectual 
object." My word ! If it would only smother educational Rip Van Winkles such 
as he we could be well content. Then, handwork "is actually made an end." 
Of course it is, and a means too. Is not every subject in the curriculum both 
an end and a means? But "so much for Buckingham!" he serves to point a 
moral if not to adorn a tale. 


Another writer is in a more hopeful case, for he has a sense of humor. 
In poking fun at correlation he says: — "For instance, in a handwork recitation 
lesson, to teach, say, 'The Village Blacksmith,' half the class can make clay 
models of hammers and anvils, while the other half cut out horseshoes in card- 
board and print 'Good Luck' on them with colored crayons. In a handwork 
mental arithmetic lesson, to find, for example, the cost of a dozen loaves at 23d 
each, the children might make twelve miniature loaves in papiermache, cut 
them up into slices, and spread the slices with 'gloy' (an adhesive paste)." This 
is excellent fooling, nor is it without some justification. Most of the silly things 
are done in school handwork when using it as a means. And many handwork 
teachers are all too willing to see their subject so prostituted. That's a strong 
word, but I feel very strongly about the matter, and a word as descriptive, 
but milder does not occur to me. An English educationist has well said that 
handwork should be the queen and not the handmaiden of school subjects. The 
one great reason why people have not a good enough opinion of us and our 
work is that we have not a good enough opinion of it ourselves. It is high 
time that we quit going to school authorities cap in hand, and followed Dr. 
Busby's example, who kept his hat on his head in the presence of King Charles 
2nd, lest his pupils should think that anyone could be above their master. 

It is hardly surprising that The London Teacher is still Laodicean in its 
attitude to school handwork. Its lukewarmness is expressed as follows: "Many 
teachers are bewildered by the demands for nature study and handwork, to 
name only two, and these possibly the best of the latest additions to the cur- 
riculum." The rejoinder is obvious, that when educational experts provide 
reforms in educational procedure, they are under no obligation to provide the 
teachers with brains to comprehend those reforms. "Good Master Reformer" 
says Scholasticus, thou bewilderest me." "Verily, I am sorry for thee," says Re- 
former, "but I can only adjure thee if thou hast any brains, to use them." 
Vou will note the generosity of The London Teacher in the use of "possibly." 
Possibly, too, some day, educational journals may lead the van of progress, and 
not drag far in the rear among disreputable camp-followers. 

A writer in the Parents' Re-vie-iv, Mrs. Claude Epps, is strongly of opinion 
that the "domestic or home science should be regarded as having a place among 
the natural sciences." She would insist upon a course of cookery and household 
management for all girls, either towards the end of their school career, or, 
preferably as an after school course. She would like to see every small child 
begin the scientific side of its education with nature study. 


The Book of School Handiiork, \'olume I, edited by H. Holman. Caxton 
Publishing Company, London. 9^ix6^,i; in.; 240 pages each; price per volume, 
Ss. and 6d. in London. (See April nunihcr, page 348, for general review of 
the work). 

Anyone who carries in his mind e\en a very imperfect picture of the 
traditional life at an English public school and at the same time is interested 
in the progress of handwork in education cannot fail to take notice when he 
reads in this book the chapter written by the headmaster of Eaton, Dr. Lyttelton 
on "Handicraft in Education." It is not so much what he says as the fact that 
he says it. He, the headmaster of one of England's most famous schools, has 
discovered the satisfaction in feeling a tenon fit perfectly into its mortise after 
planning and measuring and cutting and testing. He has discovered that there is 
more satisfaction in this than in "faint and feeble groping among the rules of 
syntax" not merely because the work in\oi%es bodily exertion, but because there 
is a certainty and precision in the verdict of "well done" or "ill done." He 
also sees in handwork, through its orderly presentation, the possibility of pre- 
paring in nature's own way for the generalizations which science demands of 
the student. He sees that it autimatically punishes carelessness, teaches humility, 
but gives encouragement, and "counteracts the one-sidedness and fallacious glory 
of the merel\ bookish training." The source gives these statements special value. 

In tlie chapter on the "Scientific Bases of Practical Educational Handwork," 
Sir John Cookburn discusses the connections between the hand and the brain, 
character and action, and the cooperative use of the hands. Sir Philip Magnus 
in the third chapter discusses the need of handwork as a preparation for voca- 
tional training. He makes a plea for a broad education at the bottom. He notes 
that the introduction of manual training has had a marked effect upon the theory 
and ideals of education, and while he urges more and higher practical instruc- 
tion in trade and continuation schools he sa\s tliat every sound educator would 
deplore the premature introduction into our schools of 'vocational training.' " 

The fifth chapter bv Professor Green of Sheffield deals with the pedagogy 
of handwork, and the sixth chapter by Inspector Ballard, author of Hand^vork 
as an Educational Medium, discusses the class teacher and handwork. The 
latter is so full of sound advice that we wish it were twice as long. As a 
sample he says, "Originality does not start with nothing; it builds upon the 
resources already acquired through imitation." Again he says, "pupils should 
not be left to find out things for themselves hiU led to find out things for 
themselves." Finally he gives as the first and great maxim, "Treat the hand- 
work course as a series of problems — problems to be solved not by the teacher, 
but by the pupil * * * it is essential that the pupil should feel it as his 

Then follow the chapters on the several phases of practical work, beginning 
with Sandwork, by Bertha Pugh. While tliis chapter is not long, some of its 
features will be new to most American teachers, especially, perhaps, the ele- 



mentary moulding and design work in sand. Toy-making for Kindergarten and 
junior classes hy Ethel Dixon constitutes the eighth chapter. For the most part 
these toys are miniature representations of household furniture, utensils, etc., 
but they include dolls, and for the older pupils, carts, automobiles, etc. In 
chapter IV Ebeneezer Cooke, former associate of Ruskin, and whose death has 
recently been announced, presents the beginnings of brushwork in a series of 
plates, some of which are in color. A chapter on ^^>aving follows, bv 
Reurietta Brown Smith and Mildred Swannell. A chapter on Rough Carpentry 
as an introduction to woodwork for schools is by T. S. I'nderwood. This is 
what has sometimes been called "chicken coop work" in this country, and is a 
subject upon which information is often being sought. The models include 
packing cases, stools of various kinds, hen coops, steps, troughs, rough sleds and 
the like. Mr. Vaughan follows this with a well illustrated chapter on pencil 
and pen drawing in which he gives a list of objects suitable for drawing, and 
groups them into three stages. Domestic Handicraft for Ciirls, in paper, card- 
board and wood, is treated by James Bowman. This includes the use of some 
metal working tools in making minor household repairs and in bending and 
soldering. "Wool Spinning for Schools" is presented by .Moiitrina A. Bone 
of Sheffield University. The final chapter is on Constructive CJeography and 
is written by J. W. Page. 

It is easily possible for an American teacher to find defects in courses and 
methods presented in this volume, but in doing so he would shoot beside the 
mark, because the purpose of the editor is not to present a single scheme which 
he regards as the best, but to bring together in six volumes for reference and 
study all the various types of methods and courses in England that are worthy 
of consideration. Such a task has never been undertaken before in any country, 
and deserves high commendation. 

— C. A. Bennett. 

Modern Technical Dra^i-in^ by George Ellis, author of Modern Practical 
Joinery and Modern Practical Carpentry, etc., D. Van Nostrand Co., New York, 
1913. 7%x5Vi; in.; 200 pages; price $2.00. 

The author of this book is a well known English writer and lecturer. As 
stated in the preface "this work is designed to fulfill a definite need for practical 
instruction in Builder's Technical Drawing." 

It consists of a classification and explanation of the various kinds of 
technical drawing, the use of the instruments and lettering. Orthographic, 
isometric, and oblique projection have been discussed, and numerous examples 
of each given. Practical perspecti\e and freehand drawing for artisans are 
also treated briefly. The chapters on geometry and workshop drawing should 
prove especially valuable to the practical worker. It should be remembered, 
however, that while the book contains many useful and helpful suggestions to 
teachers and will be valuable to practical wood-workers, it would hardly be 
practical for classroom work in this country, because of its terminology and 
methods of procedure. 

It is profusely illustrated. 

— F. G. Elwood. 


A pprentice Instruction in the Manila Bureau of Printing, bv Samuel H. 
Musick, Craftsman Instructor, Bureau of Printing, Manila, P. I. Manila, Bureau 
of Printing, 1913, pp. 22. 

This excellently printed paniplilet describes tlie erficient system of vocational 
education adopteti in tlie government printing office at Manila. This system 
was inaugurated by John S. Leech. The many details of printing and allied 
trades have been carefully studied antl classified into "specialties" and "sub- 
specialties." The eight trades taught are those of printer, pressman, bookbinder, 
photo-engraver, stereotyper and electrot>per, engineer, machinist, and electrician. 
These trades are split up into 302 specialties and 1,149 sub-specialties which 
are grouped according to systematic progression over a period of four vears. 
The first three years are divided into six classes of six months each in whicli 
certain specialties are mastered. In the fourth year the pupil is classified as a 
Junior Craftsman and the time is devoted to a review of the work of the three 
years of apprenticeship, \vith such additional work of a more responsible nature 
as the individual is able to handle. "Tlie attitude of a craftsman instructor 
toward an apprentice is similar to that of a teaclier to a pupil in a school — 
carefully explaining every operation. The apprentice is never forced to acquire 
his knowledge thru chance contact with other workmen." Apprentices are re- 
quired to attend a night school and are examined monthly on required readings 
in English. 

Such a plan as tliis carried on in the heart of a big industry, with a proper 
regard for the apprentice as a future indi\idual carftsman as the keynote, can 
not but be productive of good results. Those interested in vocational education, 
whether in corporation schools, private trade schools, or in the public schools 
would gain much from a study of this system. 

L. W. Wahlstrom, 
Francis \V. Parker School, Chicago. 


Thirteenth Annual Report of the Director of Education, Philippine Islands, 
by Frank R. White. This contains statistics and other information concerning 
the remarkable system of industrial education in the Islands. It is illustrated 
with many halftones. 

Industrial Fiber Plants of the Philippines, by Theodore Muller. An illus- 
trated description of the chief industrial fiber plants of the Philippines, their 
distribution, method of preparation, and uses. Bulletin No. 49, 1913, Bureau of 
Education, Manila. 

Annual Report of the Public Continuation Schools of Jf'isconsin, b\ Warren 
E. Hicks, Madison, Wis. Bulletin No. 7 of the Wisconsin State Board of In- 
dustrial Education. 

Report of a Special Committee on Industrial and Technical Education. 
Public School Board, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. This deals with schools in 
the leading cities of the United States.